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SCHOOL JOURNAL 



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VOLUME XXX VI. 



Jfttf/ i^AiVA makes a good Constitution must keep it, viz.: Men of wisdom and virtue; 
qualities thaty because they descend not with worldly inheritance^ must be carefully 
propagated by a virtuous education of youth, — Wm. Penn. 



E. E. HIGBEE, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

INQUIRER PRINTING AND PUBUSHING COMPANY. 

1887. 






• • • ' " • 

m • 









• •• 












THE truth that music is for religion is equally evident in the fact that nothing 
calls for it like religion. Men fight better under the stir of music but they can 
fight well without it. Business does not require it. Pleasure craves it, but the 
voice and the zest of young life supply its lack. It is not needed in the enacting of 
laws, nor in the pleadings of courts. It might be left out in every department of 
life save one, and nothing would be radically altered; there would be lack, but not 
loss of function. But religion as an organized thing and as worship could not exist 
without it. When song dies out where men assemble for worship, the doors are 
soon closed. When praise is repressed and crowded aside for the sermon, the ser- 
vice sinks into a hard intellectual process, for which men do not long care. Elo- 
quence and logic will not take its place — why, it is difficult to say until it is re- 
cognized that music is the maiil factor of worship— a fact capable of philosophical 
statement, namely: Worship being a moral act of expression, it depends upon the 
rhythm and harmony of art for its materials ; they are the substances — so to speak 
— ordained by God and provided in nature out of which worship is made. And so 
the Church in all ages has flowered into song. It takes for itself the noblest instru- 
ment and refuses none. It draws to itself the great composers whom is first attunes 
to its t^per and then sets to its tasks which invariably prove to be their greatest 
works. In no other field do they work so willingly and with so full exercise of 
genius. There is a freedom, a fulness and perfection in sacred composition to be 
found in no other field. In all other music there is a call for more or for something 
different, but the music of adoration leaves the spirit in restful satisfaction. Dry- 
den, the most tuneful of poets, divided the crown between old Timotheus and the 
divine Cecilia, but surely it is greater to " draw an angel down" than ** lift a mortal 
to the skies." 

The fact that all religious conviction and feeling universally run to music for their full 
and final expression certainly must have some philosophical explanation. In rough and 
crude form it may be stated thus; music is the art-path to God in whom we live 
and move and have our being. We may get to God by many ways — by the silent 
communion of spirit with Spirit, by aspiration, by fidelity of service, but there is no 
path of expression so open and direct as that of music. The common remark 
that music takes us away from ourselves, is philosophically true. When under its spell 
we transcend our ordinary thought and feeling and are carried — as it were — into an- 
other world ; and if it be sacred music, that world is the world of the Spirit. When 
the spell ends and we come back to this present world, we do not cease to believe in 
that into which we were lifted. While there, lapped in its harmonies and soaring in its 
adorations, we felt how real that world is and how surely it must at last be eternally 
realized. Towards that age of adoring harmony humanity is struggling, and into 
that upper world where the discords of time and earth are resolved into tune, every 
earnest soul is steadily pressing. ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^^^^ 




259913 






^^ 



^%& 



JULY, 1887. 



DR. E. E. HIGBEE, SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

AS THOSK MEN KNOW HIM WHO KNOW HIM BEST. 



HOSTS of friends were outraged in the 
fury of persecution to which, for many 
months. Dr. E. E. Higbee was subjected 
because of his proper but — as the sequel 
showed — impolitic method of administering 
the civil service in the office of the Depart- 
ment of Soldiers' Orphan Schoob. They 
knew what a trifling matter had thrown wide 
open the flood-gates of calumny, namely, 
unwillingness to appoint an unskilled man 
as chief clerk, in the vain hope that Gov. 
Pattison would consent to his appointment 
as financial clerk. They saw with amaze- 
ment a well-organized and patriotic charity 
represented in such odious coloring, hy a 
newspaper expert in the work of defamation 
specially adapted to the task, that what had 
been the pride was made to appear the 
shame of PennsylvaDia. They knew, be- 
yond all doubt or question, that it was done 
not to redress wrong, but to wreak vengeance 
.upon an upright man by wrecking his repu-. 
tation and driving him from office humili- 
ated and disgraced. With the keenest in- 
terest, as though themselves beset by a 
rdentless foe, they watched the progress of 
this campaign of vilification and falsehood, 
unexampled in the educational or humani- 
• tarian history of the State. 

They saw this man endure with heroic 
fortitude, for months, when struggle would 
have been of no avail; but also fight gallantly 
for the truth with all the courage and skill of 
the trained soldier when the hour was come 
for battle. They saw him, at bis first onset. 



break the line of the enemy where it was 
reckoned strongest, and spike a half-dozen 
of their noisiest guos so that these have not 
since fired an effective shot. 

They then saw an ex parte investigation, 
conducted wholly in the interest of the 
enemy, with slanderous reports emanating 
almost daily from the hostile camp, and 
spread far and wide by the telegraph and 
through the columns of scores of the news- 
paper press, by many of whose editors they 
were innocently accepted and published as 
the truth. They saw the sentiment of the 
great mass of the reading public harden 
cruelly upon the side of wrong, and awaited 
with some degree of apprehension the final 
assault. 

As the Merrimac bore down upon the tit- 
tle Monitor so came the Record craft, with 
John Norris in command — confident of vic- 
tory. His guns wefe very noisy; they filled 
the air with the smoke and thunder of bat- 
tle ; and they hammered hard. But the 
sturdy Monitor got in a heavy solid shot 
through the port-hole of "Clothing Ac- 
counts," which so damaged the machinery 
of the Record's arithmetic and book-keep- 
ing — to say nothing of some other effective 
shots in the way of Col. Paul's retention in 
office fully explained, minute inspection of 
the schools carefully reported, and their 
generally excellent condition clearly pre- 
sented, challenging contradiction or reply — 
that the Record aforesaid, though clad like 
its compeer, the Merrimac, in panoply of 



PM-NkSYAVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



•• • 



[July, 



railroad iron^ dreii^ Vfir'dlsi^led^ and was of 
necessity.laid vp fbi;'re[mirs. 

They: lieiurd .the threats of immediate re- 
xtiova} ffom 'office, then of suspension pend- 
'.ii:ig'. Legislative inquiry, then ot criminal 
'prosecution with two or three dozen counts 
in the indictment, then of impeachment for 
maladministration of his high office. They 
saw nothing don^f however — either by the 
Chief Executive, the Attorney-General, or 
the State Legislature — and they began to 
think that the end had come to all this 
long-protracted ''sound and fury signifying 
nothing." 

But one morning in the late Spring, the 
Record craft, refitted and with colors flying, 
again hove into sif;ht in the offing, Captain 
Louis Wagner having succeeded to the com- 
mand — ^an officer noted chiefly for lung-power 
and general omniscience, who shone bravely 
in brass buttons, tinsel, and feathers. But 
he handled his guns with little discretion. 
On opening his ''pigeon-hole" port, as he 
came within close range, to fire what seemed 
his heaviest gun, he was unable again to close 
it 1 So also of the "bully and blackguard " 
port. Solid shot fell hot and furious about 
the modest Monitor, as slowly its turret re^- 
volved until one of its heavy guns came 
squarely into position. The practised gun- 
ner, Higbee, glanced along the sights with 
the stern purpose of making a centre shot. 
There was a flash, as of the lightning — z, 
solid bolt of steel went plunging through 
the open port, dismounting guns and scat- 
tering feathers — and the fight was over. 



Among the present readers of The Penn- 
sylvania School Journal^ there are many who 
have not seen, and who will be interested in 
seeing, the following personal sketches, 
which, it is proper to say, were originally 
written and published and are now repub- 
lished — ^as indeed is this entire article — 
wholly without the knowledge of Dr. Hig- 
bee. Those who know him know well that 
if he were consulted he would peremptorily 
forbid its publication. But certain of his 
friends have as much respect for truth and 
honor and justice and decency as they have 
for Dr. Higbee, and they think he should 
submit to this personal annoyance in the in- 
terest of these things. They regard the 
present a proper time and this a proper form 
of article to go forth as some corrective of 
prejudice that has been created in the minds 
of many estimable people, by false state- 
ment, mean innuendo, fling and sneer, such 
9& have been wickedly common on every 
hand since February 22, 1886. The leaven 



of the truth is wholesome, though personal 
modesty shrink from its publication and 
even be offended thereat. 

REMINISCENCES OF A YEAR IN THE LANCASTER 

HIGH SCHOOL. 
Fr^m Pinna, Sck^ yanmai, April, 1881, 

Among the few old letters which the junior 
editor of The School Journal has cared 
to preserve from the passing years — some 
written by friends now ** gone over to the 
majority," others by those in whom the 
touchstone of time has been but a revealer 
of genuine qualities — is one hastily penned 
in acknowledgment of a holiday gift more 
than twenty-seven years ago : 

Lancaster, Jan'y 3, 1854. 
Mr. Jno. p. McCaskey, 

Dear Sir: Through you I would ten- 
der my warmest thanks to the scholars who 
have honored me with the Christmas present 
which I have received this day from the hands 
of Mr. Shober. I shall ever cherish this mark 
of friendship and esteem with feelines of grati- 
tude, the more so because the friendship of the 
young I especially prize. Hoping tnat our 
mtercourse with each other may be beneficial 
and pleasant, and that the memory of it may 
be a source of delight in after vears, I remain 
The sincere friend of'^you all, 

£. £. Higbee. 

This gentleman, who is the newly-ap- 
pointed State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, was then in charge of the mathe- 
matical department of the Boys* High 
School of Lanoister city, where we boys all 
knew him as *' Mr. Higbee," and that with 
abiding respect and affection. The writer 
of this article, whom Dr. H, may have quite 
forgotten, was not a very diligent student of 
text-books, but he was then unconsciously 
learning to listen to voices, to look into 
faces, and to gather definite impressions of 
people, less from what they said than from 
what they were. So that a man of forceful 
character or of generous soul, met for a year 
in the daily contact of the class-room, could 
never be forgotten ; and the impressions we 
have carried through all these years of Mr. 
Higbee are such as any teacher might be 
glad to leave upon the hearts of his pupils. 

Of the several instructors then employed 
in the school, he was the man who reached 
us with a grip of power, and apparently 
without thought or effort on his part to do 
this. To us boys he was a sort of ** admirable* 
Crichton," able to do almost anything, 
from fencing, skating, sparring, and play- 
ing the flute, up to Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew, and — what we had more respect 
for yet — all the mathematics! He helped 
us select books for our society library, or- 



1887-1 



SEAflJi/ISCEKCES Of SCHOOL DAYS. 



ganized at that time, and was always ready 
to answer our hard questions. His affability 
of manoer, quick gesture, rapid movement, 
ready wit, constant disposition to oblige, 
and an utter lack of that dignified reserve 
which teachers sometimes affect, even more 
than his rare scholarship, made him an 
"authority " with us all ; and when he left 
us, there was no teacher to whom we would 
not more willingly have said good-bye. 
A single class-room incident of this year, 



which we often recall with a pleasant sense 
of obligation — for it introduced us to the 
delightful study of the significance, the his- 
tory, and the hidden meanings of words — 
will illustrate his method of teaching 
language. He had the mathematical room, 
as has been said ; but on one occasion, in 
the absence of the principal of the school, 
he heard the latin classes recite. We were 
reading Ciesar's Commentaries. The de- 
fence of the Helvetians at their baggage- 




wagons was the subject of ths lesson. He 
heard our dull rendering of the text, with a 
running tire of comments upon it, and then 
read for us. As he went into the precise 
meanings of the words in their derivation 
and use, tearing them to pieces, and — < 
"suiting the action to the word," for, of 
coarse, he was standing — showed us how 
graphic was Caesar's description of the 
fight, we were at fever-heat of interest. 
We saw the hurtling javelins fly, and the 
fierce thnist of darts and speais between the 



wagon wheek, and felt the stnbbom defence 
of the doomed Helvetians. 

One word in the lesson, mbjictehant, as 
with quick gesture he put meaning and de- 
rivation before us, gave us, with the vivid- 
ness of the lightning flash, a realizing sense 
of \rtiat is meant by etymology — a branch 
of study that, like the rich "lead" of the 
gold deposits, rewards the miner in propor- 
tion to the diligence with which he labors. 
We have since worked this " lead ' ' to some 
purpose and with much enjoyment — thanks. 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



in great part, to the impulse given by Mr. 
Higbee in those old days — ^until able to feel 
with Dr. Holmes that " the poetry of words 
is quite as beautiful as that of sentences." 

From first to last the session was a good 
one, and to the now gray-haired man who 
contributed very much to make it so — his 
hair black enough when the note of "Janu- 
ary *54,*' was written — many of the old 
boys are ready to say that it is as he had 
hoped: "The memory of it has been a 
source of delight in after years. ' ' 

We regard the State Superintendent who 
has just left the office as the Common School 
man of Pennsylvania — but change, like 
death, will come ; and coming, there is no 
man in the college work at whose good for- 
tune we are personally more glad than that 
of Dr. Higbee, our old-time teacher, to 
whom we have long felt so keen a sense of 
personal gratitude. May his administration 
be characterized by wisdom, energy, and 
discretion, and the ever-present purpose of 
'* the greatest good to the greatest number." 
He stands at the threshold of the grandest 
work he has ever been called upon to per- 
form or direct — the most far-reaching in its 
influence for the general good. We believe 
that he will do it as in the Master's eye ; 
and may the guidance and the blessing of 
that Master whom he serves be with him 
through it all. 

THIRTIETH YEAR AND THIRD EDITOR. 
Front Ptnna. School Journal^ Navemhort 1881, 

The first number of The Pennsylvania 
School Journal ^2& issued in January, 1852; 
that for the month of December, i88i, our 
next issue, will complete its thirtieth year, 
though not its thirtieth volume — the first vol- 
ume having been made to include eighteen in- 
stead of twelve numbers. During that time 
there has been no break in the continuity 
of its monthly issues — so that the next will 
be its three hundredth and sixtieth number ; 
— there has been no change from its original 
form of double-column royal octavo pages, 
and there has also been but a single change 
in its editorial management. 

In its nineteenth volume Dr. Thos. H. 
Burrowes, its founder and first editor, laid 
dpwn the pen after thirty-five years of such 
service in the field and at the desk as 
men have seldom rendered the cause of pop- 
ular education. For the period of eleven 
years, elapsed since that time. Dr. J. P. 
Wickersham has been its editor-in-chief. 
With what ability, good judgment, and 
thorough knowledge of the field, his work 
has been done, the volumes of The Journal^ 



year by year, bear noble witness. With 
the next number. Dr. E. E. Higbee suc- 
ceeds to the editorship, having assumed 
charge of these columns in recognition of 
the fact that the Organ of the Department 
of Public Instruction should be under the 
direction of the Superintendent of said De- 
partment. 

As Dr. Wickersham was the worthy suc- 
cessor of the venerable Dr. Burrowes in the 
editorial management of The Journal, so in 
no less degree is Dr. Higbee, in his turn, a 
worthy successor of Dr. Wickersham. For, 
while he is a quiet man, of genial temper, 
who can tell a good story and enjoy a hearty 
laugh, and to whom mere glitter and parade 
are utterly distasteful, he is at the same 
time a man of intense energy, of great force 
of character, honest and fearless, an able 
speaker, and a forcible and elegant writer. 
As to his scholarship: Among the forty 
thousand men and women — teachers, super- 
intendents and directors — engaged in the 
common school work in Pennsylvania, we 
have little doubt that he is the foremost 
scholar of them all. 

It seems fitting and desirable that some- 
thing be said to the readers of The Journal 
of the unusual attainments of its new editor 
in the realm of letters. It is also proper 
that the educational men of the State should 
know the breadth of scholarship of their 
official head and leader. Of this we can, 
from our own knowledge, speak only in a 
general way, and for more specific informa- 
tion have therefore applied to those who are 
able to express an opinion from the stand- 
point of intimate personal acquaintance and 
thorough competency to form a correct 
judgment. Dr. Higbee is a modest man, 
and, did he know of this article, would 
doubtless disapprove it. But he does not 
know of it, and will be greatly surprised to 
see the following notes from his old co- 
workers in the field of letters, themselves 
among the foremost scholars in the State. 
That first given is from Dr. Thos. G. Apple, 
President of Franklin and Marshall College : 

Frankun and Marshall Collbgb, \ 
Lancastbr, Oct. asM, i88r. } 

Dear Sir: In reply to your note of this morn- 
ing, I would say that I regard Dr. E. £. Higbee 
as one of the first scholars in the State. His 
scholarship covers the whole ground of liberal 
and professional culture. He is an excellent 
classical scholar, a good mathematician, and ac- 
quainted with German and French. His ac- 
quaintance with what are called the Natural 
Sciences is thorough, but not, I should say, as a 
specialist. In the department of History and 
Philosophy his attainments are far beyond ordi- 
nary scholarship. His abilities as a thinker, as 



1887.] 



THIRTIETH YEAR AND THIRD EDITOR. 



well as his long experience in teaching, have 
made him a master m these departments. In 
Psychology. Ethics, i£sthetics, and Metaphysics 
proper, including the history of Philosophy, he is 
entirely at home. My relations have been most 
intimate with Dr. Higbee for many years, and I 
regard him as an excellent scholar, and a good, 
strong thinker. His merits as a speaker'are too 
well known to refer to them here, and and I feel 
assured that the interests of public education in 
our great Commonwealth w-ll receive the very 
best attention at his hands. 

Thos. G. Apple. 

The second is from Dr. Wm. M. Nevin, 
the venerable Professor of English Literature 
and Belles-lettres, a very fine classical scholar 
and literary critic : 

Franxxjit and Marshau. Collbgb, \ 
Lancaster, Oct. 25/^, /£$/. / 

Dear Sir: I have received your note of 
yesterday, asking for my estimate of the schol- 
arly attainments of Dr. E. E. Higbee, and 
what I regard his rank among the scholarly 
men of the state in the same lines of study that 
he has pursued. I am happy to say that I con- 
sider him to rank among the very first. He 
is a general scholar, of which others will bear 
you better witness ; but my own intercourse 
with him, which has been long and intimate, 
suiting himself when we met to my own par- 
tialities, has made me better acquainted with 
him as a man of fine literary taste and cul- 
ture. His familiar acquaintanceship with the 
classical authors whether of the ancient or of 
the modern world, whether of Greece, Italy or 
England, I have always admired ; and his keen 
appreciative or censuring remarks upon them I 
have always equally enjoyed. In his long 
course of ^ving instruction, whether in the high 
school or m the college, whether as professor or 
president, over whatsoever branch he was pre- 
siding, whether literary, scientific, or philosophi- 
cal, he had the happy faculty of presenting his 
themes in the most engaging manner, so as to 
elicit the students* continued attention, kindling 
by his own enthusiasm a corresponding interest 
in their breasts, carrying them thus along with 
him unwearied to the end. 

As editor of The Pennsylvania School Jour- 
nal^ therefore, I deem him admirably qualified 
for preserving its acquired excellence, and ren- 
denng it, as heretofore, highly interesting, use- 
ful, and instructive. It could not have fallen 
into better hands, Yours truly, 

Wm. M. Nevin. 

A gentleman who has enjoyed advantages 
of scholastic training both in this country 
and abroad, and who has been intimately 
acquainted with Dr. Higbee and his work — 
a College professor of judicial cast of mind, 
conscientious in the expression of opinions, 
and in every way competent to speak upon 
the subject — writes us at length in reply to 
certain questions. We condense his letter 
into a single paragraph : 

In Latin and Greek Dr. Higbee is far ahead 



of most men who have given special attention 
to the study of the classic languages. If occa- 
sion required, he could write a good book in 
either, but especially in Latin, with little diffi- 
culty. For the purposes of study and investi- 
gation he reads Hebrew, German, French, and 
kindred Romance languages. In the whole 
field of English Literature, History, and Phil- 
osophy, he is thoroughly at home. His lectures 
on Ethics and i^Esthetics evince the most care- 
ful study and the strength of his thou|^t-power. 
In brief, as a classical and belletristic scholar, 
he has made extraordinary attainments. In 
Mathematics he excels. To different branches 
of Natural Science he has given attention suf- 
ficient to render him a working student and 
successful teacher in these directions, but not 
enough to merit rank as a specialist. His arti- 
cles in the Mercersbur^ Re^new will show you 
what he has done in the several departments of 
theological learning. He was at one time co- 
editor of that periodical with Dr. Thos. G. 
Apple, now President of Franklin and Marshall 
College. He has also been sy nodical editor of 
the Reformed Church Messenger, His whole 
work, indeed, has been of such a character as 
Ko challenge comparison with that of the best ; 
but because he has attained and mastered 
scholarship for its own sake, and not for any ex- 
traneous purposes such as reputation, popular- 
ity, etc., he is not now so well (widely) known as 
some whose learning is nearer the lips, but lack- 
ing in the substantial breadth and solidity of 
true culture. 

Dr. Higbee is also a gentleman of fine 
taste in art and music, so cultivated as to 
make him a judicious critic in these direc- 
tions. He is the author of several hymns 
that have found their way into the books. 
He is familiar with the best works of the 
leading novelists, with hearty admiration of 
Sir Walter Scott, whose masterpiece, "Ivan- 
hoe," in particular, he has read an almost 
incredible number of times until it might 
fairly be said that he knows it by heart. 
We like him all the better for this, and con- 
fess to a life-long preference for learned 
men who find recreation and delight in 
music, the drama, and the fascinating pages 
of the great masters of fiction. 

As State Superintendent, he has taken 
hold of his great work with that wise dis- 
cretion which was anticipated by his friends 
at the time of his appointment. We believe 
that his administration of the Department 
of Public Instruction will be characterized 
throughout by the same good judgment and 
careful regard for the interest, of the Common 
Schoool System. He has made friends every- 
where by personal contact with school men 
in various parts of the State ; and this arti- 
cle is written mainly that these men and 
others may have some more definite concep- 
tion of the many-sided scholarship, and the 



8 



PENNSYL VANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



many-sided character, of him who stands at 
their head, in the direction of the important 
work in which all are alike interested. 

With the breadth of acquirement and 
maturity of judgment that have come 
through a life of intense intellectual activity, 
at heart he has, and must always have, the 
quick, fresh impulses of the boy. Nor is 
he more at home in the pulpit, on the plat- 
form, in the professor's chair, or at the 
editor's desk, than in the gymnasium or on 
the play-ground, in fiill sympathy with the 
lad that wears the gloves or takes the bar, 
catches the ball or swings the bat; or, in 
the woods and by the streams, with him 
who climbs and runs and skates and swims. 
But of the attractive freshness of this feature 
of his character, and of his bearing and 
influence in the school-room, as we knew it 
when a pupil in his classes, we have else- 
where spoken — in the April number of Hu 
Journal^ at the time when he entered upon 
the duties of his present position. 

Above all, and more than all. Dr. Hig-. 
bee is an earnest Christian, with an ever- 
present sense of whatever that full word im- 
plies of constant care and special guidance 
by the Providence who controls human 
affairs. He has long been a student of the 
Bible as of no other book — ^almost, indeed, 
as if it were the one book and there were no 
other. It is this type of broad men who are 
the best men. It is these men whose influence 
for good is longest felt in the sphere of 
labor to which theyare "called" — men who 
look for and are guided by that '' inward 
light" of whose existence more human be- 
ings than good George Fox and his disciples 
have made convincing proof. In a recent 
address to young men, Robert Collyer is 
credited with these remarks : 

I have said that the fourth thing in a man's 
life is that good fortune which is but another 
name for the good providence of God. 
"Friends" follow what mcy call an "inward 
light.*' This is the most pre^^nant truth you can 
take to your hearts. That " inward' * light will be 
sure to shine in the supreme crisis of your life. 
Don't budge one step until you see it. Hang 
on until then to the thing ]rou are doing, and 
do your best ; but when it shines, don't argue or 
doubt or fear. Follow the light. 

On reading this paragraph a few days 
since, it seemed to present the views held 
by Dr. H. in relation to his work, be that 
what it might, and hence it is quoted in 
this connection. The first time we met 
him after his appointment as State Superin- 
tendent he seemed in no sense elated by 
the new dignity, but rather to take it as a 
matter of course in the providential dispen- 



sation of affairs. He said: "I was not 
looking for this. I thought Providence had 
something for me to do, and that it would 
come, but did not suppose that it would 
come in this shape. I will do the work as 
well as I can, and if I see that I cannot do 
it well, will resign the position at once." 

"As well as he can" will, we have little 
doubt, be good enough to satisfy the best 
friends of the Common School System in 
all parts of the State. Upon the encoor^ 
agement and support of these men every- 
where he relies with confidence, and he wUl 
not rely in vain. 

We have written thus far can amare; and 
our article has extended much beyond the 
limits originally designed. Havmg made 
" a clean breast of it,' we are now ready to 
apologize to Dr. Higbee for the very free and 
unauthorized use we have made of his name. 
The onl^ plea we offer in extenuation of the 
offence is, as we have already said, that the 
readers of The Journal ^oxXdi know its Edi- 
tor, and the State at large should know its 
Superintendent. 

FOUR YEARS AFTER. 
Prwm Penna. Sck^ yifumai, yanuarj, 1889, 

The resolution that was recently adopted 
at the closing session of one of our largest and 
most intelligent County Institutes, was in 
strict accord with the facts, in congratulat- 
ing Governor Pattison upon the re-appoint- 
meut of Dr. E. E. Higbee to the office of 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
because of ''extraordinary qualities of fit- 
ness for the discharge of its high duties and 
responsibilities." 

Four years ago it seemed well to the 
present writer — who wrote then as he does 
now, without the slightest knowledge or 
consent of the subject of his article — that 
some definite statement should be made as 
to the scholarly attainments and certain per- 
sonal characteristics of the gentleman who 
had come, with quiet manner and compara- 
tively unknown, to direct the work of forty 
thousand men and women entrusted with 
the guardianship of a million children in 
their most sacred right of education — physi- 
cal, moral, intellectual, and, in a sense, 
spiritual. It was thought, as was then said» 
that ''the State at large should know its 
Superintendent." Four years have passed, 
and the State does know its Superintendent. 

The advent of Dr. Higbee to the Superin- 
tendency was to many of our best school 
men an appointment of more than novel in- 
terest. They did not know the man, and 
could but await events with keen solicitude^ 



1887.] 



FOUR YEARS AFTER. 



which has gradually chasged to personal 
regard and a high measure of confidence, as 
year by year has manifested how ripe the 
scholarship of this comparative stranger to 
our educational circles; how broad and 
mellow and luminous his skill as a teacher; 
how thorough and profound his knowledge 
of what the schools, from the primary to 
the Normal grade (hb latest suggestions as 
to the latter being found elsewhere in this 
issue, in his annual report), need in appli- 
ances and in the teaching art ; how clear his 
conception of duty as the chief of his great 
department; how s6und the ring of his 
utterances when discussing the questions of 
school polity or suggesting lines of progress 
for legislative action —rising conspicuous 
among those about him, as he has always 
done whatever his field of labor, and brush- 
ing aside mere martinetism with the broad 
influence of general principles. 

The foremost scholar and probably the 
ablest man in the common school work, he 
has rapidly grown to be a welcome and 
familiar presence everywhere in Pennsyl- 
vania; with warm greeting from hosts of 
friends because of personal good-will; and 
with an official record such as to merit the 
highest compliment possible to any State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction — that 
of re-appointment by an Executive of an 
opposite political faith, in deference to what 
he regarded a sense of duty to the Common- 
wealth. The situation was unique. Mere 
partisanship, however intelligent and de- 
voted to the public welfare, would neither 
have encouraged nor permitted what, in 
the opinion of Governor Pattison, the j)ub- 
lic good demanded, and what he had re- 
solved should be done in the best spirit of 
the new article in the advanced political 
creed — tenure of office and civil service re- 
form. Men said this would never be. Dr. 
Higbee neither asked for the position nor 
miade effort to bring influence to bear that 
he might retain it, but quietly awaited the 
event, gratefully declining many offers of 
friendly aid while the appointment was 
pending. Not that he was at all indifferent 
as to the result, but he felt that he had been 
''called''; the position had come without 
his seeking it ; if his first term was to be his 
last — it was well. He was confident that the 
Governor would, in his discretion, do as 
seemed best in discharge of his official duty. 

Now that so many school men in all parts 
(rf Pennsylvania know Dr. Higbee, it has 
been thought that brief personal mention 
of &ct or incident, casually referred to in 
the freedom of personal intercourse, and 



some statement of impressions fixed through 
years of intimate acquaintance, would be of 
especial interest in these columns. When we 
enjoy a man we want to know more about 
him — ^all about him, if that were possible. 

His father, at one time a man of large 
means, having by an ill-starred endorsement 
lost his property, it was early the good for- 
tune of the son to feel the necessity for self- 
dependence. 

In deference to the wishes of his mother,, 
he declined a desirable appointment as cadet 
to the United States Military Academy at 
West Point — turning aside from a branch of 
the national service for which he seemed es- 
pecially fitted from his ardent love of adven- 
ture, his great strength and skill in all 
athletic sports, his fearless energy, good 
judgment, fine social qualities, rare mental 
gifts, and the ready command of all his 
powers at any moment. Had he entered 
the army thirty-five years ago, and studied 
the science and art of war as he has since 
devoted himself to the sciences and arts of 
peace, he would, doubtless, long ere this 
have attained high military rank and repu- 
tation. 

Instead of West Point, he entered the 
University of Vermont, where, at the same 
time that he was one of the most brilliant 
students in the recitation room or on the 
platform,. he became known as the champion 
foot-ball player of New England, as well as 
one of her champion wrestlers, having in 
his college days encountered but one man — 
and he a Canadian of firm-set limb and 
mighty strength of loins-*whom he could 
not put down and keep down in this good- 
natured test of bodily skill and strength and 
endurance. A good wrestler must be 
"good" all over, and weak nowhere. He 
was also a famous cricketer, until a finger 
broken by the ball compelled him to forego 
the vigorous game. 

On a recent visit of his brother from the 
Pacific coast, a few months ago, the latter 
inquired whether he remembered how he 
(Dr. H.) had learned to skate, saying that 
it had impressed him as a remarkable thing 
at the time, and that he had often thought 
of it since. We mention the incident here 
as illustrating his boyhood mastery of a boy- 
hood art, as perhaps not another lad in ten 
thousand has acquired it. The boy had 
buckled on his skates for the first time, but 
had hardl]^ got upon the ice before a sudden 
and stunning £all put an end to his anticipa« 
tions of sport. He promptly took them off, 
and could not be induced to put them on 
again during the winter. Ice coming again 



10 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



with the next winter, he went out with the 
boys as before, put on the skates a second 
time, and glided away from everybody — a 
skillful master of the art ! Between his fall 
and the second time he buckled on the 
skates, he had become a skillful skater — not 
on but off the ice ! The boy had thought it 
out. Going along the road to school dur- 
ing the summer — anywhere, everywhere — 
without a word on the subject to anybody, 
the lad was trying the slide, studying it, 
until he had mastered its theory and the 
concept was clear. Then much of the 
strength and skill acquired in other direc- 
tions here came into play, and he led the 
lively company many a merry chase. 

Hunting with shot-gun or rifle among the 
Green Mountains; fishing in the streams 
and lakes, living in the woods, under the 
trees, in the shadow of the rocks, or be- 
neath the open sky ; at home in marshes and 
meadows — the eagerly observant student of 
birds and beasts and fishes, trees and plants 
and flowers, clouds and sky and stars, nat- 
ural appearances and phenomena in mani- 
fold variety — he early acquired that love ot 
nature in her ten thousand phases and ob- 
jects of interest, which gives so much of 
added charm to his conversation, to his plat- 
form addresses, and to all his literary work. 

Some years since, at the corporation din- 
ner at Burlington, Vermont — which is given 
by the city corporation on graduation day 
to the University and its alumni — ^at the 
right and left of the President of the Uni- 
versity sat Dr. McCosh, president of Prince- 
ton College, and Dr. Higbee, president of 
Mercersburg Theological Seminary. After 
Dr. McCosh had been introduced and had 
made his speech, the President, in introduc- 
ing Dr. Higbee, remarked, *'The last time 
I saw him was many years ago, on the 
campus behind the University. It was on 
the day when his class graduated. He had 
the foot-ball in his hand, as he shouted, 
' Here goes for the last kick 1 ' The records 
of the University show that the ball went 
over the four-story building, three feet higher 
than it was ever kicked before or since !" 

This "muscular" introduction — worthy 
the prowess of a brilliant Eton or Harrow 
or Rugby boy, come back to an alumni 
dinner at Oxford with honored laurels won 
in other fields — ^was, of course, greeted with 
uproarious applause. The triumphs of the 
playground, the campus, the cricket or the 
diamond field, we can all appreciate; and 
with them the brightest minds have keenest 
sympathy. 

On the same day^ immediately after his 



graduation, he was offered a most desirable 
position in the office of one of the leadings 
lawyers of Vermont, a gentleman in posses- 
sion of a large and lucrative practice, which 
he wished to leave in the hands of an able 
successor. Had he accepted this promising^ 
offer, he would, no doubt, have become 
known as a lawyer of profound learnings, u 
and as an eminently successful advocate of ^ 
splendid forensic ability. His gifts as a 
public speaker, his mastery of statecraft, 
and the fiery energy of argument, or appeal, 
or denunciation, which would then have 
been cultivated rather than repressed — ^am- 
bition lending its sharp spur to his intent — 
would have made him known prominently 
in the political arena of struggle and prefer- 
ment, during the memorable era of the past 
thirty years. 

But he turned resolutely from all this to the 
higher life of the teacher-student, of college 
professor and president ; to the quiet round 
of clerical duty — so often a life of actual 
privation — accepting whatever of duty or 
obligation a wise Providence might have in 
store. And well was that choice made. As 
a clergyman, his rank is undisputed as one 
of the foremost divines in the Reformed 
Church of the United States. He has 
preached thousands of able discourses, but I 
has in his possession probably not a dozen 
sermons completely written out, being ex- 
ceedingly impatient of manuscript, seldom 
caring to re-read a paper or to repeat an ad- 
dress — though at the same time very care- 
ful, painstaking and accurate in the prepara- 
tion of any formal paper or official report, 
for illustration of which the reader is re- 
ferred to his annual reports as Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction. 

In the field of instruction, his rank is 
simply extraordinary. Men skilled in spe- 
cialties say of him, ''Dr. Higbee should 
teach nothing but Greek,'* — **Dr. Higbee 
should never teach anything but Latin ** — 
'•nothing but Philosophy of History" — 
"nothing but English Literature'* — "noth- 
ing but Church History and Exegesis" — 
" nothing but Mathematics" — in fact, noth- 
ing but the specialty in which he happens, 
for any length of time, to be giving instruc- 
tion, because in it he has become so able a 
master. So thorough is his acquaintance 
with these varied lines of study and research 
that he turns, at times, for relaxation and 
pleasure, to the calculus in mathematics, or 
to the Greek comedy in the original, for the 
enjoyment it affords. 

As chairman of the general committee on 
music and the revision of the hymnal of the 



1887.] 



PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS, 



II 



Reformed Church some years ago — ^with his 
accustomed broad-gauge thoroughness, in 
order that the work might be as well done 
as possible — ^he made a collection of hymn- 
ology, mediaeval and modem — Latin, Ger- 
man and English — ^which is spoken of by 
those competent to form a reliable judg- 
ment, as probably the most complete to be 
found anywhere in Pennsylvania. Had he de- 
voted his life to Music or Painting, he would 
have been a master in either direction, the 
work that he has done as an amateur being 
sufficient evidence of this. 

For an ordinary lifetime he has been on 
the footing of acquaintance, more and more 
familiar as the years have passed, with the 
master spirits of all the ages of history — 
kings whose brows are encircled not with 
shifting metal crowns but with the aure'ola 
of immortality ; who rule by divine right in 
the realm of the intellect and in that sphere 
higher yet, the empire of the heart ; whose 
voices speak to all succeeding generations ; 
whose thought has challenged and (quickened 
the thought of all great thinkers since their 
time. He is as familiar with Socrates as 
with Luther ; with St. Paul as with Milton ; 
with Aristophanes as with Shakespeare; 
with Chaucer as with Longfellow or Tenny- 
son. He knows, as Lord Macaulay did, with 
a rich fullness of personal experience, " the 
feeling which a man of liberal education 
naturally entertains towards the great minds 
of former ages," and this is constantly man- 
ifesting itself in his addresses and reports. 
More than any other man we know, " they 
have filled his mind with noble and graceful 
images." 

Many of his pupils speak of him as a man 
with the gift or power of inspiring in them 
a new and nobler enthusiasm, such as no 
other man could arouse. We have heard 
our most earnest Superintendents and Prin- 
cipals of Normal Schools, as well as teachers, 
say this of him in the work he is endeavor- 
ing to do in the State. Built firmly into 
the development of the mind, his work tells 
mightily in the life of the soul. 

The secret of his power lies in the fact 
that he lives constantly in two worlds — the 
spiritual, invisible to the eye of sense, being 
ever the substantial ; and the material, upon 
which we tread and with which we are in 
contact on every side, ever the fleeting. For 
him the past and the future are always the 
present. In habit of thought like this, life 
IS forever lifted out of the sphere of the 
commonplace — quite apart from the doUar- 
and-cent struggle for power and gain — into 
that altitude where the ''strength of the 



hills" is attained, and the higher air is 
breathed. From that high sphere radiate 
none but influences for good to the race. It 
is here alone that lofty souls may stand upon 
the very Mount of Vision, sending down, 
with clarion voice of assured confidence, to 
those below, the call of the ages, *' Come up 
higher." 

As already said, we have never known an- 
other man who seemed on terms of such in- 
timate personal acquaintance with the great 
and good men of all ages. He is of the very 
brotherhood of genius I We have never 
known personally a man so many-sided, or 
capable of high-grade work on so many lines 
of Qffort — or another man of whom such an 
article as this could be written. He will, of 
course, say on reading it that it is not true 
of him! Modest disclaimer by a man of 
merit is ever comely, and generous self- 
negation delightful ; but the witness is here 
ruled ont of court. What is written must 
stand. We believe it — and the present 
seems a case in which it is not best to wait 
until a man is dead before the many may 
learn facts well known to the few. 

Ex-State Supt. Hickok, who, from the 
quiet seclusion of his home in Philadelphia, 
still manifests a sympathetic interest in the 
cause to which he gave the best years of his 
life under very trying circumstances, has in- 
cidentally touched this subject from his own 
point of view, in reply to a private letter 
written shortly after the appointment of Dr. 
Higbee for a second term. Though pub- 
lished so late as perhaps to have lost some 
of its point, it possesses an interest that will 
attract attention among school men. We 
put the letter into type as deserving to be- 
come a part of the permanent record of the 
present situation in our school affairs, from 
the standpoint of a veteran observer : 

Dear Sir, * * * Yes, certainly ! I do agree 
with you that the public is to be congratulated 
on Dr. Higbee*s re-appointment. It could not 
well be otherwise on educational grounds, and 
Governor Pattison deserves great credit for saga- 
city and resolute purpose in that regard. It is 
no disparagement to other aspirants for that 
conspicuous post of duty, no matter what their 
abilities, that one so well equip])ed for the work, 
in technical details as well as in its higher as- 
pects, and so unselfishly devoted to its interests, 
should be continued where his usefulness would 
be more than doubled because of the fruitful ex- 
periences of his first arduous term of service. So 
tar as he is personally concerned, if he had been 
retired now msteadot continued, he could safely 
rest his official reputation upon his last annuu 
report, one of the soundest, best documents that 
have emanated from that Department, and very 
timdy and conclusive in its suggestions. It 



1 



12 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



/ 



shows that he has passed the stage of investiga- 
tion into the scope and tendencies of our some- 
what peculiar school system, which, as a stranger 
to its organization, and historv. he had first to 
make, and writes now with the confidence of 
settled convictions as to what its future should 
be. That the Legislature may not, and probably 
will not, at once endorse all of his recommenda- 
tions, proves nothing a^^ainst their soundness. 
He is not the first Supenntendent who has had 
to wait a decade or score of years for theories to 
crystallize into enactments. But they come in 
time, in one shape or other. Festina lente has 
always been a controlling influence in our school 
movements, whether we liked it or not ; and he 
is a wise man who recognizes that fact, and 
temi>ers zeal with patience. Both are necessary, 
and in no stinted measure. It is a cause that 
requires a long look ahead. A Superintendent 
who is not in advance of public sentiment, as 
well as fully abreast of the times, would be out 
of place in that Department. The title of the 
office— Superintendent' of Public Instruction — 
means a great deal more than the routine work 
of the elementary schools, important and ener- 

Setic thoueh that must be ; and true though it be 
lat the scnool-room and not the school Depart- 
ment is the objective point of our school system. 
The Doctor s re-appointment vindicates anew 
the forecast and equilibrium of the Act of 18^7, 
creating a separate school department, which 
holds each successive Governor as a moral host- 
age for the right management of our school sys- 
tem, through the responsibility centered upon 
him of selecting its chief administrative officer, 
after he has had nearly the whole of his guber- 
natorial term to officially estimate men and meas- 
ures, and thus act advisedlv near the dose of his 
term, instead of hastily and under politicad pres- 
sure at its beginning. The door basing open for 
a change after an unprecedented continuance 
under one head, itself one of the results of that 
act, Governor Hoyt did himself special credit, at 
this stage of our school affairs, by going into the 
ranks of the clergy for a successor, and assuring 
himself from the highest learned authorities that 
the right candidate nad been presented. Clergy- 
men are educators by virtue of their profession, 
and this nomination was only reviving the early 
traditions of the Commonwealth, when the edu- 
cation of youth, especiaily in its higher phases, 
was almost entirely in their hands, and they were 
looked up to with reverence as the lughest 
authority m the educational world. There were 
giants amon^ them, and they left a positive im- 
press upon uieir times. 

From 1834 to 1 88 1, all of our State Superin- 
tendents were lawyers except three, and of tibe 
latter two were professional teachers and one a 
practical man of affairs. We had many estima- 
ble clergvmen in the County Superintendency, 
and in tne School Boards, but until 1881 no 
one of their cloth was placed in supreme com- 
mand of our Common School system. Now 
"turn about is fair plav," and it seems to me 
that it was a wise ana good thing to let our 
reverend friends get a foothold on the quarter- 
deck at last. We shall be the better for it ; all 
die more so when coupled with special qualifi- 



cations, as in the present case. Dr. Higbee's 
simple presence in the School Department as a 
clergvman, disarms and neutralizes the un- 
founded but tenacious prejudice that still existed 
against the common schools as "godless** and 
demoralizing, and his official testimony proves 
it to be groundless. IVe know that thev level 
up, not down. In some localities, the only idea 
of order and discipline, good manners, good 
principles, respect for authority, that children 
get, tney get m the common schools. The 
clamor refeired to has died out, and under 
clerical leadership we have more than ever for 
the schools the sympathy and fiiendly influence 
of the churches, which is so pervading and pow- 
erful, and whose co-operation, but not interfer- 
ence, is so desirable. Christianity, like the air 
we breathe and the sunlight that blesses us, is 
a diffused and subtle atmosphere, that bears 
healing on its wing[s far beyond sectarian lines, 
and tlm>ugh the spiritual sense can be felt like 
an intangible but positive presence in all educa- 
tional work. 

Genial and broad-minded. Dr. Higbee is and 
cannot fail to be popular, his usefulness steadily 
growing with ripening experience. With Mac- 
Alister in Philadelphia regenerating the First 
School District, and himself in the School De- 
partment with its comprehensive jurisdiction, 
the educational interests of Pennsylvania were 
never in better or saifer hands than now, and 
we have a right to cherish "great expectations " 
as to ultimate results. 

Respectfully, 

Phila., June 6, 1885. H. C. HiCKOK. 

Rev. Elnathan Elisha Higbee^ D. D., 
LL.D., was bom in Burlington, Vermont, 
March 27, 1830. His parents were people 
of good descent and of marked intellectual 
power, and the son, while a mere lad, was 
noted for his skill in the solution of puzzling 
problems in arithmetic and algebra that 
came to him from all the region for many 
miles around. When quite young he en« 
tered the University of Vermont, where he 
distinguished himself in a class of great 
ability, and was graduated with honor in 
1849. ^^ taught a common school in his 
native state before he was sixteen years of 
age. After graduation, he was induced, 
through the influence of his brother-in-law, 
Rev. Dr. Geo. W. Aughinbaugh, now Presi- 
dent of Merceisburg College, Franklin Co., 
Pa., to engage in teaching in Emmittsburg, 
Frederick cotmty, Md. Here he was em* 
ployed as tutor in the tamily of the late 
Hon. Joshua Motter, whose daughter he 
afterwards married. He also taught a year 
as assistant teacher in the High School of 
Lancaster, Pa. While in Emmittsburg his 
mind was turned to the Christian ministry, 
and he soon after entered the Theological 
Seminary of the German Reformed Church, 



188;.] 



''EAT WELL, SLEEP WELL, LAUGH WELL,** 



«3 



then at Mercersburg, under Drs. Philip 
SchafT and Bernard WolfT as professors. 
He was licensed to preach the gospel in 
May, 1854. In 1855 he was united with 
the Congregational Association of Vermont, 
and labored with great acceptance at Bethel, 
in that State. In 1858 he received a call to 
the First Reformed church at Tiffin, Ohio, 
and at the same time served as Professor of 
Languages in Heidelberg College, located 
at that place. Some of the pupils who en- 
joyed his instruction there have since 
ranked among the ablest linguists in the 
country. In 1862 he took charge of Grace 
church, Pittsburgh, where his brilliant ser- 
mons attracted much attention. In 1864, 
while Dr. Schaflf was on a visit to Europe, he 
was appointed by the Board of Visitors Pro- 
fessor of Church History and Exegesis at 
Mercersburg, and so satisfactorily did he 
perform his duties that when Dr. Schaff re- 
signed the chair in 1865, the Synod at Lewis- 
burg unanimously and by acclamation elect- 
ed him to fill the place permanently. Dr. 
Higbee continued his connection with the 
Seminary until its removal to Lancaster in 
1867, when he resigned, and took the presi- 
dency of Mercersburg College, where he la- 
bored until 1 881, when he was appointed by 
Governor Henry M. Hoyt to the Superin- 
tendency of Public Instruction. During the 
year 1878, leave of absence was given him for 
a brief trip to Europe with the view of exam- 
ining the libraries and studying the educa- 
tional institutions of foreign lands. 
• As has been said at some length elsewhere 
in this article, he is an extraordinary man in 
many directions, but especially in such as 
require skill in combination for weight or 
brilliancy of result. Illustrating this his 
skill in chess may be cited, for during his 
college and clerical life he was a recognized 
master of this fascinating game, and many 
a confident player of local reputation has 
come to grief contesting with him the mimic 
field. 

This article would not be complete with- 
out reference to certain personal qualities 
that have been grossly misrepresented. In- 
stead of being the "dyspeptic parson," with 
teeth on edge, which some newspapers have 
persistently pictured him, he is one of the 
busiest and happiest of men, observing nat- 
urally Mr. Beecher's three rules of health : 
** Eat well, sleep well, and laugh well," and 
without a trace of dyspepsia, mental or 
physical. We know no man who tells an 
apt story with better zest, or laughs over it 
more heartily. The *' merry men " of Sher- 
wood Forest would have welcomed him with 



open arms to their merry company; and he 
would have been no unworthy member of 
the famed society that held its meetings at 
the Mermaid Tavern, whei^ Beaumont and 
Fletcher, "gentle Will" and "rare Ben 
Jonson," came together, with other kind- 
red spirits, each contributing his share to 
the brilliancy of conversation of those as- 
sembled wits and good fellows. 

"What things have we seen 
Done at the Mermaid ! heard words that have 
So nimble, and so fuU of subtle flame, [been 
As if that every one from whom they came 
Had meant to put his whole wit in a jest.'* 

So run Beaumont's lines, and in just such 
company would this man Higbee be most 
at home, for he knows and ddights in the 
dramas of Shakespeare and the contemporary 
writers of his era as not another man m tens 
of thousands can. Dyspepsia ! He is one 
of the gladdest souls that breathe vital air 
and revel in the sunlight. 

Physically, he is a man of tough, wiry 
constitution, with great power of endurance, 
and wholly equal to the arduous duties of the 
two important positions which he occupies. 
Though, of course, past the climax of phys* 
ical strength, if necessity arose he could, as 
of old, strike a blow like a sledge-hammer, 
with the quickness of thought and the pre- 
cision of the skilled boxer. When the In- 
stitute season or that of examination and 
visitation of Normal and Orphan Schools is 
on, he travels continuously by day and night, 
working and speaking all the while, with 
frequent sermons on Sundays, at times 
preaching twice in one day — and this for 
weeks together, coming out of his busy 
campaign strong and vigorous. 

The only physical, ailments to which he 
has any predisposition, are pneumonia from 
exposure to cold, nervous stricture of the 
muscles of breathing which results from oc- 
casional asthmatic trouble, and an annually 
recurring hay-fever annoyance — ^neither nor 
all of which have in any sense prevented the 
full and complete discharge of the varied 
and important duties devolving upon him 
as Superintendent. 

What was designed to crush him, and 
would have crushed a weaker official, has 
but given him new strength, and made more 
evident the granite temper of his mind and 
the steeMike quality of his endurance. His 
numerous friends have been more outraged 
than even himself at the unremitting efforts 
which have been made to destroy the repu- 
tation, to belittle the character and work, 
and if possible, to bring into popular con- 
tempt, the ripest scholar and one of the very 



H 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



ablest and best men, who has ever held office 
as Superintendent of Public Instruction in 
Pennsylvania. And this article is published 
by those friends, and wholly at their instance, 
as an indirect reply to the attacks of men 
brutal in instinct or such as ''know not what 
they do." A pleasing incident in this con- 
nection, and one that has but recently come 
to our knowledge, is very significant. Of 
the eminent lawyers whom Dr. Higbee re- 
tained as counsel in the "late unpleasant- 
ness," not one would accept pay for his 
legal advice and services. They felt and 
said that the satisfaction of having rendered 
assistance to a friend in so just a cause was 
an all-sufficient reward. 



When the question of the confirmation 
of Dr. Higbee was before the Senate, Hon. 
John Stewart, of Franklin county, made the 
following remarks eulogistic of the nominee : 

His Excellency, Governor Hoyt, has sent to 
the Senate, in connection with the Superintend- 
ency of Public Instruction in this State, the 
name of Dr. Higbee. This distinguished honor 
having been conferred by His Excellency upon 
a citizen of the county which I represent in this 
body, it may not be improper, even though it 
be unnecessary, that I should certify to the Sen- 
ate the qualifications and fitness of the gentle- 
man named for this high position. It would 
not have occurred to me to ao so except for the 
fact that Dr. Higbee has but few personal 
friends in the Senate, and is even unknown by 
reputation to most of them. This is not strange 
when it is considered that he comes from the 
seclusion of the student and the teacher, and 
not from the busy, crowded walks of public life. 
For many years he has been the honored chief 
of the principal institution of learning in Frank- 
lin county. All the active years of his life have 
been devoted to educational work. He has had 
a large, varied and successful experience in this 
connection. That experience has inspired him 
with an enthusiasm in the cause of education, 
has familiarized him with the method of our 
system and the wants of the people. His wide 
and varied learning justly commands the re- 
spect and admiration of the most eminent schol- 
ars of oiur State, and to his high scholastic at- 
tainments he adds the culture and the graces of 
a pure and noble life. He brings to the dis- 
charp^e of the duties of his office these hieh 

2ualifications, and to these he adds a faithful 
evotion to the public interest. In saying this 
much for Dr. Hiebee, and in predicting for his 
administration of the affairs of the high office a 
full measure of success, I feel that I but antici- 

{)ate die popular approval which is sure to fol- 
ow his work, I commend to the approval of 
this body his appointment. 

State Supt. Wickersham, in announcing 
the appointment of his successor in The 
School Journal^ wrote as follows : 

Dr. Higbee enjoys the reputation of being a 



very fine scholar. It is claimed that he is 
equally well versed in languages, mathematics, 
literature and history, "niose who know him 
best give him credit for large executive power, 
but whatever its measure, he will find it taxed. 
to the utmost in the management of the great 
work now intrusted to his hands. His weak- 
ness in taking charge of the school affairs of 
the Commonwealth — and no man is his friend 
who conceals it from him — is his failure to 
identify himself heretofore with public school 
men and public school interests, and his want 
of a practical knowledge of the extensive and 
varied and often complicated business details 
of his office. He takes command of an army 
of 40,000 teachers and school officers and 
1,000,000 of children, almost unknown to every 
individual composing the great body. This 
disability may be overcome, but it can only be 
done by generalship of the highest kind, and 
a whole-souled devotion to the work in hand. 
The retiring officer, in writing thus, wishes him 
heartily the most distinguished success. 

The disability of being personally un- 
known to the teachers and school men of 
the State was readily overcome, and with 
little conscious effort on the part of the 
genial Superintendent. It was a Venij vidi^ 
vici campaign, and the measure of success 
wished for by Dr. Wickersham was long 
since attained. 

The New England Journal of Education 
in noticing at some length his annual report 
from the Department of Public Instruction 
for 1884, says : 

'' Dr. Higbee is one of the strongest State 
Superintendents we have in this country. 
He is the executive officer of the great Key- 
stone State, whose schools are famous in aH 
parts of the land. This State system of pub- 
lic schools is one of the broadest and best. 
The plan of the Normal Schools is simply 
gigantic. It has ten large Normal schools, 
which have done, and are doing, a great 
work. This volume contains, beside the re- 
port of the Superintendent, reports of county 
superintendents from its sixty-six counties ; 
reports of forty-two city and borough super- 
intendents ; rep)orts of the principals of its 
ten Normal Schools ; together with many 
statistical tables. 

"He is himself clearly seen through the 
printed pages of his report, — his scholar- 
ship, his high manly and moral tone, his 
administrative ability, his straight-forward 
business way of doing his work and of 
expressing himself concerning that work. 
We have been impressed while reading his 
strong utterances with the power of the man 
that shows throughout this official docu- 
ment. He is a man of very great zeal and 
enthusiasm in his labors. Within the four 
years that he has been in office, he has trav- 



188;.] 



THE CRUSADE OF SLANDER, 



«S 



eled much over the entire State, visiting and 
lecturing at teachers' institutes and other edu- 
cational assemblies, watching with a critical 
eye all tendencies in the educational work, 
and moulding educational sentiment, as few 
men could do. He has delivered lectures 
on school topics in nearly every county, 
and in some counties has lectured before in- 
stitutes for three successive years. His work 
in this direction alone has been of inestim- 
able value to the school interests of Penn- 
sylvania. He is recognized as one of the 
most accomplished scholars of the State. 
No one questions this who knows him. As 
a classical scholar, he has read nearly all the 
Greek and Latin authors extant. His at- 
tainments in philosophy also are high. He 
is at home in the history of philosophy, and 
is quite a specialist in psychology. His 
keen insight into the philosophy of educa- 
tion and his clear and forcible statement of 
the truth as he sees it, have given him great 
power in the direction of educational thought 
throughout the State." 

We could fill The Journal with matter 
upon this subject, but close this part of our 
article with the following from the editorial 
columns of the Chambersburg Repository^ 
which appeared shortly after the slander 
crusade had been fairly inaugurated : 

As the true inwardness of the fierce outcry 
against the management of the Soldiers* Orphan 
Schools of Pennsylvania manifests itself, the 
people interested in the schools condemned de- 
mand more evidence than has been furnished 
upon which to implicate Rev. Dr. Higbee in any 
responsibility for wrong-doing charged against 
the schools in question. Here in Franklin 
county, where Dr. Higbee has been known for a 
quarter of a century as an educator and a faithful 
herald of the Word, the scurrilous abuse heaped 
upon him by some of the public prints cannot 
affect his stainless character or detract from the 
estimate held of his capabilities for the high posi- 
tion he occupies as Superintendent of Public In- 
struction of the Commonwealth. So efficiently 
had he discharged the duties of his trust that there 
was a universal request on the part of the friends 
of public education throughout the State for his 
re-appointment to the position he occupies, and 
Gov. Pattison but recognized this sentiment 
when he ignored the claims of the candidates in 
his own party for the office and continued the 
incumbent. 

It is utterly preposterous to suppose that it 
was the provmce of Dr. Higbee to enter into a 
minute inspection of all the inner workings of the 
Soldiers' Orphan Schools of the State. Inspec- 
tors were appointed with the approbation of the 
Governor to watch over these institutions, the 
Governor himself had visited them from time 
to time, and representatives of the Grand Army 
of the Republic were unremitting in their over- 
sight of tnese wards of the State. The press of 



Franklin county, with the same propriety, could 
vilify Judge Rowe for any irregularities which 
might exist in the management of the jail or 
almshouse after they had been favorably re- 
ported upon by a Grand Jury deputized to rigidly 
mspect them. 

That Dr. Higbee will emerge from this bitter 
turmoil unsmirched, nobody who knows upon 
what he has built can entertain a shadow of 
doubt. Those who have been familiar with his 
life know that -he has been an untiring worker 
for the welfare of others, that he is devoid of 
selfishness, that his charities have always 
equalled his estate, that nothing arouses his in- 
dignation so much as an act of iilhumanity. 
With a full sense of his accountability to tne 
Great Ruler, and valuing his good name above 
all price, his political enemies may scheme and 
conspire to their hearts' content to pull Dr. Hig- 
bee down from his lofty pedestal, but their ven- 
omous darts cannot reach or harm him. 



To the showing recently made by the Su- 
perintendent of Soldiers' Orphan Schools in 
reply to Ex-Inspector Wagner's charges — 
some of them foolish, and others wicked 
both in form and purpose — ^there has been 
no answer. Not a newspaper, however hos- 
tile to the Department or rabid upon the 
question of Orphan Schools, has had the 
effrontery to attempt defence of the ex-In- 
spector. The Carlisle Volunteer^ a repre- 
sentative newspaper of this rabid class, says 
briefly: " If one were to believe Higbee, he is 
the most lied-about man in the service of the 
State." We think the Volunteer may "be- 
lieve Higbee," and we know that if any other 
officer of the State government has, during 
the past sixteen months, been "lied about" 
in more vigorous fashion or with more deadly 
intent, he deserves the most hearty sym- 
pathy. Fair play is a jewel ! Let there be no 
more false issues-7-which have been the cap- 
ital of this prosecution from the beginning — 
but fight the fight out, as it should have been 
fought from the first, only upon charges that 
can be substantiated, if need be, in a court of 
justice. The following editorial comment, 
from newspapers in different parts of Penn- 
sylvania, is of interest in this connection : 

GENERAL WAGNER SCORES HIMSELF. 

When Inspector Warner asserted in his final 
report of his investigation of the Soldiers' Or- 
phan Schools, that Superintendent Higbee had 
" pigeon-holed" certain drafts of Rules and Reg- 
ulations for the better government of the schools, 
the friends of the latter were surprised if not 
pained. Those who knew him best believed 
him above the suspicion of an attempt to thwart 
any measure calculated to improve the manage- 
ment of those institutions. They therefore 
awaited Dr. Higbee's explanation, satisfied that 
he had not done what Gen. Wagner charged 
without some good reasons for his action. The 



I6 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



abstract of the Inspector's report was published 
at a time when Dr. Higbee was watching at the 
bedside of his dying son, and this, and the sub- 
sequent death of that son, necessarily delayed 
the notice of the charge that its importance de- 
manded. 

Dr. Higbee's reply, which we print to-day, 
will no £>ubt equally surprise the friends of 
Gen. Wagner. By the correspondence relating 
to those Rules and Regulations, Dr. Higbee 
convicts his accuser of the meanest kind of 
falsehood, to say nothing of conduct utterly un- 
becoming a gentleman of his social and official 
standing. Out of his own mouth, or, what is 
still more conclusive, by the record of his own 
pen, General Wagner stands condemned. 
Whoever is responsible for " pigeon-holine," 
certainly it is not .Dr. Higbee or any one in nis 
"department." If the "pigeon-holing" was 
done in the Executive " department," General 
Wagner, as the faithful and impartial represen- 
tative of the interests of the orpnans of his com- 
rades, ought to have had the manliness to say 
so, and not attempt, directly or by innuendo, 
tp implicate the man who was doing all he could 
do to secure the approval of these Rules and 
Regulations from Inspector and Governor — 
efforts which were abandoned only when the law 
and the pressure from the Grand Army Posts 
compelled him to admit orphans under the old 
regulations. — Lancaster New Era, May 23th, 

To the Philadelphia Record belongs the un- 
enviable credit of having originatea the un- 
founded and cruel charges brought against Su- 
perintendent Higbee, of the Soldiers Orphan 
Schools. In its frantic efforts to " set up" Gov- 
ernor Pattison in an onslaught against the Su- 
perintendent, it fairly exceeded its usual violence 
when it has once taken up a hobby. In con- 
Junction with the Governor one of its editorial 
staff swune around the circle of these schools 
and playea the part of Inquisitor-General. Mole- 
hills were manufactured into mountains, and a 
more desperate attempt to discover mare*s nests 
was never made. The consequence of all this 
was that the Governor attempted to drive an in- 
nocent man out of office unaer a cloud ; but his 
malignant attempt proved abortive, and as a 
last resort he appointed General Louis Wagner 
to make an investigation and report. This was 
done ; and as the Inspector fully understood the 
reasons of his appointment, he too did his ut- 
most to fulfil the wishes of the Governor by a 
report which tried to do by insinuation what it 
could not do by an honest statement of details. 

But this was not all. The violence of the 
Record's original denunciation had such an ef- 
fect on the contemporary press of Philadelphia 
that almost without exception, and without the 
slightest investigation of the charges, they took 
up the Record's calumnies and reiterated them 
through columns of unjust and bitter denunci- 
ation. Hiey never grew tired of this pastime, 
and made but little effort to place before their 
readers the result of investigations carried on 
by equally capable but more honest investigators 
tnan those put upon the scent by an angry and 
prejudiced Governor. 



But in the fullness of time Superintendent 
Higbee has seen fit to answer the base insinu- 
ations of General Wagner. To prevent all pos- 
sible charges of making false representations or 
garbled statements, he gives to the public the 
correspondence that passed between them. This 
was given to the press on Wednesday last, and, 
to speak mildly, it puts Governor Pattison*s pet, < 
General Wagner, into a hole so deep that ha \ 
best friends might wish he would never emerge 
therefrom. Superintendent Higbee proves that 
General Wagner fully carried out the wishes of 
the Governor to entrap him and lead him to the 
commission of blunders. But the Superinten- 
dent declined the invitation and now counters on 
General Wagner with crushing effect. The Tinus 
truly declares " Higbee scores Wagner." 

But there is another and if possible a still 
more disreputable phase of the question presented 
to the public for its consideration and judgment 
The Record, which led the assault on Dr. Higbee, 
and the I^ess and North American, which 
kindly followed suit in many columns of unfair 
and virulent denunciation, had no room in their 
columns yesterday to give even so much as a 
passive editorial notice of the manner Dr. Hig- 
bee vindicated himself and pilloried General 
Wagner. They remained as closely shut up as 
oysters, because his vindication is their condem- 
nation ; and under such circumstances editorial 
courtesy and fairness is allowed to drop out of 
si^ht. Is that fair, is it honest, is it in Keeping 
with that assumption of virtue these journals are 4 
continually parading before the public ? 

General Louis Wagner is now a very promi- 
nent official of the government of Philadelphia. 
He is prominent and influential and has favors 
to grant. He is for the time being one of the 
anointed; and consequently for the already 
named journals to say anything to his discredit 
is hardly to be expected, especially by those who 
would be writing their own condemnation by so 
doing. And this is high-toned journalism ! — Mr. 
/. M, W. Geist, Editor Lancaster New Era, 
May 27th. 

We have had occasion to call the attention of 
our readers to the malignant and unjust attacks 
made by Ex -Governor Pattison upon the Sol- 
diers* Orphan Schools of the State, and were 
loath to reopen the subject upon the intimation 
of a controversy between Dr. Higbee and Gen- 
eral Wagner. The further, however, we look 
into the tacts with which Dr. Higbee meets the 
insinuations of Wagner, the riiore we are con- 
vinced that the Superintendent could not, in jus- 
to himself, have remained silent. We believe 
it is the opinion of all fair-minded people that 
the so-called investigation by Governor Pattison 
was started with the deliberate purpose of humil- 
iating Dr. Higbee. We confess we did not ex- 
pect to see General Wagner sustaining it, and 
for these reasons : 

The Grand Army, the natural guardians of the 
children of their dead comrades, investigated 
. the charges, reported them false and re-elected 
the Rev. Mr. Sayres chaplain of their organiza- 
tion. Would they have so distinguished a man 
whom they believe guilty of the charges made 



1887.] 



COMMENT OF THE PRESS. 



17 



against him by the Governor when he was re- 
moved ? Mrs. Attick, herself the daughter of a 
soldier, was appointed to the place of Mn. H utter, 
also removeoT She stsuted out very quietlv, and 
nothing was heard from her until she made her 
report, which was a complete refutation of the 
charges, she alleging that the children were well 
fed, well clothed and well taught. Mrs. Attick 
also, with a generosity showing her to be a 
worthy daughter of a gallant father, testified to 
th6 universal love for Mrs. H utter which she 
found amons^ the children. But Mrs. Attick is 
a woman wim no political axe to grind and no 
private ambition to gratify. Hie Legislature re- 
nised to investigate the department, although 
Dr. Higbee invited such an investigation, evi- 
dendy considering that the charges had been 
exploded. 

For all these reasons, we are surprised at the 
position taken by General Wagner. We now find 
that had we gauged his character b^ the manner 
in which he started out to make his inspection, 
we should have arrived at a proper conception 
of it. The ostentation with which he announced 
that he would work without pav, the frequency 
wiA which he was interviewea, me tone otall the 
interviews, and now his final report, still charg- 
ing mismanagement and complaining that 
rules and regmations, the product of the united 
wisdom of the Governor and himself, were pi- 
geon-holed by the School Department, all go to 
show that General Wagner was anxious to gain 
notoriety for himself at the expense of the Sol- 
diers* Orphan Schools. This last charge of 
pigeon-holing, Dr. Higbee refutes with General 
Wagner's own letters, proving it not only false 
but malicious, and in this predicament he 
stands. We are sorry for General Wagner. 
* We congratulate Dr. Higbee. We take to our- 
srives the moral that while truth may be at the 
bottom of a well, bona fide seekers rarely hunt 
it with a brass band — Williamsjtort Gazette, 



We are to have another chapter of contro- 
versy over the Soldiers* Orphans* School man- 
agement, but it seems altogether probable that 
the contest will be confinea to Superintendent 
Higbee and ex-Inspector Wagner. This re- 
newal of the battle came somewhat unexpectedly, 
but is characterized by unusual virulence. It is 
remembered that when Governor Pattison dis- 
missed Rev. Mr. Sayres and Mrs. Hutter from 
the office of Inspector of Soldiers* Orphans, 
Schools, he appointed General Louis Wagner as 
Inspector, and charged him to make a thorough 
examination of all the schools in which the State 
maintains soldiers* orphans. General Wagner 
performed his duty, and subsequentlv made a 
report in which he went far out of his way to 
make an attack on Superintendent Higbee. 
Among other things he charged that the Super- 
intendent had pigeon-holed documents pertain- 
ing to the scnools in his department. This 
chaige was made in the pompous and blustering 
manner characteristic of General Warner, and 
without designating what doctiments have been 
thus " pigeon-holed.** 

Dr. Higbee addressed a respectful note to 
Wagner, requesting him to explain his accu- 



sation. To this Wagner made an evasive reply, 
giving no detaik, and simply referring Dr. Hig- 
bee to his (Wagner's) report. Thereupon the 
Superintendent replied that the charge that he 
had pigeon-holed any document pertainine to 
the management of the Soldiers' Orphan 
Schools was " a deliberate falsehood.'* Instead 
of meeting this in the only way it could properly 
and decently be met, viz : by enumerating the 
documents that had been pigeon-holed, Gen- 
eral Wagner addressed a letter to Dr. Higbee, 
the language of which can be properly charac- 
terized only by the term brutal. Wagner must 
have utterly lost his head when he applied such 
terms as "bully" and "blackguard" to a man 
like Rev. Dr. Higbee, but this will not greatly 
surprise those who have had occasion to come 
into contact with General Wagner. 

Dr. Higbee has published a lengthy letter 
giving the details of the entire controversy grow- 
mg out of the orieinal charges of mismanage- 
ment in the Soldiers' Orphans' Schools, and 
closes by giving General Wagner as genteel a 
thrashing as he ever received. While due al- 
lowance must be made for the provocation un- 
der which Dr. Higbee labored, it would never- 
theless, in our judgment, have been wiser for 
the Doctor to have contented himself with an 
emphatic denial of the charges and challenged 
his accuser to prove his allegations or stand 
pilloried before the Commonwealth as a defamer 
and a slanderer. — Scranton Republican. 

General Wagner several weeks ago made the 
damaging statement in his final report as In- 
spector of the SolcUers' Orphans' Schools, that 
" several drafts of contracts and of schedules of 
rules and regulations * * * have been pigeon- 
holed at the department." Dr. Higbee asked 
Gen. Wagner for an explanation of his charge, 
without receiving a satisfactory reply, and he 
finally addressed a note to the General saying 
that if he meant that he or his Department had 
"pigeon-holed" any such document, it was a de- 
lioerate falsehood. 

To this Gen. Wagner impertinently replied, 
when Dr. Higbee felt called upon to make pub- 
lic all of the correspondence between himself, 
ex-Governor Pattison and Inspector Wagner on 
the subject of contracts, and it places the In- 
spector in anything but an agreeable light. It 
clearly demonstrates that the " pigeon-holing" 
was not in Dr. Higbee's department, and that 
if there was any " pigeon-holing" it must have 
been in the Executive office. This the Doctor 
proves by a letter from Gen. Wagner himself, 
who in acknowledging the receipt of the final 
form of rules and r^fi£itions prepared and sub- 
mitted by Dr. Higbee, adds: "They go for- 
warded in this mail (Nov. 27, 1886), to Gov- 
ernor Pattison, with several suggestions, of 
which find copy enclosed." Clearly Gen. 
Wagner is in an awkward dilemma, and it will 
be necessary for him to invent new insinuations. 
In the " scoring" role Dr. Higbee has most un- 
mercifully turned the tables, and he handles the 
male Inspector without gloves, in all of which 
it is shown that while it may be agreeable to 
hunt the tiger, it b not so pleasant when the tiger 



i8 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



QULY, 



hunts his pursuer. Next week we will publish 
all of the correspondence rdating to the con- 
troversy, together with Dr. Hieb^e's scathing 
conunents. — Chambersburg Public Opinion, 

Dr. Higbee is evidently not a non-resistant. 
General Wagner, in his report as " Inspector" 
of the Orphan Schools, mstkes reflections that 
seem to be unjust, on Superintendent Higbee 
and his department. Dr. Higbee writes to him 
for an explanation of one of nis charges, char- 
acterizing it as a "deliberate falsehood." The 
douehty general replies in a short letter, no 
doubt intended to annihilate the Doctor, but it 
only invites a reply in which die self-important 
Inspector is flayed. The Doctor shows that while 
the General was assuming to have done so 
much for the schools, " no one connected with 
them has the slightest knowledge of such ser- 
vice rendered." — Columbia Spy, 

As we predicted. Brother General Louis Wag- 
ner, of Pniladelphia, never made a bigger mis- 
take in his life than when he shot at Dr. Hig- 
bee upon the supposition that he was a ghost. 
The latter may be bald and gray and venerable- 
looking, but when it comes to a matter of lan- 
guage, of conscience, of business, or of right, it 
will take more than one Wagner to get away 
with him. Those who want to see how Generad 
Waener is polished off by Dr. Higbee, should 

f:et the June number of the Pennsylvania School 
oumal. It will be worth a whole year's sub- 
scription. — Phcsnixville Messenger. 



THE MAN AND THE TEACHER. 



BY THEODORE H. RAND. 



9 

effo 



jNE of the characteristics of to-day in all 
our work and undertakings is associated 

fort. Men and women join hands and 
work together that they may bring their un- 
dertaking to a successful completion. Thus 
our teachers meet together, talk over their 
affairs together, and so are better able to 
discharge the duties that devolve upon 
them. 

There is one thought that has occurred to 
me which I desire here to present : It is pos- 
sible that teachers may fore-shorten their 
own horizon by a too exclusive outlook 
upon life through their own profession. It 
is quite possible that through this lens we 
may see everything, and thereby fail to see 
many things that it is necessary we should 
see. Man is larger than his profession. 
Consequently, man should not look at 
everything through the professional lens, 
lest he limit and circumscribe himself, and 
fail to get that development that is essential 
to his professional success. 

How can you best prepare for the teach- 
ing profession ? for any profession ? Culti- 
vate yourself, all the power that is in you ; 



get it free ; bring it out that you may use 
it. Cultivate yourself that you may be a 
man or a woman, and having fairly suc- 
ceeded in that direction you will be better 
able to discharge the duties of your profes- 
sion. Do not trust professional culture for 
success. Professional culture is only a 
means to an end. There is such a thing as 
a man's being hampered by his profession. ^ 
Therefore our great aim should be, man 
first, teacher afterward. We should all 
keep this great aspiration in mind. How 
can I rise to the fulness of the endowment 
with which God has created man ? When 
I reach that I shall be better qualified to en- 
gage in the particular work of my profes- 
sion. How IS this self-culture to be brpught 
about? There is no royal way to it. 

But first of all the man or woman should 
get into his or her heart that there is such a 
thing as life; not mere existence — some- 
thing that makes him reach up and take 
hold of things beyond him, something 
that fills him with aspirations of gladness 
and joy, and makes him hunger to act 
and serve. The possession of this thought 
will give you an insight. You will see that 
everything is full of opportunity. Provided 
one has the true alchemy of the soul every- 
thing can be turned into nourishment for ^ 
the development of true life. Here is a 
teacher: let him say: "I intend to be, 
it is my duty to be, 1 shall be, a true citizen 
in the fullest sense of the term. I will take • 
upon myself a share of the responsibilities of 
this community. I will indentify myself 
with the life of the people with whom my 
lot is cast." 

The man who does that in a true spirit 
will grow in thought, extend in sympathy, 
and become more helpful in his service. 
Carry that principle into the field of the 
Moral) Every teacher should indentify 
himself with some Christian church, that he 
may not only be receptive of good, but may 
serve in this capacity, and thus develop his 
own spiritual nature. Thus he may become 
more of a man everywhere. Socially he 
may help others. Let him fill himself with 
everything right and true that is possible in 
a social way, that his own nature may be 
deepened, refined, elevated. Every teacher 
ought to place himself in a condition where 
he can enrich himself the most in self-devel- 
opment in order that he may be the better 
able to discharge the functions of a teacher. 
Suppose you had a choice of teachers. One 
was a well-trained man professionally ; the 
other was not well-trained in that line, but 
was a round man, a full man, a cultured 



188?.] 



SAlnA CUHA C0OHT7 

UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION. ^' ^" ^ ]_ T P19; , 



man — ^which would you choose ? No one of 
experience would hesiu^te in selecting the 
man who was roost a man. The grandest 
thin^ in connection with the work of teach- 
ing is the man or woman ; that quality of 
spirity nature, energy; that something 
which coming in contact with spirit pol- 
ishes spirit and begets life« It is not mere 
education ; . but the begetting of life in the 
mind of the pupil, the lifting up of the 
boy and girl to see beyond. That one who 
can touch life in that way has a qualification 
that surpasses all others. Character is the 
greatest qualification for any man or woman 
who has to do with the work of training 
children or youth, whether in school, at 
home or elsewhere. 

There is in all professions a tendency to 
narrowness. The teacher is also in an atti- 
tude of superiority. He always talks down. 
He does not mingle with men and women 
as his equals. He tis for the most part 
hemmed in with children in the relation of 
inferiors, and so it comes about in a long 
service that the man gets out of balance 
with his fellows. The corrective influence 
we need to struggle after is this develop- 
ment of ourselves. Therein you have the 
necessary balance; then the deficient side 
of your nature is complemented. 

About vacation : Some say. Let me get 
alone with nature where everything is pure 
and fresh. That is good. The farther the 
man has been away from nature the more 
quickly he should return to it. It is good ; 
but it is not enough. You want to get your- 
selves in contact with superior life. Get 
in contract with the man or woman whose 
experien. * is a genuine. experience; whose 
life is a true life, whose work is real 
work. There is some grand work being 
done to-day, even in the darkest cor- 
ners of the earth. No matter how hum- 
ble the position the teacher may occupy, 
he has the chance of coming in contact 
with some of the grandest spirits that are 
moving and have moved the moral forces of 
the world. 

Come then into sympathy with all that is 
grand and beautiful, that you may qualify 
yourselves for the discharge of your duties 
as a teacher. We want not less professional 
culture, but more of self-culture. We may 
and do take pride in our school system. 
But let us not deceive ourselves. Our 
school system is worth what the men and 
women who officer it are worth; not a penny 
more. Let us lift ourselves up to be grand 
men and women, and we will lift up our 
school system. — Canada Ed.J(mmaL 



'^. 



U. S. CONSTITUTTON.— II. 



THE FOUNDERS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC. 



BY R. K. BUEHRLE, PH. D. 



(f 



The wisdom and pAtriodtm of Americft.'* 



HAVING shown in the May number of 
77u Journal whsX led to the desire for 
a stronger government, it remains now to 
say a few words about the men who were 
chosen to accomplish so great a work — the 
personnel of the convention. To afford as 
much information as possible in the briefest 
space, their names are given by States, and 
with the name are given one or more facts of 
special interest. The names printed in 
italics belong to those of foreign birth ; an 
"A" indicates service in the army, "C," 
in Congress, ''D," a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and ''Coll." a grad- 
uate of a college. The age is also given, as 
far as any definite knowledge of it was at- 
tainable by the writer. 

Pennsylvania, — Benjamin Fnnklin, 81, D. ; Thof. 
Mifflin, 43, A. C. ; Robert Morris, 54, D. C. ; George 
Clymer, 48, D. C. ; Thos. Fit%simmons, 46, C. ; Jareid 
IngersoU, 38, CoU. ; James Wilson, 45, CoU. D. C; 
Goveroeur Morris, 35. 

Virginia, — George Washington, 55, A. ; Jas. Mad- 
ison, 36, Con. C; George Wythe, 61, D. C; Ed- 
mnnd Randolph, 34; George Mason, 61 ; John Blair, 
55 ; Jas. McClurg, 40, Coll. 

Delaware, — Greorge Read, 54, D. C. ; Gunning 
Bedford, Jr., 40; John Dicldnson, 55, C; Richard 
Basset; Jacob Broom, 35. 

South Carolina,^], Rutledge, 48, C. ; C. C. Pinck- 
ncT, 41,' Coll. A. C,\ Charles Finckney, 27, C; 
Fierce Butler, 43, C. 

New Hampshire, — ^John Langdon, 48; Nicholas 
Gilman, 25, C. 

Massachusetts, — C. Strong, 42, Coll.; Elbridge 
Gerry, 43, Coll. D.; Ruliis King, 33, CoU. A.; Nich. 
Gorham, 49, C. 

New Jersey. — W. Livingston, 64, C. ; W. Patter- 
soQf 65; Jonathan Dayton, 27, Coll. A.; David 
Brearly, 41 ; W. C. Houston. 

North Cafv/<ifa.~Hugh Williamson, 50, CoU. A.; 
W. R, Davie, 33, CoU. A. ; Wm. Blount, 43, C; R. 
D. Spaight, A. C. ; Alex. Maztin, 47, CoU. A. 

Georgia, — Abraham Baldwin, 33, CoU. C. ; Wm. 
Few, C. ; Wm. Pierce, A. C. ; Wm. Houstoon. 

New Yorh, — Robert Yates, 50; John Lansing, ^z* 
C ; Alex, Hamilton, 30, A. 

Connecticut, — ^W. S. Johnson, 60, CoU. C. ; Roger 
Sherman, 66, D. C; Oliver Ellswozth, 42, CoU. C. 

Maryland. — Luth. Martin, 43, CoU. ; J. F. Mercer, 
29, CoU. C. ; Dan. CarroU, 32 ; Daniel Jenifer of St. 
lliomas, 64; Jas. McHenry, 34, A. C. 

Both in number of delegates and 'their 
collective statesmanship, Pennsylvania stands 
pre-eminent, and hence well deserves to be 
called the Keystone State. She placed at 
the head of her list the president of her 
Commonwealth, Benjamin Franklin, the 



20 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



Nestor of the Convention, whose diligent 
attendance at the advanced age of 8i, shows 
the intense interest he felt in this, his greatest 
political work. She also contributed Robert 
Morris, the financier who safely brought the 
ship of state through the perilous storms of 
the Revolution ; James Wilson, an eminent 
Scotch jurist and, as the sequel showed, one 
of the very ablest statesmen: and Thomas 
Mifflin, the only major-general in the Con- 
vention, who lies buried within the shadow 
of Trinity Lutheran church, Lancaster, and 
to whose honored memory the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania has just passed an act for 
the erection of a stone to mark his grave. 

Virginia, the Old Dominion, scarcely 
yields to her northwestern neighbor in the 
number and ability of her contingent. Em- 
inent above all in lofty patriotism and strong 
common sense, stands George Washington, 
accompanied by James Madison and Ed- 
mund Randolph, the latter her accomplished 
governor. Of the remaining members of 
her delegation, George Wythe and George 
Mason deserve particular mention — the for- 
mer as a life-long courageous champion of 
liberty, and the latter as an ardent aboli- 
tionist. As a specimen of his eloquence on 
this subject, and to give an idea of the man, 
we need but quote the following: "Every 
master of slaves is bom a petty tyrant." 
''This infernal traffic originated in the av- 
arice of British merchants. " 

Little Delaware sent a delegation the peer 
of that of any State except the two just men- 
tioned. Besides George Read, the only 
Southern statesman who signed the three 
great state papers on which our history is 
based — the original Petition of the Congress 
of 1774 to Kmg George III., the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the Constitution 
— she sent John Dickinson, who as a mem- 
ber of that Congress, wrote the Declaration 
to the Armies, the two Petitions to the King, 
and the Address to the States, and Richard 
Basset, her governor, the great-grandfather 
of the present Secretary of State, Thos. F. 
Bayaird. 

Or the remaining Southern States, the 
delegation of South Carolina furnished John 
Rutledge, in Washington's opinion the 
greatest orator in the Continental Congress, 
and C. C. Pinckney, whose spirited reply 
to Talleyrand in 1796, ''Millions for de- 
fience, but not one cent for tribute," became 
a famous motto, and covered its author with 
a halo of glory. 

New Jersey sent her governor, W. Living- 
ston, in that office from 1776 to 1790, con- 
ducting the ship of state, especially through 



the Revolution, with great judgment and 
energy; Jonathan Dayton, a graduate of the 
College of New Jersey at the early age of 
sixteen, and two years later an officer in the 
Revolutionary Army. He was the uncle of 
W. L. Dayton, in 1856 first vice-presidential 
candidate of the present Republican party. 

From New England, Connecticut fur- 
nished probably the roost wonderful char- 
acter in the entire Convention, in the person 
of Roger Sherman. He signed all the great 
state papers which George Read signed, but 
went one better, having also assisted in 
framing and having signed the Articles of 
Confederation. A shoemaker by trade, which 
occupation he pursued until after twenty-two 
years of age, he borrowed books for the pur- 
pose of studying law, which he did, under 
many difficulties and without a preceptor. 
He was a member of Congress from 1 774 to 
1 79 1, when he was elected U. S. Senator. 
At his side was W. S. Johnson, recently 
elected president of Columbia College, of 
which his father had been president before 
him. Oxford had titled him, and Dr. John- 
son delighted to do him honor in the cul- 
tured social club of which he himself was 
the acknowledged chief. 

Neither Massachusetts nor New York took 
the prominent part which they might have 
been expected to take in a matter of such 
transcendent importance. Yet the latter 
State contributed Alexander Hamilton, prob- 
ably in certain directions the ablest man of 
the eighteenth century. "His political 
writings seem, in the estimation of judicious 
and eminent writers in America, Great Brit- 
ain and France, to place him in the first 
rank of master minds. It has been asserted 
that they exhibit an extent and precision of 
information, a profimdity of research and an 
accurateness of understanding, which would 
have done honor to the most illustrious 
statesman of ancient or modem times; that 
for comprehensiveness of design, strength, 
clearness, and simplicity, they have no 
parallel." 

Such were the men who constituted the 
convention. They had carefully studied 
Montesquieu's De T Esprit des Lois, and 
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. They 
had probably still more carefully studied the 
strength and the weakness of the Constitu- 
tion of England and the Republic of Hol- 
land. From the latter especially does it 
seem probable that they derived most light, 
as being most like their own country. 

" Of the fifty-five members of the conven- 
tion, nine were graduates of Princeton, four 
of Yale, three of Harvard, two of Columbia, 



1887.] 



••fNGLISH AS SHE IS TAUGHT,'' 



21 



one of Pennsylvania ; five, six or seven had 
been connected with William and Mary's ; 
Scotland sent one of her sons, a jurist, who 
had been taught at three of her universities, 
and Glasgow had assisted to train another ; 
one had been a student in Christ Church, 
Oxford, and he and three others had been 
students of law in the Temple. To many 
in the assembly the work of the great French 
magistrate on the "Spirit of Law," of 
which Washington with his own hand had 
copied an abstract by Madison, was the 
favorite manual. Some of them had made 
an analysis of all federal governments in an- 
cient and modem . times, and a few were 
well versed in the best English, Swiss and 
Dutch writers on government. . . Alto- 
gether they formed, says Bancroft, "the good- 
liest fellowship of" lawgivers "whereof this 
world holds record." 



"ENGLISH AS SHE IS TAUGHT. 



tt 



MARK TWAIN's LATEST TRIUMPH. 



MARK TWAIN is eminently a humorist 
who enjoys his own jokes, and surely 
the crowning enjoyment of his life was when 
he looked through the newspapers the day 
after his "English as She is Taught," ap- 
peared in the Ccntuty, From the grave 
editor of "Topics of the Time," in the 
Century itself, down to the conductor of the 
smallest country newspaper, every soul fell 
into the trap, and felt bound to point a 
moral against our long-suffering school sys- 
tem. As a matter of fact, these extraordi- 
nary productions were the vindication, had 
they only been true, of that system; for 
there is hEU-dly a line in them that does not 
contain a witticism good enough for Mark 
Twain at his best ; and who would not be 
willing that his children should make a few 
blunders for the sake of securing a collec- 
tion of such wits in the family? We have 
talked long enough of the slowness of our 
English cousins to take a joke ; but here is a 
whole nation apparently as credulous. It 
will not be strange if after this we see the 
Archaeological Society seriously organizing 
an expedition to refit and restore that tomb 
of Adam over which Mark Twain, in Intuh 
cents Abroad^ shed such honest tears. 

That such transparent bits of fun as " The 
first conscientious Congress met in Philadel- 
phia," a joke which first appeared in the 
newspapers more than a year ago; or "The 
Constitution of the United States was estab- 
lished to insure domestic hostility;" or 



"Congress is divided into civilized, half- 
civilized, and savage;" or "Shakespeare 
translated the Scriptures, and was called St. 
James because he did it;" or "'Snow- 
Bound' was written by Peter Cooper; " or 
" Lord James Gordon Bennett instituted the 
Gordon riots;" or "Ireland is called the 
Emigrant Isle because she is so beautiful and 
green ; " or " The two most famous volca- 
noes of Europe are Sodom and Gomorrah ; ' ' 
or "A demagogue is a vessel holding beer and 
other liquids ; " or "A plagiarist is a writer 
of plays;" or "There are a good many 
donkeys in the theological gardens" — ^that 
these should be seriously taken for childish 
blunders show how easily people get away 
from the mental habits of their own child- 
hood. This is not naive and unintentional 
wit, but is overt, deliberate, experienced; 
not the delicious childish blundering, but 
something concocted with malice afore- 
thought ; not the product of immaturity, but 
of maturity. It is extremely amusing, and 
may have here and there imbedded in it some- 
thing actually said by a child; but while 
Mark Twain's readers are enjoying it, we 
may be very sure that he meanwhile is en- 
joying them. Probably he is collecting 
from the newspapers the more serious moral 
discourses called out by his witticism; as 
Richard Adams Locke, in the last genera- 
tion, might have collected the serious dis- 
cussions of his celebrated "Moon Hoax." 
Mr. Clemens has the greater advantage of a 
scrap-book of his own devising in which to 
put these cuttings ; and twenty years hence, 
when everybody is saying that everybody 
saw through the joke at once, he will reprint 
his scrap-book and make up another funny 
essay. 

The only serious aspect of the matter is 
in that curious distrust of our public schools 
on the part of editors and clergymen which 
is so in contrast with the experience of 
those who work in those schools. Our 
schools, such as they are, are the product of 
the American people ; they were not created 
by any arbitrary ruler or any council of 
doctrinaires; they are the gradual evolution 
of a popular demand. If their result was 
only to create wits or fools, we should have 
found it out long ago ; for their success or 
failure is actively discussed in every town 
meeting or district meeting throughout the 
land. They are not mainly supported by 
endowments, but every dollar that they 
cost has to run the gauntlet of a public dis- 
cussion in some form, held among a race as 
thoroughly practical and as little senti- 
mental as can easily be found. The popu- 



22 



PENNSYL VANIA SCHOOL JOUJRIfAL. 



[July, 



lar education ^iven to its children by such 
a race, and paid for out of its own pocket, 
may have its defects; but those defects will 
not . lie in the want of common sense — 
rather in the excess of it. Put the most su- 
percilious reformer upon a school commit- 
tee, and he soon finds that our whole school 
system is, after all, wonderfully well ad- 
justed to an intelligent public demands 
Such a school system will often leave the 
private schools to originate important im- 
provements, because private schools are 
more elastic, deal with smaller numbers, 
and run less risk in case of failure. Just so 
the rich amateur farmer renders a great ser- 
vice very often by trying some agricultural 
experiment which those who make a living 
off their farms cannot afford to try. 

But, after all, the real agricultural work 
of the land, on a large scale, is done by 
those who have to farm in earnest, and so 
the real education of the American people 
is being given in the public schools. Chil- 
dren learn there, on the whole, the qualities 
that are most important — obedience, order, 
punctuality, method, the habit of doing a 
certain thing at a certain time, of applying 
their minds promptly and definitely without 
waiting for moods. In all these things the 
public schools far excel the private, as a . 
rule, so that pupils going from the private 
schools have commonly to learn such habits 
over again. For children without especial 
genius — which means the great mass of chil- 
dren — these habits are essential; and for 
children who happen to have genius they 
are, at least up to a certain point, inestima- 
ble. Genius often brings with it the habit 
of neglecting rule and method, and suffers 
life-long if that practice prevail. To sneer 
at rule and method is easy and tempting, 
just as it was easy in the army to sneer at 
red tape. There were occasions, no doubt, 
where is was needful to disregaid red tape 
utterly; but any soldier might pray to be 
delivered from a commander who disre- 
garded it all the time. So it is eminently 
desirable that our public schools should con- 
tinue to stand mainly, as they do now, for 
system and order. When we consider the 
length and repetition of a school course — 
that a child during a city grammar school 
course, for instance, as lately estimated by 
a teacher, recites about a thousand lessons in 
arithmetic, reads about seven hundred times, 
and spells more than six hundred times — it 
is easy to say that it is a mere mechanical 
routine. But when we count up how many 
times we dress and undress ourselves during 
a similar period, or how many times we sit 



down at table, we see that the basis of life 
itself is a routine. There is really no way 
of getting rid of such wearisome repetitions, 
unless we imitate that French nobleman in 
the story who killed himself because he grew 
so weary of being shaved. — Harper's Bazar. 



INCREASE THE SALARIES. 



A MILUON AND A HALF FOR THE PUBLIC 

SCHOOLS. 



ONE of the most important acts of the 
present Legislature, says the West Ches- 
ter Local News ^ has been to increase the 
State appropriation for public schools from 
f 1,000,000 per annum, at which figiu« it 
has remained ever since the adoption of the 
new Constitution in 1874, to f 1,500,000. 
Our readers generally know that the public 
schools are supported mainly by local taxa- 
tion, that is, by the school tax which is laid 
in each township or borough by the School 
Directors, and is spent upon the schools of 
that district. But the amount thus raised 
is increased by the district's share of the 
State's appropriation to the schools, and it 
is this which has just been so substantially 
increased. The State appropriation is di- 
vided among all the school districts in the 
State in proportion to the number of taxable 
inhabitants of each. Last year Chester 
county's share of the State appropriation 
was f 19,308.03; next year it will be in- 
creased by about ^9,700. What should the 
School Boards do with this money? We 
answer : Add it ail to the teachers* salaries. 

The school tax in Chester county is al- 
ready low, the average tax throughout the 
county is but three and one-sixth mills on 
the dollar, and outside of the boroughs it 
averages scarcely more than two and one- 
half mills. This is about one-third of the 
average school tax paid in the State, and in 
but five other counties is the tax so low. 
Only one township pays as much as four 
mills (not quite half the average of the State), 
and but few others as much as three. More- 
over, if the increase in the State appropria- 
tion were used wholly to reduce local taxa- 
tion, it would lower the tax rate over the 
county not quite two-tenths of a mill^ and 
outside 0/ the boroughs the reduction would be 
still less. Is there a single township in the 
county that desires such a pitifully small 
reduction in the tax rate ? 

Our school-houses are nearly all reported 
by the Superintendent to be first-class ; but 
six in the county are now said to be unfit 



1887.] 



INCREASE THE SALARIES. 



23 



for use. It would seem that no great ex- 
penditure is needed in this direction at pres- 
ent. Neither should there be any consider- 
able increase in the incidental expenses of 
the schools, such as heating and caring for 
the school houses, collecting school tax, etc. 

But there is need of increase in the sala- 
ries of our teachers. Last year the average 
teacher's salary in Chester county outside 
of the boroughs (and these would raise this 
average but slightly) was only ^15.23 per 
month, and the average school term was but 
seven and one-third months. On our east- 
em border is Delaware county, which pays 
f 42.88 per month for more than nine and 
one-half months, over thirty per cent, more 
than we pay our teachers. To the north is 
Montgomery county, where a hundred town- 
ship schools are now paying from four hun- 
dred to five hundred dollars salary. And 
even Lancaster county on our west pa3rs her 
teachers higher monthly salaries, although 
her average school term is somewhat shorter. 
The result is that every year more of our 
best teachers leave Chester county simply 
because they are better paid somewhere else. 
If the extra State appropriation is added to 
the teachers' salaries it will increase them 
all by something over three dollars per 
month. This is certainly not an extrava- 
gant sum, yet an increase that will be very 
grateful to every teacher, and it would be a 
wonderful help in securing and keeping bet- 
ter teachers everywhere in the county. And 
there should not be a school in the county 
open less than eight months in the year, yet 
last year seventy-eight of our schools had a 
shorter school term than this, and three 
whole townships had school but six months. 
It might be wisest for these townships to use 
their increased appropriation to lengthen 
their school term, and this would be almost 
as welcome an increase of salary to the 
teachers as any other. 

It cannot be too often repeated that the 
teacher makes the school. Good houses, 
improved furniture, apparatus, maps, libra- 
ries, etc., are all important, but none of 
them, nor all of them, compare in import- 
ance with the teacher. President Garfield 
said that he would rather have Mark Hop- 
kins on one end of a pine log with himself 
on the other end, than all the splendid 
equipment of Williams College without his 
great teacher. The teacher is the vital part 
of the school system ; if he is a success noth- 
ing can prevent the school from being a 
success; but if he is a failure nothing else 
can make the school a success. 

Then let every School Board in Chester 



county scrupulously spend its increased ap- * 
propnation upon its teachers. It will not 
be felt by a single tax-payer, and in no other 
direction will it go nearly as far or do a tithe 
of the good that it will do here. The whole 
of it will make but a meager increase in the 
salaries, but we may hope that it will speed- 
ily stimulate a farther advance from the tax- 
payers. 

The above suggestion having, been sub- 
mitted to a number of the leading represen- 
tative men of the State and county, we 
append the endorsements of the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, of the faculty of 
the West Chester State Normal School, 
Senator Harlan, Representatives Hickman 
and McConnell, Supts.^ Harvey, Walton and 
Woodruff, and others ; and we trust soon to 
learn of the effort's meeting with the same 
reception at the hands of the Directors 
throughout the districts composing Chester 
county: 

Harrkburg, June 15, 1887. 
Editor West Chester Daily News — Dear Sir: 
I have read the above timely article with great 
pleasure, and most heartily endorse it. In very 
many of our counties the increased State appro- 
priation may prove an injury if not applied di- 
recdy to educational work in increasing teachers' 
salaries, and in lengthening the school term 
where Uiis is now too short. The increase of 
State appropriation should not decrease the en- 
ergy and liberality of our school directors, but 
increase it in every form, that the State as a 
whole may be freely repaid for its more liberal 
encouragement. £. E. Higbee. 

Harrisburg, June 17, 1887. 
Dear Sir : Your communication came while 
I was away. Dr. Higbee, the State Superinten- 
dent, has already written you. It is hardly 
necessary to add that I endorse your proposi- 
tion most heartily. The one thing needed now 
more than anything else in our school work is 
better pay for good teadiers. 

Henry Houck. 

Harrisburg, June 19, 1887. 

Dear Sir: The article to which my attention' 
has been called in your communication of the 
14th inst., is timely and appropriate. If the 
policy so clearly oudined ana suggested by this 
article could be adopted as far as practicable 
throughout the State, a marked improvement 
would be the result in all the public schools of 
the Commonwealth. 

Good school buildings in every district, lib- 
eral salaries for our teau:hers, and longer terms 
for the children, are demanded by the progres- 
sive spirit of the times. Very respectfully, 

Jno. Q. Stewart. 

State Normal School, ) 
West Chester, June 14, 1887. ) 
Dear Sir: We most heartily endorse the 
above editorial, and hope that every district 



24 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[July, 



will increase the salaries of its teachers in ac- 
cordance with your wise and timely suggestion. 

G. M. Philips, D. W. Sensenig, C. B. Coch- 
ran, J. P. Welsh, E. Y. Speakman, Lydia A. 
Martin, Alma Sager Welsh, Mary A. Cum- 
mings, Carrie £. &mus, Lizzie K. Leigh, Annie 
M. Sensenig, Lizzie M. Philips, Addison Jones, 
Christine Faas, A. Thos. Smith, Calvin U. Gan- 
tenbein, Henry J. Benner, Eva J. BLanchard, 
and Abbie A. Eyre. 

COATESVILLE, June, 1887. 

Dear Sir : I have read with great pleasure 
your article entitled "A Million and a Half for 
the Public Schools," and endorse every word of 
it. When the Senate of Pennsylvania amended 
the appropriation for public schools by adding 
a hall million dollars more than in former 
years, it was the prevailing desire that the sal- 
aries of our teachers should be increased, so 
that the Commonwealth might be able to retain 
her best teachers and also encourage persons 
who are qualified to enter the profession, and 
thereby increase the efficiency of our schools. 
This can now be done with the additional half- 
million dollars without any increase in our local 
taxation, for no man, woman, or child in Penn- 
sylvania pays one penny of this half million 
dollars unless they have money at interest. 

Surely Delaware county does not pay her 
teachers more than they deserve, and surely 
there is no reason why (Chester county should 
be behind Delaware county either in average 
length of term or in average pay of her teachers. 

I trust that our Directors, who are excellent 
men and women, will see the wisdom of your 
suggestion and act accordingly. With all kind 
wishes, Yours truly, A. D. Harlan. 

HONEYBROOK, 6, I J, 1887. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of the 14th mst. is to 
hand, enclosing copy of an article for publication 
in reference to the increased appropriation for 
the public schools, which I heartily endorse. It 
was the understanding when the bill was before 
the Legislature, that the increased appropriation 
was to be used for the purpose of increasing 
the efficiency of the pubhc schools, by getting a 
better g^de of teachers or for lengthening the 
school term, and not for the purpose of reduc- 
ing the school tax. Very respectfully yours, 

W. W. McCONNELL. 

Upper Oxford, June 15, 1887. 

Dear Sir : Your atticle in favor of applying 
the increased appropriation for the common 
schools to the better payment of teachers must 
commend itself to a thinking public. 

The increase had its conception solely in the 
desire to increase the efficiency of our schools 
by giving greater encouragement to teachers, 
and to promot such a further increase in the 
tax levy for tne same purpose as would secure 
the best talent. 

Some of the most strenuous advocates of the 
measure in the House last winter were much 
more in favor of improving the schools than 
increasing the minimum term. The crying de- 
mand all over the State seems to be for letter 
schools and better teachers. 

The quality of heart and mind that fits the 



person to become an accepted teacher must be 
obtained at great sacrifice and expense, and the 
average price paid for the services of such 
teachers in Chester county, after deducting the 
price of board, is but a poor recognition indeed. 

I am Quite sure if the increase in the appro- 
priation had been asked for the purpose ot re- 
lieving local taxation for school purposes not 
one dollar of increase would have been granted. 

I have no doubt the Directors of Chester 
county will be faithful to the trust, and that die 
spirit that prompted the passage of the bill wUl 
also prompt the distribution. 

Respectfully, Jno. W. Hickman. ' 

Ercildoun, Pa., 6, 14, 1887. 

Dear Sir : I have received the above article, 
and nothing gives me greater satisfaction than 
to learn that the DaUy News is taking such 
deep interest in educational affairs. The points 
set forth therein illustrate most conclusively an 
easy method to improve the efficacy of our 
teaching force, to broaden the facilities offered 
to our children, and to raise the standard of 
work in our common schools. A little careless 
parsimony in primary education often entails 
an extra outlay of many hundred dollars before 
the day of graduation. It is an old adage, 
" Well begun is half done." 

I feel confident that there is no Board of Di- 
rectors in the entire county of Chester who 
would knowingly rob our common schools of 
what they so urgently need — better teachers. 

Then by all means let us take the extra ap- 
propriation for that purpose. 

Very truly, Jos. S. Walton. 

Unionville, June 15th, 1887. 
Dear Sir : I have read your article on the 
subject of teachers' salaries and can say amen 
to all the ideas contained therein. An average 
of fifty of our good teachers leave the public 
schools in Chester county every year. Many 
of them go to other counties for better salaries. 
Some years ago I had the pleasure of visiting 
the County Institute at Potts ville, SchuylkiU 
county, and was surprised in looking over the 
register to find ninety-seven teachers' names re- 
corded who were receiving over $50 a month. 
Last year's report gives 116 teachers in that 
county receiving fix>m $50 to $100 a month, while 
in Chester county, outside of West Chester, only 
twelve teachers receive as much as ^50 a month. 
This should not be. Chester county is as able 
to pay her teachers as Schuylkill county. 
Very truly yoiu^, Jacob W. Harvet. 

Oberlin, O., June 15. 1887. 
Dear Sir : Your slip reached me here. I ap- 
prove heartily of your suggestion. Bucks county 
does not do as well as Chester by her teachers, 
and the result is that she is training teachers for 
other counties, using her own chil(h-en as mate- 
rial for teachers to experiment upon, so that they 
may acquire skill to teach in other counties 
where they pay more. Pay teachers better 
wages and at the same time require better work. 
Our present policy is economy without sagacity, 
and may well be called " penny wise and pound 
foolish." HeartQy, W.W.Woodruff, 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



as 



Editorial Department. 



THE SeHOOL JOURFALu 



LANCASTER, JULY, 1887. 



E. £. HIOBEE. 



J. P. MoCASKEY. 



M 



Ye may be aye stickin' in a tree. Jock ; it will 

be growin' when^'re sleeptn'." Scotch 



Farmer, 



WE have thus far attended the annual ex- 
aminations at Orphan Schools at Har- 
ford, Loysville, Mansfield, White Hall, 
Chester Springs, and Mercer, and every- 
where the S. O. schools have been found in 
excellent condition. The examinations were 
conducted in part by the County Superin- 
tendents of the several localities, who are 
especially skilled in this work, and these 
officers will make written report to the De- 
partment of the results in the different 
branches of study. At all the schools the 
advanced grades, seventh and eighth, were 
examined in the higher branches of mathe- 
matics and literature. There was at each 
of the schools a very creditable exhibition 
of industrial work, such as their arrange- 
ments permit. 

We have also had the pleasure of attend- 
ing the examinations at the State Normal 
Schools at Mansfield, West Chester and 
Shippensburg. These institutions all give 
evidence of improvement, both within and 
without. There are large bodies of students 
present, and the showing of the examina- 
tions everywhere indicates progress. At 
Mansfield especial attention is given to 
physical training, there being a voluntary 
''soldier company" of the students, which 
goes through the ordinary military evolu- 
tions, with skirmish drill and loading and 
firing, in a very satisfactory manner. The 
ladies here have their calisthenic drill, with 
an approved system of exercises, including 
many graceful and complicated movements 
performed to the rhythm of the music. 
The grounds at this school are beautifully 
laid out and planted, and kept in perfect 
order under the care of a professional Eng- 
lish gardener. The baccalaureate sermon 
was preached by the State Superintendent 
at Mansfield on Sunday, June 19th. 

The name of Supt. David B. Gildea, of 
Plymouth, Luzerne county, should have ap- 
peared on the list of newly-elected officers 
as published in our last issue. We shall re- 
publish the list, with salaries for the current 



term, as soon as these shall be definitely de- 
termined under the provisions of the law. 

Among the honorary degrees conferred at 
the recent Centennial of Franklin and Mar- 
shall College were the doctorate of laws 
upon the editor-in-chief of The School Jour- 
naly of divinity upon the editor of the liter- 
ary department, and of philosophy upon the 
junior editor. It has been a good-natured 
surprise to all of us. The honors are appre- 
ciated from this sterling old college, and are 
hereby gratefully acknowledged. With so 
many doctors in the house, and these of dif- 
ferent schools, the intellectual and spiritual 
well-being of The Journal should be care- 
fully looked after. 



RECENT LEGISLATION. 



THE school laws passed at the recent ses- 
sion of the Legislature, will be found at 
length in this number of The Journal^ and 
our readers will examine them for them- 
selves. They fall short of what had been 
hoped for by many of us, but in what was 
done there is reason for profound gratitude, 
and the School Department and the leaders 
of the educational work ever3rwhere through- 
out the State tender their earnest thanks, 
first to the law-making power, and again to 
the Chief Executive, for his approval of 
what the Legislature has seen fit to enact. 

The most important enactments cover the 
long- sought minimum school term of six 
months, and an addition of half a million 
dollars for each of the next two years to the 
annual State appropriation to the common 
schools. The influence of these two meas- 
ures should be felt upon our educational in- 
terests like a galvanic battery, arresting ret- 
rograde tendencies and giving an impulse 
to forward movement all over the State. 
The first of these laws insures an additional 
month of school training to at least two 
hundred and twenty-five thousand pupils — a 
consideration of immense importance, the 
more so since the last month of School should 
be the best of the term. 

The marked decrease in the average sala- 
ries of common school teachers, as shown in 
the last annual report of the Department of 
Public Instruction, was a humiliating sur- 
prise to the friends of our common schools 
generally, and no time should be lost in 
wiping out that reproach to the Old Key- 



PENNSYL VANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



stone. As additional funds have been fur- 
nished by the Legislature — let ns hope with 
that object in view — a halt should not only 
be called upon the descending rate of teach- 
ers' wages, but a positive and marked ad- 
vance should be made. In fact the additional 
half-million dollars should all be divided /r^; 
rata amongst the common school teachers of 
the State. It is urgently needed, and would 
do more good there tluui anywhere alse. It 
would invite a higher grade of qualifications, 
and put more life and energy and enthusiasm 
into the operations of the school, and we 
are glad to know that in some counties con- 
certed public efforts have been made to se- 
cure this application of the extra fund — 
notably in Chester county. This move- 
ment should not be local, but universal. 

The act authorizing and requiring the 
payment of teachers while in attendance at 
the annual session of the County Institute is 
a very proper one. The twenty-day law for- 
bids the time of the Institute to be reckoned 
and paid for as a part of any school month ; 
and as attendance during Institute week, 
when by law the schools are closed, is in the 
interest alike of the schools and the teach- 
ers, it is not only generous, but just, that 
teachers' be paid at the equitable rate here 
named. 

The consolidation of independent school 
districts in cities of the fourth, fifth and 
sixth classes — thus making the city a sin- 
gle school district, instead of longer per- 
mitting its division under two or more db- 
tinctly separate boards of direction or con- 
trol — b in the line of progress, as it tends 
to simplify and render uniform the adminis- 
tration of school affairs in cities of the sev- 
eral classes named. 

The act authorizing the holding of sepa- 
rate institutes in cities where the number of 
teachers employed b not less than seventy- 
five is in no sense mandatory. It leaves 
the holding of such institutes at the discre- 
tion of the local school authorities. 

The act prohibiting the employment of 
children under twelve years of age, to work 
in or about milb, manufactories or mines, 
should insure, in many localities, largely in- 
creased school attendance of children under 
the age named. Thb act, to be made prop- 
erly effective, should be supplemented by 
legblation requiring a careful school census 
under direction of the authorities of each 
school district in the Commonwealth, and 
providing for the appointment of Inspectors, 
whose duty it shall be to see that its provi- 
sions are not violated by employers. Thus 
fortified, and the law properly toforced, it 



wonld prove a vast boon to the children and 
result in great good to the State. The tak- 
ing of such census as b here suggested could 
be made a part of the duties of a district super- 
intendent; and the factory inspectors of the 
State of New Jersey, who have recently been 
in convention across the Delaware, would be 
good authority in the matter of proper in- 
spection laws. 

Some projected legblation failed which 
b of fundamental importance. The Dbtrict 
Superintendency b a matter of overshadow- 
ing and steadily-increasing importance, and 
its failure to be established at the late ses- 
sion b not in any sense a defeat, but merely 
a postponement. It passed the House of 
Representatives, but was not reported in the 
Senate. Thb failure, while a momentary dis- 
appointment, b no cause for dbcouragement. 
The schools are not for a day or a year, but 
for all time, and whatever is necessary to com- 
plete and strengthen the organization and 
operations of our common school system can- 
not drop out of sight or be abandoned perma- 
nently, but must come up again and again for 
consideration until ultimately and completely 
triumphant. It b the law of our school life, 
and will make itself felt in the face of oppo- 
sition or disbelief from any quarter or from 
any cause whatsoever. Like a ripe apple 
in the autumn, the Dbtrict Superintendency 
will fall from the Legislative tree, if shaken 
with energy, whenever public opinion is 
fairly ripe for that result. 

We had thought the bill to provide an 
office at the county seat for the Superinten- 
dent of each county would become a law 
without serious objection ; but, as we have 
been mbtaken, we appeal to the County 
Commissioners, wherever such office has not 
yet been provided, at once to furnish office 
room for the County Superintendent, of 
their own motion, in a spirit of progressive 
and commendable independence. These 
county school officers have as good a right 
to be provided with official head-quarters as 
any other county officers who are thus pro- 
vided for. Indeed, their claim is even 
stronger than that of certain other officers, 
inasmuch as they have to do with so large a 
number of people, and with a public inter- 
est of such commanding importance as to 
reach almost every home in the entire 
county. It will be for the public conve- 
nience vastly more than for that of the indi- 
vidual officer, as will be evident to all when 
the Education Office properly furnished 
and equipped shall be as well known at the 
county seat as is now that of Sheriff, Re- 
corder, Register, or Prothonotary. 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



a7 



FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL. 



CXKTENNIAL ANNIVSRSARY OF THE COLLEGE 

AT LANCASTER. 



IT is one hundred years since Benjamin 
Franklin came from Philadelphia by slow 
conveyance, in his old age, to lay the cor- 
ner-stone of Franklin College, and to make 
what in that early day was a liberal contri- 
bution towards its support. Had he left the 
Broad Street Station Friday, June 14th, 
with Dr. Wm. Pepper, provost of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania — ^another institution 
which he was mainly instrumental in found- 
ing — and come through to Lancaster in 
two hours ; greeted the strong men assem- 
bled for the great anniversary; seen the 
large audiences ; heard the music, worthy of 
the occasion, and the addresses by some of 
the ablest men whom the college has sent 
out from its halls, he would have recalled 
very pleasantly "the day of small things," 
and drawn his check for a handsome addi- 
tion to the endowment fund. 

Marshall College was founded at Mercers- 
burg in 1837, fifty years later than Franklin. 
It was united with Franklin in 1853, and 
' thus the united college celebrated both a 
^centennial and semi-centennial. The skies 
during the week were clear and bright, the 
alumni and visitors generally were enthusi- 
astic, the programmes of the successive days 
were admirably arranged, and the general 
interest manifested on the part of our citizens 
was at once unusual and most gratifying. 

Franklin College was incorporated by the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania on the loth of 
March, 1787, as " The German College and 
Charity School of the borough and county 
of Lancaster." At the same time the insti- 
tution was named Franklin College, " from 
a profound respect for the talent, virtues and 
services to mankind in general, but especially 
to this country, of His Excellency Benjamin 
Franklin, Esq., President of the Supreme 
Executive Council." Although older than 
Marshall by half a century, '' Franklin and 
Marshall" owes all of its theological and 
scholastic distinctiveness to the younger of 
the two institutions. The reasons for this 
will be apparent from a brief sketch of the 
history of Marshall College. It was founded 
in 1837, under a charter granted by the Leg- 
islature in 1836. Its beginning, however, 
was about 1830, as a high school at York in 
connection with the Reformed Theological 
Seminary, which had been removed to that 
place from Carlisle. Five years later, in 
i^35> the Synod of Chambersburg deter- 



mined to remove the Seminary and high 
school to Mercersburg, and the resolve to 
change the high school into a college was 
also a^[reed upon. A Board of Trustees, rep- 
resenting the Mercersburg, Zion, Maryland 
and Virginia Classes, was chosen, under 
whose direction the cause of the college was 
pushed with such vigor that the college build-: 
mg was erected in 1836. The first Presi- 
dent of Marshall College was the Rev. Dr. 
Frederick A. Ranch, a native of Germany, 
a graduate of the University of Marburg, 
who fied to this country in 1831, in conse- 
quence of incurring the displeasure of the 
government by the liberality of his political 
opinions. He settled at York, where he 
was ordained to the ministry in 1832. Upon 
the death of the Rev. Daniel Young in that 
year, Mr. Ranch succeeded him as principal 
of the high school, and so became the first 
president of Marshall College. Upon the 
death of Dr. Ranch in 1841, the Rev. Dr. 
John W. Nevin succeeded him and continued 
to direct the college until united with Frank- 
lin in 1853. ^^ ^^ ^o Presidents of Mer- 
cersburg College, Dr. Nevin was the abler 
and more original thinker. Both were very 
learned men and both theological and philo- 
sophical teachers who attained to great dis- 
tinction. The latter was, beyond question, 
the greatest teacher of his time in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Since the consolidation, Franklin and 
Marshall College has graduated 553 alumni, 
while Marshall turned out 192 graduates, 
making a total of 745. The majority of 
these are still living. The first graduate of 
Marshall College, and the only member of 
the class of 1837, was the Rev. Dr. J. H. A. 
Bomberger, now president of Ursinus Col- 
lege. At the head of the class of 1838 was 
Rev. Dr. £. V. Gerhart, the first president 
of Franklin and Marshall College, a position 
that he held until 1866, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Dr. Nevin, who thus became 
the second president of Franklin and Mar- 
shall, as he had been the second president 
of Marshall Colleg;e. At the head of the 
class of 1840, is the name of Jacob Heyser, 
of Chambersburg. Among the graduates in 
1842 were the Rev. Theodore Appel, and 
John Cessna, LL.D. Ex-Congressman J. 
W. Killinger was graduated in 1843, ^^* 
L. H. Steiner, of Baltimore, in 1846, and 
Rev. Dr. P. S. Davis, editor of \}cit Reformed 
Church Messenger^ in 1849. ^^ ^^ \itsA of 
the class of 1850 was the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
G. Apple, who succeeded Dr. Nevin as 
president of Franklin and Marshall College 
m 1876, and is still its president. 



fl8 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



The first day of the Centennial week was 
Sunday, June 12th. Dr. Thos. G. Apple, 
president of the college, preached the bac- 
calaureate sermon. Before proceeding to 
the discussion of the thoughts presented in 
the text chosen for the occasion, he spoke 
much as follows : 

The service upon which we this day enter, 
stands connected with an important epoch in 
the history of this college. It inaugurates the 
celebration of the centennial anniversary of the 
founding of Franklin and the semi-centennial of 
the founding of Marshall College, two institutions 
that were united and consolidated in 1853 under 
the name and title of Franklin and Marshall 
College. Such an epoch carries in it vast sig- 
nificance for the duties and responsibilities of 
the present hour. The events we commemorate 
in this centennial and semi-centennial anniver- 
sarv were of no ordinary character in their orig- 
inal inception, and still more is their significance 
increased for our contemplation by the history 
that has grown forth from them. The founding 
of Franklin College had for its design the pro- 
motion of hijp;her education among the German 
population of this commonwealth. Considering 
the character of the population of Pennsylvania 
at that time, composed larjg^elv of Germans who 
had Red from persecution in the Fatherland and 
their descendants, this event was fraught with the 
deepest interest and importance for the welfare 
of the State; and that this significance was recog- 
nized at the time is evident from the character of 
the men who took part in the founding of Frank- 
lin College. Benjamin Franklin was, we are 
told, in a sense its founder, aad made it a liberal 
contribution. Robert Morris, the financier of 
the American Revolution, contributed $600, and 
Benjamin Rush, the prince of physicians, was 
not only a libersd patron, but an active promo- 
ter of the enterprise. In the list of its trustees 
are the Hon. Thomas Mifflin, Hon. Thomas 
McKean, LL.D., Governors Snyder and Hiester, 
General Muhlenberg, Hon. Robert Morris, Hon. 
George Clymer, andmanv other eminent public 
men. In its faculty are the names of Dr. H. £. 
Muhlenberg, Dr. William Hendel and Rev. F. 
V. Melsheimer. \yhat the University of Pennsyl- 
vania was for the Eastern section, and the Eng- 
lish population, that Franklin College was to be 
for the mland section and the German population 
of the State. 

Of similar importance and significance was 
the founding of Marshall College, a half century 
later. It was not a mere college in the ordinary 
sense of the term that was founded at Mercers- 
burg, but an Anglo-German institution, adapted 
to the peculiar wants of the descendants of those 
early German citizens of Pennsylvania and their 
brethren throughout the country at large. This 
idea fully penetrated the men who labored and 
sacrificed in its founding, and the men who, in 
its early history, stood at its head as professors. 

And now, as we look back to-day upon the 
history of the past we feel that the responsibili- 
ties as well as the honors of the founding of 
these two institutions rest upon the present col- 



lege that combines their worthy names. 'Yht 
events we commemorate impose a responsibilitjr 
not only upon the churches, but upon the city 
within whose limits Franklin College was 
founded. Lancaster should feel honored in hav- 
ing been selected at that early day as the hoiae 
for a college. This fact should act as a stimute 
upon all her literary institutions, and make kr 
realize her ^at responsibility as one of the (i 
lege towns m our great Commonwealth. Las-^ 
caster county is renowned as the " Garden Spot 
of Pennsylvania ;*' let her value stiU more her 
character as the home of Pennsylvania's most 
vigorous college. 

On Monday evening the fifth annual ors- 
torical contest of the Junior class took 
place, the prize, a gold medal, being 
awarded to Mr. C. L. Bowman. 

At a meeting of the trustees on Tuesday, 
at which Hon. John Cessna presided, Di. 
Apple read the report of the Centennial 
Committee, and urged strongly the three 
objects which it is hoped to accomplisli 
during the present year — the founding of 
the Nevin memorial, the endowment of the 
presidency of the college and of an alumni 
professorship. Some |i 0,000 were finally 
reported. Among su^cribers to the fund 
were Mr. Jacob Bausroan, Lancaster, ^5,000; 
George F. Baer, Esq., Reading, 1 1,000; 
Dr. Wm. Pepper, 1 1,000, and others. 'Rs9\ 
C. U. Heilman made a report on the Mil- 
helm estate of 1900 acres in Somerset 
county, owned by the college, which it was 
reported could be sold for ^40,000, resenr- 
ing all mineral rights. 

On Tuesday evening a public meeting 
was held in the court house, Hon. John W. 
Killinger presiding. Addresses were made 
upon "Benjamin Franklin," the founder of 
Franklin College, by Dr. Wm. Pepper, of 
the University of Pennsylvania, and upon 
" Chief Justice John Marshall and His 
Work," for whom Marshall College was 
named, by Hon. R. W. Hughes, judge of 
the United States District Court, Norfolk, 
Va. We regret that lack of space prevents 
our making extended extracts from these 
carefully-prepared addresses. 

Governor Beaver, who was present upon 
the platform as the guest of the college an- 
thorities, was then loudly called upon. He 
said that he did not wish to spoil the keoi^ 
edge that had been put on the people's af 
petites by the gentlemen who had precedi 
him. He felt privileged, however, in stand- 
ing on the same platform where Pennsylva- 
nia and Virginia were so well represented. 
This was a most happy and auspicious occa- 
sion. He saw the inscription on the Col- 
lege, '^Lux et Lex," and regarded it as a 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT, 



29 



happy conjunction to represent the char- 
furter of the men who bad given their names 
to the institution. With such a college in 
our midst, there is no need of any citizen 
of Pennsylvania going out of the State for 
an education. 

The Alumni Association met on Monday 
at 10:30 a. m. and heard reports on the 
progress of the publication of a centennial 
volume and of a biography of Rev. Dr. John 
W. Nevin The alumni dinner was given at 
12:30, and about 1000 people partook of it. 
George F. Baer, Esq., of Reading, pre- 
sided. A huge tent had been erected near 
Harbaugh Hall, and in it long tables were 
spread. Immediately after the dinner a 
meeting was organized, when Rev. J. 
Spangler Kieffer, of Hagerstown Md., de- 
livered an address " On the Claims of the 
College on the Church." Addresses were 
also made by Hon. John Cessna, of Bed- 
ford; Traill Green, LL. D., of Lafayette 
College; Rev. J. Robert Nevin, of St. 
Paul's Church, Rome, Italy; Rev. Dr. Mc- 
Cauley, of Dickinson College, Carlisle: 
Rev. Dr. Seip, of Muhlenberg College, 
Allen town; Rev. Dr. J. A. Muhlenberg, 
Rev. D. Stanhope Orris, of Princeton, N. 
J. ; Rev. Dr. Philip SchaflF, of New York ; 
Rev. Thos. G. Apple and Marriott Brosius, 
of Lancaster. Letters of congratulation 
were read from the faculties of Heidelberg 
College, Ursinus College, Lehigh Univer- 
sity, Bucknell University, and many others. 

The court house was again crowded on 
Wednesday evening. Hon. Louis H. 
Steiner delivered the centennial oration on 
" The Old College Curriculum," expressing 
his disapprobation of the elective system of 
studies in colleges, and defining sharply the 
difference that exists between the college 
and the university, in the latter of which 
full provision must be made for all desir- 
able elective studies or courses. Rev. C. 
W. £. Siegle read the centennial and semi- 
centennial ode, ** Alma Mater." 

W. U. Hensel, esq., who was the leading 
spirit in the work of the week, both in its 
plan and execution, was introduced, and 
held his audience deeply interested for an 
hour, and that a late one, in his able dis- 
cussion of the subject, " The College and 
the Community." We take from the Lan- 
caster InielHgencer the following report in 
brief of his remarks : 

THE COLLEGE AND THE COMMUNrTY. 

He referred to the outgoing of himself and 
his classmates from the academic halls of the 
college as the real " commencement*' of life, in 
which was to be tested the temper of the 



weapons and the resistance of the annor forged 
here. He came back as one who had cherished 
with some fidelity the interests of the commu- 
nity, to speak of its relations with the college, 
their common interest, and their reciprocal obli- 
gations. The college claims nothing from the 
community that the community does not owe to 
itself. Memory lingers fondly over the hundred 
and fifty ye^rs of history that have left their im- 
press upon Lancaster's mstitutions. Its material 
prospenty has not kept uneven pace with its intel- 
lectual development. Ours is a goodly heritage. 
Our homogeneous citizenship is the fusion of 
diverse elements ; and it epitomizes the building 
of a mighty commonwealth. Of the strains of 
blood which moulded a race at once progressive 
and tenacious, substantial and refined, none is 
so largely represented in our citizenship as the 
German. Tne refugee from the Palatinate as 
surely as the pilgrim from Plymouth brought 
with him the instinct of that sacred dignity of 
character which was to shape our destiny as a 
people. Not more certainly did the intellectual 
life of New England receive its impulse from 
the clergy than that in Pennsylvania — whether 
among tne Germans or the so-called "Scotch 
Irish ' the preacher was the teacher, and the 
school-house went up by the side of the church. 
The college has historical, economical and 
ethical claims upon the community, and one of 
the first of these is gratitude to it for continuing, 
through the succession of a hundred years, that 
religious impulse which first quickened all our 
educational forces. 

To the founders who recognized the worth of 
the large German element is due a debt of grab* 
itude; and here, most of all, where Lutheran, 
Reformed, Mennonite, and all the many ele- 
ments of German immigration meet ; from this 
community, where the Teutonic spirit is so rife, 
there ought to be quick recognition of the effort 
to transplant the genius of mat mighty empire 
which has just set above the Rhine the sign 
that its sovereignty has endured for a thousand 
years. 

Lancaster owes something of personal obli- 
gation to the colossal figures of an adolescent 
commonwealth who selected it for a seat of 
learning and patronized it with their favor and 
bounty. In a later day those who have bur- 
nished the fame of the city with their civic lus- 
tre were patrons of liberal culture. Pennsylva- 
nia's only representative in the presidential line 
sat for many years at the head of the board of 
direction ot Franklin and Marshall College. 
That Titan of our politics who trod where timid 
souls faltered, in his magnificent battie against 
conservatism and prejudice, spake memorable 
words for the organic union of the higher and 
lower branches of education, "mutually de- 
pendent and necessary " as the ocean and the 
streams of supply. The church, schools and 
academies, of which the college was the crown, 
were the forerunners of the vast popular system 
which now marshals 30,000 pupus unaer its 
banners in this county, and to its development 
tiie community owes hberal support of an insti- 
tution which should be the head of the whole 
scheme. 



30 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



(July, 



Passine to a consideration of the economic 
claims of the college, Che speaker called atten- 
tion to the fact that of the large endowment and 
valuable property employed in its work three- 
fourths at least were contributed by outside 
gatrons. Its noblest benefactions had come 
om strangers to our city and county; and 
surely if the removal hither or the establishment 
of a material concern providing Employment 
and disbursing wages for nearly a hunored fam- 
ilies would command the attention of the most 
sordid mercantile spirit, the attraction hither of 
students from distant regions and the opening 
of the city to new relations was a fit subject for 
attention. The influences that must flow from 
a seat of higher learning are felt in every chan- 
nel of trade, and contribute to the material wel- 
fare of the city. 

Mr. Hensel said he would make no apology 
for the " uses '* of the higher learning. It is met 
again and again with the taunt, " What has the 
college done for you to enable you to earn your 
bread and butter ? *' The answer is to be found 
in its higher ethical claims upon the community 
for allegiance and support. Nothing is of more 
immediate and vital concern to the community 
than that the leaders of its thought should be 
educated to ri^ht views of life. Our country 
has suffered gnevouslv, and the ill results yet to 
follow are immeasurable, from false systems of 
education that aim at a selfish utilitarianism and 
ensue in a shallow and superficial view of public 
Questions. Our material prosperity has been so 
aazzling diat we measure everything by it. Yet 
the human mind and soul have not changed, 
that men should talk so blithely of the new ed- 
ucation and the new religion, and so readily 
adjust them to the telephone, the electric light 
and die naval torpedo. The message of the 
nineteenth century, it has been well said, 
should be a warning against the spirit of mer- 
cantilism which has fastened upon our Ameri- 
can life, invading our legislative halls, checking 
and chilling the spirit ot our literature, measur- 
ing and weighing our art, clouding our religion, 
and in the end olighting the material interests 
themselves. Even these must suffer when a 
rank empiricism takes hold of our legislation 
and inspires our public representatives. 

Until men are taught that there is a higher life 
than the success which succeeds, than building 
railroads, extending domain, heaping riches, or 
winning bread, the best interests of tne commu- 
nity are not served, and the highest destiny of 
a nation never will be realized. 

With the most extensive domain, the greatest 
affluence of resources and production, graphic 
and eloquent writers have startled even this 
exultant people with forceful depiction of the 
fact that the tramp goes with the locomotive and 
the malefactor lurks in the' shadow of the 
church. For our social ills and disorders the 
college has no patent panacea. But it knows 
and teaches that if the American people delib- 
erately set themselves to teaching tneir children 
that a good life is only to make " a good living ;" 
to sharpening the mind to get advantage in ac- 
quiring property and wealth, they will be edu- 
cated to be what Hobbes calls " fighting ani- 



mals,*' omnes contra omnes, each with a knife 
for the other's throat . 

The only remedy for this lies in a reversal q£ 
the current order of thought and educatioii. 
The cultivation of the mind for its own sake, the 
elevation of the morad and spiritual nature, is the 
only safe protection for any people. The dai- 
ger comes not from the "ignorant masses." 
neither from illiteracy and pauperism ; but ftok . 
loose teaching and false thinking. It is Mt 
an impoitation, but a native American product. 

"Every great and commanding movement 
in the annals of the world," says Emerson, " is 
the triumph of some enthusiasm." There will 
be no rehef until there comes recognition of 
" the moral trusteeship '* of wealth. Harvard, 
at its two hundred and fiftieth anniversary, 
through its orator, spoke with no uncertain 
sound when it demanded " the training that win 
fit the rich to be trusted with riches and the poor 
to withstand the temptation of poverty ; ** and 
yet the genius of New England is a keen- 
scented, practical, progressive genius, which has 
made the world listen to the ring of Yankee 
metal in everv field where "practical" talents 
have strugglea for mastery. 

For the student who studies in the classic 
spirit, and who goes forth equipped for life's 
battle, every hero has fought, everv martyr died, 
every poet sung, and all apostles preached. 
Liberally-Cultured men by their very education 
have a call to be public men — leaders in the 
interests of the people of the nation ; the sphere 
of such public duty and activity reaches odt 
from selfish individual interest to the general 
interests of the community, and from that to the 
broader interests of state and nation. 

The generations have for centuries re-echoed 
Pilate's inquiry, " What is Truth ? " But there 
is no answer save that which He spoke to the 
world educating itself for strife and spoils : " I 
am the Way, the Truth and the Life ; *' " Who- 
so loseth his life shall find it." 

Volume of books alone is not literature ; a 
single issue of a Sunday newspaper nowadays, 
it has been said, consumes more paper than all 
the printing presses of the world from the days 
of Guttenl^x^ to the French revolution. 

Plato studied without an electric light, De- 
mosthenes never reduced his orations with the 
type-writer, Caesar's commentaries did not seU 
as well as Grant's, and Tacitus had more diffi- 
culty in eetting a publisher than Logan ; Ten- 
nyson's last and worst cost more for trans-At- 
lantic transmission than Milton got for " Para- 
dise Lost." 

Nor is popularity everything. The crowd still 
calls for Barabbas, not to lynch him, but to send 
him to Uie Legislature. And "riches are not 
forever." Nor size. Texas has ten times the 
area of old Greece. The battle is not always 
to the strong. 

*' God's ways are dark, but soon or late. 
They touch the shining hills of day." 

We have " the safe appeal of Truth to Time." 
Beneath all our material civilization — ^here« as 
nowhere else, exemplified in fertile farms and 
teeming fields, mills and mines — somewhere, 
only hidden for the time, waits the classic 



18870 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



31 



Christian soul of the higher civilization that 
shall come back to adorn the cathedral of 
American culture with a radiance not bom of 
earth, and to light it with a beauty that conies 
only down from heaven. 

Thursday was graduation day, and the 
exercises of the week closed on Thursday 
evening with a reception, concert, and 
pyrotechnic display at the College. The 
scene on the campus — its buildings and its 
numerous and beautiful trees illuminated 
with Chinese lanterns— with all the moving 
life of thousands of admiring visitors, was 
one not soon to be forgotten, and a fitting 
close to the memorable week of rejoicing. 



THE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 



HIGHER EDUCATION FOR WOMEN SECURED — 
TEACHING AS A PROFESSION, ETC. 



THE advanced position of those intelli- 
gent and estimable people, the Friends, 
with regard to the co-education of the sexes 
and the higher education of women, is well 
understood ; but they do not stand alone, 
and when President Magill proposed to the 
educational public of Pennsylvania a liberal 
education for female teachers and the ele- 
vation of the teaching art to the level of a 
profession, he did not seem to understand that 
he was but "carrying coals to Newcastle." 
He was just thirty years behind the times in 
this incipient missionary effort. 

Under the provisions of our State Normal 
School law, approved May 20th, 1857, the 
students on the public account in those 
schools were required to be male and female 
alternately, and these Normal Schools opened 
up from the start a broader field and higher 
opportunities for the thorough and efficient 
education of young ladies than 'had ever 
before been offered to the mass of the gen- 
tler sex in the old Keystone outside of the 
select private seminaries that only the favor- 
ites of fortune could patronize; enhanced 
at the same time by the certainty of their 
being able to make that education con- 
tributory to their own support to an extent 
that had not generally been the case except 
in limited portions of the State. From the 
very first, under this double stimulus, our 
Normal Schools, as fast as officially recog- 
nized, swarmed with ambitious and talented 
female students who sought the liberal cul- 
ture and thorough training of these high 
State institutions, and speedily proved their 
ability to fully cope with their brother stu- 
dents in the highest range of studies avail- 
able for their benefit; and so it has con- 



tinued ever since, with ever-increasing in- 
fluence for good. 

Before the Normal School law was enacted 
there were but 4630 female teachers in the 
common schools, against 7844 male teachers. 
Now there are 14,508 female teachers em- 
ployed and we have only 8, 795 male teachers. 
The mental stimulus and training and thor- 
ough discipline they thus received redounded 
in a double sense to the credit and direct 
advantage of the Commonwealth, whether 
they swayed the sceptre of their enlightened 
and refining influence in the school-room or 
in the domestic circle ; for it is the general 
rule and not the exception, that the better 
the teacher the better the wife and mother; 
and the Commonwealth is thus doubly re* 
warded for its liberal and sagacious edu- 
cational policy. 

What was the official testimony on these 
points at that date? Turning to State Su- 
perintendent Hickok's report for the school 
year 1857, the first annual report issued 
after the Normal School bill became a law, 
we find the following suggestive paragraphs: 

"Provision is made for the admission of 
teachers in the common schools, and an oppor- 
tunity afforded them to obtain State certificates, 
if found to be worthy of them. The admission 
of private students, as well as those on public 
account, is also regulated. The requirement 
that the students sent by each common school 
district on public account, shall be alternately 
male and female, secures an equal proportion 
of female teachers, and to the gentler as well as 
the sterner sex equal and full participation in 
all the advantages of these State institutions of 
learning. The reciprocal influence of the sexes, 
when associated in tne same schools and classes, 
is felt in the soirit of manly courtesy and self- 
respect inspirea in young gentlemen by the 
dignity ana delicacy, the refinement and moral 
purity of the opposite sex; and the mental 
stimulus and higher intellectual ambition im- 
parted to young ladies." 

" The tendency and aim in Pennsylvania is 
to make teaching an independent and honor- 
able profession, that shall take equal rank with 
other learned professions. The Normal School 
act, by the course and duration of the term of 
study, the probation to which its professional 
graduates are subjected, and its bvo classes of 
State certificates, recognizes this object, and 
will tend to secure this result. The distinction 
between the acquisition of knowledge and the 
ability to impart it to others, is carefully pre- 
served by requiring not only a theoretical 
knowledge of tne art of teaching, and practice 
in the model school, but two full annual terms 
of successful teaching in the common schools 
before the teacher's full State certificate, or 
diploma, can be obtained ; and then only as a 
reward of merit, and not from favoritism in any 
quarter. No other profession is subjected to more 
severe ordeal« or to more unrelenting scrutiny." 



32 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



Our Normal School law, and the practice 
under it, has helped immensely to lift the 
vocation of common school teacher into the 
respect and confidence of the public at large, 
which it had never before enjoyed, and 
established a high professional standard to 
work up to, and reach ; though of course 
the holders of provisional certificates, espe- 
cially if of a low grade, do not, and ought 
not to rank as professional teachers. Yet 
there are thousands who have by arduous 
and self- sacrificing efforts rightfully attained 
*this honorable rank. The law was judi- 
ciously and generously so framed as to in-^ 
vite and help all who aspire to success and 
standing in the profession. That the Nor- 
mal Schools did not realize at once, the full 
ultimate ideal of the law, is their misfortune, 
not their fault. The colossal requirements of 
the act, and the precarious sources of income, 
were prodigious difficulties to be overcome ; 
and under all the adverse circumstances, the 
real wonder is that they have done so much 
and so well. They are entitled to vastly more 
credit than is conceded to them in some 
interested quarters. Their mission is a 
specific one, and they have not only had to 
train teachers for the common schools, but 
also the larger incidental but inevitable 
duty of helping to educate public sentiment 
to the high standpoint that the law con- 
templates; and this cannot be done by 
spasmodic or sensational efforts, nor in a 
single decade or generation; like every- 
thing else in our common school develop- 
ment, it is an arduous task and slow, and 
time is a factor of immense importance in 
the solution of the problem. 

Our massive Normal School system was 
planned for the next five hundred years, 
rather than the mere period of its enact- 
ment; and under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, with the undeniable success of 
the past, and the best efforts of the present, 
we must continue to look to the future for 
its highest development, and largest measure 
of results. When Pennsylvania shall have 
quadrupled her present population and re- 
sources, some things can and will be done 
that are not practicable now, and the most 
exacting standard of excellence that its 
friends desire and its enemies demand will 
be fully realized. The ph)rsical require- 
ments of the law will be found to be too 
restricted for the uses that will be found for 
these schools, and some of its dormant 
features not yet brought into play, will 
bloom into activity and fruitfulness. What 
this generation is doing under our laws for 
popular education would have been regarded 



fifty years ago as the work of fanatics and 
cranks, that should be checkmated and sup- 
pressed at all hazards. 

But between those who would block the 
wheels of progress and those who denounce 
the progress made as tardiness itself, Penn- 
sylvania has steadfastly kept on the even 
tenor of her way, with tortoise deliberation, 
it is true, but with a steadfast and proverbial 
persistency of purpose that does not look 
back and never gives up; until at last the 
goal of her highest hopes is in plain sight, 
and in due time will undoubtedly be reached. 
In some important particulars she has been 
an exemplar and pioneer for other States, 
and she has no idea at this late day of ''going 
back" on her record, or taking a secondary 
place in the great work she long ago set out 
to accomplish. 



NOTES FOR HISTORY CLASS.— X. 



A MISTAKE, which historians are begin- 
ning to correct, but which still forms a 
grave defect in our school histories, is to 
regard history too exclusively from a govern- 
mental point of view. The great mass of 
the volumes which profess to give the 
stories of the rise and fortunes of nations 
are, in reality, little more than the histories 
of dynasties. The scene of the story is the 
court or the camp ; the actors are kings and 
nobles, with occasionally a refractory com- 
moner who has headed a rebellion. If we 
wish to learn anything of the progress of the 
arts, or of literature, or of the sciences, we 
must seek for it in works specially devoted 
to these subjects. 

A few centuries ago the historian found, 
indeed, little else to write about than these 
exciting themes. The lives of the common 
people were uneventful, except in times of 
war; their customs and habits — interest- 
ing as a survey of them would be to u»— 
seemed beneath the notice of the historian, 
and, indeed, altered but little from genera- 
ation to generation. But the past three 
centuries have brought about a great change 
in this respect. The common people, the 
governed class, has, in the enlightened na- 
tions, been struggling to the surface, and 
can no longer be left out of the account in 
considering the causes of a nation's prosper- 
ity. The advance of the arts and sciences, 
even of the art of government, has pro- 
ceeded, as a rule, from the middle and 
lower classes, and the ruling class no longer 
has a claim to monopolize the attention of 
an histonan. 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT, 



33 



A school text-book of history must neces- 
sarily be a small work. It can form but a 
mere introduction to a really inexhaustible 
subject. But there is no good reason why 
it should not cover the entire field which 
properly belongs to historjr. It should be 
something more than a political and military 
history; its prominent characters should not 
all be statesmen or generals, nor its dates 
mainly those of battles and treaties. A 
school history of the United States, written 
as we would like to see it written, would 
differ in many important particulars from 
those in common use. The story of our 
country from its settlement to the present 
time contains, like that of every other 
modem nation, an exceedingly varied and 
intricate plot. That which has made us the 
populous and flourishing nation that we are 
is not solely our form of government. This 
has been the shield imder which we have 
worked, and we have been fortunate in hav- 
ing found wise and able men to erect -and 
sustain it for us; those who formed our con- 
stitution, those who have held public office 
und^r it, and those who at a time of imminent 
peril led the armies that preserved it, are all 
deserving of the honorable place that has 
been accorded them in history. But we do 
wrong to teach our children by implication, 
that because these men were conspicuous 
from their position in public life, they are 
the only men who have done the country 
real and enduring service. While these 
men have been acting as a national police, 
having an oversight over the genersd wel- 
fare, private enterprise, enlisting in its ser- 
vice men of no less ability, has developed 
the resources of the country, has cleared 
away its forests, opened its mines, con- 
structed canals, erected founderies, machine 
shops, and cotton mills, and has netted the 
land from end to end with thousands of 
miles of railroads and telegraphs. 

Matters of this sort are, it is true, not 
wholly ignored in the school-book; but they 
are given, as it were, in a comer — the light 
scarcely falls upon them. Thus, a book 
before us disposes of the steamboat with six 
lines and a picture, while three lines suffice 
to notice the completion of the Erie Canal 
and the introduction of the locomotive into 
the country. A child may study in school 
the history of the United States, and not 
know, unless he learns the fiEu:t by accident, 
that coal has not been used for fuel in Penn- 
sylvania from the days of William Penn. 

To obtain a due amount of space in the 
text-book for industrial history, the political 
history must be abridged; but this can 



readily be done by judicious pruning. The 
colonial history need not and should not 
occupy so much space as is usually assigned 
to it. A brief sketch of the story of the 
settlement of the country, and of the for- 
tunes of the several colonies, in which shall 
be given only the most important events 
and the leading dates, is not only all that is 
essential as an introduction to the history of 
the United States proper, but if skillfully 
drawn, will give the pupil a much better 
grasp on the character of this period than 
he can possibly obtain through the dry com- 
pilation of facts and dates which is usually 
spread before him. The war of the Revo- 
lution was an event of the first importance, 
and its course was marked by thrilling inci- 
dents; the story of it affords interesting 
and instructive reading; but it must not be 
allowed to occupy, as now, a fourth part of 
the volume. We have space only to deal 
with its causes, its genersJ features, and its 
results. We must leave the details of its 
campaigns and battles to be sought in books 
of a more pretentious character, which are 
generally accessible. The formation of the 
Constitution marks another important crisis 
in the country's history. The subject should 
be treated with sufficient fulness to give the 
student a clear idea of the difficulties which 
our forefathers met and surmounted in the 
conflict of opposing interests, and to enable 
him to judge of the real merit of their 
work. The govemment once formed, its 
adminbtration may be passed over lightly, 
with exceptional instances in which the 
policy of the Presidents was followed by im- 
portant consequences. 

We have had our military experiences — 
Indian wars, the war with England, the 
Mexican war, and the great Rebellion. 
These should be narrated, not as involving^ 
so many battles, which made peculiar localr 
ities historic, and gave prominence to cer- 
tain generals, but as deplorable events which 
grew out of certain antecedent conditions, 
and which affected very materially the for- 
tunes of the country. They should be 
treated with as much economy of space as is 
consistent with a clear understanding of 
their character. 

By this sort of condensation, which* is 
very different from mere compression, space 
may be obtained for treating with much 
greater fulness than has been done the sub- 
ject of intemal improvements, the growth 
and spread of the population of the country, 
and the change gradually brought about in 
the condition and the habits of the people 
through the introduction of machinery to 



34 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[J"LV, 



take the place of manual labor. Further- 
more, the founding of institutions of learn- 
ing, the gradual growth of our system of free 
schools, the rise of great corporations, every- 
thing which forms a noticeable feature of our 
national life, should receive due considera- 
tion, even in a work which aims only to 
give an outline of our history, if that outline 
is to be complete. 

The century which has elapsed since the 
adoption of the Constitution, has been one 
of great progress in those arts and sciences 
which affect us the most directly in our 
every-day life. This progress has, to be 
sure, not been confined to the American 
continent, but has been common to all the 
civilized nations. We in the United States 
have, however, not been mere copyists of 



the improvements effected by others, but 
have contributed our full share of the in- 
ventive genius and of the skill and energy 
which have been productive of so many 
marvellous changes. Steam was first suc- 
cessfully employed in navigation on Ameri- 
can waters. The electric telegraph, the power 
printing-press, the mower and reaper, the 
sewing-machine, the type-writer, are among 
the American inventions which illustrate the 
share which we have had in this work of in- 
dustrial advancement. We have a right to 
view with complacency these and similar 
achievements, which have contributed so 
largely to human happiness. Certainly 
they deserve to stand in history on at least 
an equal footing with the achievements of 
statesmen and warriors. 



♦ » » 



Official Department. 



Department of Public Instruction, ) 
Harrisburg, July, 1887. j 

THE following are the Trustees of the several 
State Normal School districts for the ensuing 
term, appointed on behalf of the State : 

I. West Chester, — Messrs. Isaac Johnson and 
Horace A. Beale. 

II. Millersville. — Hon. J. B. Warfel and Jacob 
Bausman. 

III. Ktitztown, — Messrs. Thos. D. Fister and 
George G. Kurtz. 

V. Mansfield. — Dr. C. V. Elliott and Major 
George W. Merrick. 

VI. Bloomsburg, — Hon. C. R. Buckalewand 
C. G. Barkley. 

VII. Shippenshurg. — Messrs. Geoige H. Stew- 
art and James E. McLean. 

VIII. Lods Haven, — Hon. Chas*. Mayer and 
Rev. Joseph Nesbit. 

IX. Indiana, — Messrs. A. W. Kimmell and 
A. P. Kirtland. 

X. California, — Hon. J. K. Billingsley and 
Dr. G. W. Neff. 

XII. Edinhoro, — Messrs. John McClenathan 
and H. Lewis. 

XIII. Clarion, — Dr. J. F. Ross and Mr. Jo- 
seph H. Patrick. 



LEGISLATION OF THE SESSION. 



six months school term. 

The following is the text of the act passed 
at the recent session of the Legislature to extend 
the minimum school term to six months : 

Section i. Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority 
of the same, That the minimum school term 
shall be six months, and after the close of the 
school year ending on the first Monday in June, 



one thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven, 
School Directors or Controllers shsdl keep the 
schools of their respective Districts in operation 
at least six months each year. 

Provided^ That the length of the annual 
term may remain as at present in Districts 
where the maximum amount of tax allowed by 
law to be levied for school purposes shall be 
found insufficient to keep the schools open a 
greater length of time. 

Approved May 19, 1887. 

James A. Beaver. 

paying teachers at institutes. 



An Act authorizing and requiring Boards of 
School Directors and Controllers to pay the 
teachers employed in the public schools of the 
several districts for attendance upon the ses- 
sions of the annual County Institutes in their 
respective counties : 

Sec. I, Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of me Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and 
it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, 
that all Boards of School Directors and Boards 
of Controllers shall be and are hereby author- 
ized and required to pay the teachers employed 
in the public schools of the several districts 
within tneir jurisdiction for attendance upon the 
sessions of the annual county institutes in their 
respective counties. 

Sec, 2, Compensation for institute attendance 
shall be based on the official reports made to 
the several boards of directors or controllers by 
the proper county, city or borough superintend- 
ent, who shall report the daily attendance of 
teachers to the respective boards by which they 
are employed, and such compensation shall be 
allowed by the directors or controllers and paid 
by the district treasurer to the teachers entided 
to receive the same. 



1887.] 



OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



35 



Sec, S' Compensation as herein authorized 
shall not be less than the per diem pay for actual 
teaching ; provided, that it shall not in anv case 
exceed two dx^^sa^ per diem ^ and shall be al- 
lowed and paid to tne teachers in their respect- 
ive districts for each day*s attendance reported 
as aforesaid by the proper superintendent ; and 
provided further, that a common school month 
shall consist of twenty days' actual teaching as 
now required by law. 

Approved: The 13th day of April, A. D. 1887. 

James A. Beaver. 

CONSOLIDATION OF DISTRICTS IN CITIES. 



An Act relating to school districts in cities of 

the fourth, fiiUi, sixth, and seventh classes in 

this Commonwealth : 

Sec, 7. Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it 
is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, 
that each city of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and 
seventh classes in this Commonwealth shall 
constitute one school district to be termed the 

school district of , and all the school 

property therein shall be the common property 
of said district. 

Sec, 2, Every city of the fourth, fifth, sixth, 
and seventh classes hereby constituted one 
school district, wherein have existed two or 
more school districts, the directors of the sep- 
arate districts for the time being shall organize 
into one school board, and conduct the business 
of the consolidated district until the election and 
qualification of the first board of city school con- 
trollers or directors. 

Sec, J, In providing for the indebtness of any 
of the separate districts so consolidated in cities 
of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh classes, 
the board of school controllers or directors shall 
adjust the annual tax levy upon the valuation 
of the several districts in such manner that 
each district shall fully pay and liquidate its 
own proper liabilities. 

Sec, 4, All school taxes heretofore levied by 
the school authorities of any such city district 
acting for the time being or by the school 
boards of the separate districts aforesaid, shall 
be collected by tne respective city school districts 
with the same force and effect as if the same 
had been levied after the passage of this act, and 
shall be applied to the purposes foi: which the 
same were levied. 

Approved: The 28th day of May, A. D. 1887. 

James A. Beaver. 



SEPARATE CITY AND BOROUGH INSTITUTES. 



An Act amending an act entitled "A further 
supplement to an act for the regulation and 
continuance of a system of education by com- 
mon schools," approved April 9th, A. D. 
1867, authorizing cities and boroughs which 
have elected superintendents and employ no 
less than seventy-five teachers to hold sepa- 
rate teachers' institutes : 
Sec, I, Be it enacted by the Senate and House 

of Representatives of &e Commonwealth of 



Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it 
is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, 
That section nine of an act entitled "A further 
supplement to an act for the reg[ulation and 
continuance of a system of education by com- 
mon schools," approved April 9th, 1867, which 
provides as follows, namely, "That from and 
after the appointment of a city or borough su- 
perintendent in any city or borough of this 
Commonwealth, and the proper notification of 
the Superintendent of the Common Schools of 
the fact, such city or borough shall not be sub- 
ject to the authority and jurisdiction of the 
county superintendent of the county in which 
said city or borough is located, except that in 
thematter of holding annual teachers institutes 
as provided in sections two, three, four, and 
five of this act, in which the city or borough 
superintendent shall co-operate, and the quota 
of the annual state appropriation to said city or 
borough shall not be diminished by reason of 
any contribution to the salaries of county super- 
intendents, nor shall the directors of such city 
or borough vote at any election for county su- 
perintenoent,** be amended so as to read as 
follows, namely, 

^*Sec, g. That from and after the appointment 
of a city or borough superintendent m any city 
or borough in this Commonwealth, and the 
proper notification of the Superintendent of 
Common Schools of the fact, such city or bor- 
ough shall not be subject to the authority and 
junsdiction of the county superintendent of the 
county in which said city or borough is located, 
except that in the matter of holding the annual 
teachers* institutes, as provided by sections sec- 
ond, third, fourth, and fifth of this act, in which 
the city or borough superintendent shall co- 
operate, and the quota of the annual state ap- 
propriation to said city or borough shall not oe 
diminished by reason of any contribution to the 
salaries of county superintendents, nor shall the 
directors of such city or borough vote at any 
election for county superintendent ; Providea, 
That it shall be lawful for the board of school 
directors or controllers of any city or borough 
which has elected a superintendent, and employs 
not less than seventy-five teachers, by resolu- 
tion at any stated meeting, and duly recorded, 
to authorize the holding of a separate annual 
teachers' institute for said city or borough, and 
in all matters pertaining to the holding of insti- 
tute's shall be in no wise subject to the authority 
and jurisdiction of the superintendent of the 
schools of the county in which said city or bor- 
ough is located ; and, when the holdinc^ of said 
separate annual institute shall have been so 
authorized as aforesaid, the superintendent of 
the schools of said city or borough shall have 
power to call a teachers' institute, and to draw 
from the county treasury moneys for the sup- 
port of the same in like manner and to the same 
extent as the county superintendents of this 
commonwealth are now empowered to do, and 
die said annual institute shall have power to 
elect a committee on permanent certificates in 
and for said city or borough as county institutes 
are now empowered to do for their respective 
counties.*' 



36 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



Sec, 2, All acts or parts of acts inconsistent 

herewith be and the same are hereby repealed. 

Approved: The 24th day of May, A. D. 1887. 

James A. Beaver. 

CHILDREN UNDER AGS OF TWELVE YEARS. 



An Act to prohibit the employment of any 
child under the age of twelve years by any 
person, persons, firms, companies, associa- 
tions, or corporations, to do any work in any 
mill, manufactory, or mine, or any work 
pertaining thereto : 

Sec, 7. Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it 
is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, 
that it shall be unlawful for any person, persons, 
firms, companies, associations, or corporations, 
to employ any child under the age of twelve 
years to do any work in or about any mill, 
manufactory, or mine, in this Commonwealth. 
Sec. 2, That any person, persons, or corpora- 
tions who may violate this act shall, on convic- 
tion, pay a fine not less than twenty dollars nor 
more than one hundred dollars at the discretion 
of the court. Said fines arising fi'om the viola- 
tion of this act shall be paid to the treasury of 
the proper county where said violation shsdl 
occur. 
Approved: The ist day of June, A. D. 1887. 

James A. Beaver. 

The General Appropriation bill, which con- 
tains the item of 11,500,000 annually for the 
Public Schools during the next two years, was 
signed by the Governor on June 12th. 



-♦— 



ITEMS FROM REPORTS. 



Allegheny. — Supt. Hamilton : Harman 
township has built two excellent school-houses 
this year; one is already occupied. It is a 
handsome two-story brick building, with two 
main rooms, adjoining class room, directors* 
room, library, and suitable cloak-rooms. It is 
furnished with all the modem improvements, 
and is, perhaps, the most complete edifice of 
its size m this section of the State. The bor- 
oughs of Knoxville, Millvale, Sewickley, Tar- 
entum, and Chartiers have added vocal music 
to their course of study, and excellent results 
are crowning the efforts of bodi teachers and 
pupils. Tarentum and MiUvale have taken 
the initiatory step toward establishing a public 
school library. 

Berks. — Supt. Keck : Lower Heidelberg has 
now ten new school-houses, all properly fur- 
nished, and Robeson has fourteen such build, 
ings. The Fleetwood Board bought a new 
Tellurian for the High School. The attendance 
of the Bemville schools is remarkably good. 
The percentage of attendance for the term in 
the secondary grade at the end of the sixth 
month is 100. The Birdsboro Board purchased 
four of White's Physiological Manikins for the 
use of the schools. The Boyertown Board will 
build a very fine school-house this summer. 



The Hamburg high school turned out its first 
graduating class this year, numbering twelve. 
The commencement exercises were very credit- 
able. 

Cambria. — Supt. Strayer : Our schools have 
closed a successful term. Many teachers re- 
port interesting closing exercises. A number 
of districts have already made preparations to 
build new houses and improve tne school prop- 
erty. The county has made commendable pro- 
gress in building and furnishing houses durine 
Uie past year. Our leading teachers have weu 
sustained the Reading Circles and Local Insti- 
tutes organized at the opening of the term. 
From the reading of educational books and 
periodicals they are beginning to see that they 
can improve the standard of their teaching. 

Centre. — Supt. Wolf: At 'the recent com- 
mencement of the Bellefonte high school six 
graduates received diplomas, llie annual ad- 
dress was delivered by Prof. B. F. Shaub, Ph. 
D., and the presentation of diplomas with a 
suitable address by D. F. Fortney, £s<^.. Presi- 
dent of the Board. The closing exammations 
of the Philipsburg high school were invested 
with more than ordinary interest, because of the 
prizes offered by Mr. Cassanova, a public-spirited 
citizen of the borough. The prizes were two ten- 
dollar gold pieces— one for ^e best male and the 
other for the best female pupil in the school. 

Chester. — Supt. Harvey: Tredyffrin has 
lately finished an excellent house near Paoli. It 
has all the new improvements, including slate 
blackboards. I think we have elected more 
first-class school men directors this year than 
ever before, and we are building a much better 
class of school-houses. My official work in the 
schools is now brought to a close. To say that 
I am sorry to bid farewell to so many teachers 
and children whom I love so dearly is stating it 
very mildly. I have reason to think that they 
are as warmly attached to me as I to them. 
There are three or four districts in the county 
in which there is not proper interest taken in 
the schools. I have tried to show them the 
mat advantage arisii\g from excellent schools, 
but without accomplishing my purpose. 

Clinton. — Supt. McCloskey : The schools in 
general have been doing better work than here- 
tofore. The Local Institutes held in different 
parts of the county were well attended. Teach- 
ers, directors, and others took an active part 
Quite a number of schools were furnished with 
globes, maps, charts, patent furniture, etc., this 
year. 

Erie — Supt. Morrison : Arbor Day was duly 
observed in many school districts by setting trees 
and shrubs. 

Juniata. — Supt, Auman : It is evident that 
there is a desire in our county for better schools. 
Many of our teachers are attending the Mifflin- 
town and Tuscarora Academies, whilst others 
are in attendance elsewhere. Teachers observe 
that they must improve in order to meet the 
growing difficulty of procuring schools. 

Luzerne — Supt. Coughlin : An interesting ed- 
ucational meeting was held at Conyngham. The 
children from the various schools took part in 
the exercises. The teachers discussed plans and 



IS870 



OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



37 



methods of teaching, and stirring addresses were 
made by the Secretary of the Board, by private 
citizens, and others. It was the most practical 
Institute of the season. The Local Institute held 
at Pittston was also a very practical meeting. 

Mifflin.— Supt. Owens: Our schools, with 
but few exceptions, have been successfully 
taught. There has been a decided increase in 
the i^eneral interest taken in school and Local 
Institute work throughout the county. 

PfeRRY— Supt. Aumiller : Three of our high 
schools have graduated classes, as follows: 
Liverpool, nine members ; Millerstown, five ; 
Newport, seven. The course pursued by each 
class comprises most of the branches enumer- 
ated in the Elementary Normal Course. There 
is a movement afoot looking to the establish- 
ment of a uniform course for the whole county. 
In Oliver township a neat, substantial fence has 
been placed around the grounds of the Ever- 
CTeen school-hoifse, and a gravel walk made 
tor the benefit of the children of the East New- 
port schools in the same district. A fine brick 
nouse has been erected in Buffalo township : it 
is nicely located upon an acre of ground do- 
nated by Mr. Hunter, a patron of the school. 
Very few trees were planted this spring. As 
long as the school grounds are not protected by 
fences, but little progress can be made in this 
work. 

Somerset — Supt. Wellcr: Local normal 
schools are in session at Somerset, Meyersdale, 
Berlin, Rockwood, Ursina, and Stoyestown. 
The session ranges from ten to twelve weeks. 

Susquehanna. — Supt, James : The manage- 
ment of the county fair at Montrose are still 
pleased with the educational feature of their 
fast two fairs. They readily perceive that 
noUiing can sooner elevate and dignify the pur- 
suit of agriculture than to intimately connect it 
with the cause of education. Larger premiums 
than ever before will this year be offered in this 
department. Tree-planting has fairly progressed 
this spring. Nearly half the school grounds of 
the county now have trees growing upon them. 

Union . — Supt. Johnson : The Lewisburg 
high school graduated a class of fifteen ladies 
* and four c^entlemen this year. The exercises 
were attended by a large and appreciative audi- 
ence. On the 30th of May, Rev. Henry G. 
Dill, Secretary of the Lewisburg School Board, 
passed from labor to reward. By his death the 
board has been deprived of a safe counsellor 
and a faithful, painstaking member ; the teach- 
ers have lost a true friend ; the pupils will miss 
his kindly face and cheerful greeting ; and the 
community and the church realize that an up- 
right roan and a true Christian gentleman has 
been taken from their midst. 

Wayne — Supt. Kennedy: The teachers of 
Berlin district have held Institute during the 
winter. The Flat Rock school-house in Mount 
Pleasant was destroyed by fire recently. 

Allegheny City — Supt. Morrow : Arbor Day 
was celebrated at many of our schools by tree- 
planting and appropriate exercises. At no pre- 
vious time has so much interest been manifested 
in the plantiug of trees and shrubbery as on last 
Arbor Day. The offices of the Supertntendent 



and Secretary have been refitted and elegantly 
furnished by the Board. 

Beaver Falls — Supt, Knight : School closed 
May 6th, with appropriate exercises in all the 
rooms. Commencement exercises were held in 
the Opera House the same evenine. The house 
was crowded to overflowing^, many being unable 
to gain admission. The class contained fifteen 
graduates. The exercises were pronounced a 
success in every respect. The Alumni reunion 
and banquet were held at the Grand Hotel. 

Bristol — Supt, Booz: Three Yaggy's Ana- 
tomical Studies were purchased by the Board 
last month. Arbor Day was appropriately ob- 
served by a number of the schools. 

Chambersburg — The School Board has 
adopted the plan for a large and commodious 
four-roomed buildine. Particular atiention will 
be given to the ventilation of the various rooms. 
A brick flue will be constructed in the wall of 
each room, through which a cast-iron pipe will 
carrv off the smoke and gas from the stoves. 
With this the ventilators wul be connected. 

Mahanoy City. — Supt. Ballentine : A class 
of thirteen graduated from the high school this 
term. Notwithstanding the heavy rain that was 
falling, an immense audience gathered in the 
Rink to encourage the class who had success- 
fully finished their course in our public schools. 

Norristown — Supt. Gotwals: Arbor Day 
was observed in all our schools. Several trees 
were planted in each yard. The afternoon was 
devoted to tree-planting and exercises having a 
tendency to impress the minds of the young 
with the importance and necessity of planting 
trees and protecting them. Quite an interest 
was taken in these exercises by the citizens. 

Oil City. — Supt. Babcock : Our closing exer- 
cises consisted of "receptions" in all the 
grades below the high school. These were 
largely attended by the parents of the pupils. 
There was no attempt at making what is com- 
monly called a school exhibition, but the regu- 
lar work of the grade, reading, spelling, lan- 
guage, arithmetic, etc., were given, and collec- 
tions of the written work of the year were shown, 
in order that the parents might see what their 
children were doing. The prize contest in reci- 
tation and declamation by the lower classes of 
the high school, and the regular commencement 
exercises of the graduating class, were of a high 
order of merit, and drew crowded houses. 

Phcenixville — Supt. Leister: Arbor Day 
exercises were held in all the schools. About 
300 trees, flowers, vines, and shrubs were con- 
tributed and planted by the teachers and pupils. 
The latter had been requested to do planting at 
home, and report to their teachers. About 200 
plants were thus reported. White's Physiolog- 
ical Charts have been bought by the Board. 

Shamokin — Supt. Haroel: The commence- 
ment exercises of our High School were held in 
the Opera House. As on former occasions of 
this kmd, the house was crowded to its utmost, 
every seat being occupied and comfortable 
standing-room not attainable. The stage was 
handsomely decorated with pyramids of beau- 
tiful flowers, and spanned by an arch of green, 
from the centre of which was suspended a large 



38 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



LJULY. 



floral star of the class of *87, having a brilliant 
electric light shining from its centre. The class, 
sixteen in number, acquitted themselves well, 
and the exercises passed off pleasantly and suc- 
cessfully from beginning to end. Among the 
gifts to the graduates were some beautiful floral 
desigrns and many valuable books. The even- 
ing schools completed their four months* work, 
and have been closed. 

WiLLiAMSPORT.— ^Supt. Transeau : At a spe- 
cial meeting of the Board, the contract for the 
Central High School building was let to Mr. A. 
Anson Ardey for 1(31,520.00. This does not 
include the heating apparatus, etc. When com- 
pleted July I St, 1888, I think we will have a 
school building of which this district may justly 
feel proud. Our schools closed with appropri- 
ate exercises. The high school commencement 
was attended by a lar^e audience, and the 
eighteen graduates acquitted themselves well. 
It was one of our best commencements. 



Hazle Twp. — Supt. Williams: The regular 
monthly Institute was held at West Hazleton. 
Dr. W. £. Gayley, one of our leading physicians, 
delivered a very able and instructive lecture on 
*' The Eye." At a previous meeting he had 
lectured to us on " Digestion and the Effects of 
Alcohol on the Stomach." Both these lectures 
were highly appreciated by our teachers. 

Plymouth Twp. — Supt. Gildea : The schools . 
are doing excellent work. The crowded con- 
dition of the Larksville schools will necessitate 
the providing of another room. The same is 
true of Woodward. Several graded schools, at 
convenient distances from each other, will be 
established, in order to give pupils an oppor- 
tunity of getting a fair education without being 
compelled to go outside of the district for it. 
The progress made in the graded school estab- 
lished at Welsh Hill at the beginning of this 
term is the best evidence of the benefits result- 
ing from such a scheme. * 



» » » 



Literary Department. 



AS long as ten years ago James Russell 
Lowdl declared Robert Browning to be 
"the richest nature of his time." But there 
were comparatively few in this country who 
agreed with him. It was only by the few that 
he was read. But those few were our own 
greatest poets and truest critics, and they recog- 
nized the greatness under what superficially 
passed for his eccentricity, and the genuine 
poetry in what to the cursory and careless reader 
seemed nothing but obscurity and incompre- 
hensibility. Smce then, however, a great 
change has taken place in popular opinion, 
and to-day Browning has perhaps more readers, 
more students of his poetry, and more enthu- 
siastic admirers, than any other living poet. In 
fact, there is something like a ''Browning craze" 
upon us ; though no doubt much of the popular 
adoration of him is nothing more than a fash- 
ionable affectation. 

The truth, however, remains, and is daily be- 
coming clearer, that, while Browning has writ- 
ten much that is well-nigh incomprehensible, 
and much that in form even lacks every require- 
ment of beauty, he has also produced some of 
the most profound, true, and artistically perfect 
poetry in the English language ; and enough of 
Doth to justify Mr. Stedman*s opinion that he is 
"the most original and unequal of living 
poets," and to verify Mr. Lowell's words quoted 
above. 

Of Mr. Browning's recent American critics 
one of the most competent and just, writing in 
The Christian Union, calls him an " awakener 
of souls," and gives this estimate of him : 

" Among the many elements which conspire 
to give this poetry a depth, a range, and a value 
far beyond that possessed b^ the great body of 
contemporary verse, the spintual element must 
be given a tirst place, No modern poet has 
seen life in its entirety with more clearness, or 
has set forth its environment, interpreted its laws, 



and brought into clear light its standards more 
powerfully than Browning. Unlike many of 
nis contemporaries. Browning refuses to break 
the great art of poetry in pieces by separating 
the material from the spiritual, the aesthetic from 
the moral. He insists upon seeing life in all its 
relations and upon interpreting it as a whole, 
and he is able to do this and to g^ve his inter- 
pretatiooi adequacy and rationality because he 
has such a profound insight into the ultimate 
laws which govern life and the ultimate ends 
to which it moves. Those who are deeply 
stirred by Browning, are stirred, not by the 
melody of his verse nor by those detached 
lines which, as Mr. Lowell says, nestle in the 
ear, but by the elevation and splendor of his 
thought, by the large and noble lines of an art 
which matches his great conceptions with forms 
which, if not always perfect, are in the main 
harmonious and noble." 

One thing is certain : Robert Browning occu- 
pies a place in contemporary literature second in 
prominence only to that of Tennyson, if indeed 
It is a second place ; and acquaintance with his 
poetry is an essential requisite of every student 
of that literature, and is demanded by fashion 
as well. And, moreover, there is no English 
poet living whose work is better worth studying 
than his. And to do this satisfactorily no other 
American edition of his poems is at the same 
time as complete and presented in as beautiful 
a form as the Riverside Browning in six beau- 
tiful volumes, just published by Messrs. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. of Boston. The price for the 
set, $10, is very reasonable when the superior 
quality of material and workmanship is taken 
into consideration ; for a better prmted and 
more thoroughly beautiful set of books has rarely 
been issued even from the artistic Riverside 
Press. Browning-lovers are unanimous in pro- 
nouncing it the l^st edition in the market, and 
the only one worthy of the great poet. 



1887.] 



LITER A R Y DEPARTMENT. 



39 



American Literature and Other Papers. By 
Edwin Percy Whipple, With Introductory Note 
by J. G. Whiitier. Boston : Ticknor 6* Cb., Cr, 
Svo, , gilt topy pp. j/j*. Price t $i^SO* 
What strikes us first of all on opening this hand- 
some volume is the remarkably beautiful title-page. 
A. more artistic selection and arrangement of type we 
liave seldom seen. And the same refined taste char- 
acterizes all the rest of the publishers' work on this 
volume. Though the late Mr. Whipple's best known 
"virork was that on " The Literature of tlie Age of 
Elizabeth/' his old friend Whittier is correct in saying 
that "there are none of his Essays which will not 
repay a careful study." For he was one of the most 
scholarly, graceful, and conscientious critics in Amer- 
ica, as well as the most kindly and genial. And these 
characteristics are all markedly present in the Essays 
contained in the volume before us. Aside, however, 
from the interest attaching to them for this reason, 
intensified by the recent death of the lamented author, 
they have an intrinsic value of their own that gives 
them a high and permanent place in our literature. 
The interesting and able essay on " American Litera- 
ture" from 1776 to 1876, is probably the most cor- 
rect and comprehensive short review of our literature 
during the first century of our national existence to 
be had anywhere. Its 138 pages alone give the vol- 
ume a claim to a place in the school library. The 
two essays, on " Emerson and Gtrlyle " and " Emer- 
son as a Poet," are equally worth studying for their 
clear and finished literary style, and for their careful 
critical estimate of their subjects. Not less interest- 
ing and valuable are the remaining two essays, on 
" Daniel Webster as a Master of English Style," and 
on "The Character and Genius of Thomas Starr 
King," one of the most remarkable preachers of the 
century. The whole volume is one of more than 
ordinary importance to the student of our literature. 

Outlines of Logic, and of Encyclopedia of 
Ph I LOSO PHY. Dictated Portions of the Lectures of 
Herman Lotze, Ginn dr* Co. Pp. iqo. Price, $/, 
Tl\is completes the series of six volumes of Lotze's 
Outlines which Dr. Ladd has made accessible to 
English students by his able translation. It is a 
work for which he deserves the unqualified thanks of 
all interested in what is perhaps the dominant phil- 
osophy in Germany to-day, and is receiving ever 
more and closer attention in this country as well. Of 
the general spirit and trend of this philosophy we 
have written on several occasions in these pSLges 
when noticing the preceding volumes of this series 
of Outlines, and especially when treating of Lotze's 
main work, the " Microcosmus." The present vol- 
ume, while not in any wise a text'book of Logic, will 
yet be found very suggestive and helpful to the stu- 
dent and teacher of that art; while in the second 
part many valuable side-lights on the author's general 
philosophical position will be found. Like the rest of 
the series, this is a book for the close thinker and spec- 
ial student of philosophy, rather than for the general 
reader. It is not easily mastered ; but when mastered 
is worth all the time and trouble it may have cost. 

Amexican Commonwealths: Connecticut. A 
Study of a Commonwealth Democracy, By Alex- 
ander Johnston, Boston : Houghton^ Mifflin &* 
Co, I2ma^ gilt top, with map, pp. ^og, $i.2j. 
As each successive volume of this admirable series 
appears one is tempted to pronounce it "the best." 
It is certain, however, that no previous volume is bet- 
ter than this one on Connecticut. Its excellence will 
not surprise those who already know Prof. Johnston's 
ability through acquaintance with his History of the 



United States for schools, which was noticed in these 
columns some months ago. Apart from its thorough- 
ness, judicial fairness, and the eminent clearness of 
its style, the history of Connecticut is in itself so ex- 
ceedingly important and full of interest in its bearing 
on the history of the whole country, that it appeals 
directly to every American. This influence, so dis- 
proportionate to the size of the state, is brought out 
with much force and clearness in this volume. It 
helps us to understand our federal constitution, to be 
shown, as we here are, the origin and character of 
the early Connecticut constitution, and the great debt 
the former owes to the latter. It enables us to un- 
derstand the history of our own state and the charac- 
ter of a large part of its population, to read again the 
interesting story of the struggle between the two 
states over the long- disputed Wyoming district. In 
short, this tenth volume of the series is as important 
as it is excellent and popularly interesting. 

Scripture Readings : Selected /or the Use of Teach- 
ers and Schools. By E. D. Morris, D. D.,LL. D, 
New York : Van Antwerp, Bragg &* Co. pp. sg^. 
The aim of this very neat and well made volume is 
an altogether commendable one. Whatever tends to 
aid teachers in making the devotional exercises of 
their school interesting and less perfunctory than they 
too often are is to be heartily welcomed. And that is 
what this book is well calculated to do. Its selec- 
tions from Scripture are wisely made, and interest in 
their reading is aroused by the use of various old and 
new versions and translations ; most indeed from the 
King James Version, but many also from the new 
Revised, some from the " Bishops' Bible," from the 
Douay Bible, the Coverdale Bible, and the Tyndale 
Version. It is a book we heartily commend, one whose 
helpfulness cannot fail to be seen and appreciated. 

Elements of English ; An Introduction to Eng- 
lish Grammar, for the Use of Schools. By George 
Hodgedon Richer, A. M. Boston : Intfr-state Pub- 
lishing Co. i2mo, pp. 100. Price, jo cents. 
Books designed to lighten the task of studying 
English grammar, and to brighten that branch which 
to the majority of children is the dullest and most 
difficult in the whole school course, are steadily mul- 
tiplying. This attractive little volume belongs to the 
number. ** It is designed to be used in the lower 
grades of schools, and to prepare the pupil for the 
study of larger works on language and grammar. It 
consists of a series of lessons, treating of the parts of 
speech and their uses, of the simple sentence in its 
various forms, fully illustrated by practical exercises 
composed of common words in daily use." These 
words of the preface fairly describe the contents. We 
welcome the volume as an attempt in the right direc- 
tion. Teachers will find it worth examining. 

Principles of Education Practically Applied. 

By J. M. Greenwood, A. M. New York: D, 

Appleton 6r* Co. ismo. pp. ig2. 

An exceptionally neat and tasteful little book, 
printed on extra fine paper and in superior style. 
And its contents are worthy of it. For it is quite dif- 
ferent in plan and method from the usual works on 
the theory and practice of teaching that are so abun- 
dant. While in the main its aim is the same as 
theirs, it is more specific in its scope, and more prac- 
tical and helpful to the working teacher than the 
most. In its fourteen chapters the teacher is told in a 
plain and direct manner just what to do and what not, 
and how to do it and how not, in his work of manag- 
ing and teaching children. All the instruction and 
counsel are eminently sound, based on correct prin- 
ciples, and presented in a clear, common- sense man- 



40 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[July, 



ner. There is a store of wisdom and good sense in 
the chapters on the Length of Recitation, Art of 
Questioning, Teaching Reading, Composition, Pen- 
manship, and the various odier common school 
branches, from which no teacher can fail to derive 
solid benefit, and which is of a kind sorely needed 
by not a few. It is a book that deserves to be widely 
read and studied, and merits a place in every teacher's 
library. 

Ten Great Events in History, Compiled and 
Arranged by James Johonnct, New York : Z>. 
Appleton <Sr* Co» i2mo. Illustrated, pp. 264. 
This volume is book IV of the second Part of Ap- 
pleton's deservedly popular Historical Series, It will 
not detract from that popularitv, nor from Prof. Johon- 
not's reputation as a successml writer and compiler 
of school books. The ten great events have been 
selected from the history of Greece, the Crusades, 
Switzerland (whose mythical hero Tell is still treated 
as a historical character), Scotland, the Netherlands, 
England, India, and America, with the story of Co- 
lumbus's discovery of America, and the Puritans* 
colonization of New England. A main purpose of 
the author is the laudable one of arousing and 
strengthening the virtue of patriotism and love of 
liberty in the minds of our youth. No bright boy 
but will be deeply interested in the pages of this book. 

Elements of Botany, including Organography, 
Vegetable Histology, Vegetable Physiology, and 
Vegetable Taxonomy, and a Glossary of Botanical 
Terms, By Edson S, Bastin, A, M, Chicago : G. 
P. Engelhard 6* Co. 8vo,,pp, joo. Price, $2.^0, 
It is rarely that a handsomer or better made text- 
book comes to our hand than is this one. And in- 
deed it differs also from most other text- books on 
botany, that are equally comprehensive and thorough, 
in that it is freer from mere technicalities that often 
make this delightful branch of natural science a bur- 
den to the average school boy and girl. It is so 
written that not only can children of ordinary intelli- 
gence understand it, but they will also be likely to 
become interested in the study. To this the clear- 
ness of style contributes much, but as much also the 
order and method of treatment, which proceed upon 
the only truly scientific principle that the pupils must 
be led from well-known facts to those less known. 
It begins, therefore, not with the treatment of cells 
and tissues, but with the roots, stems, leaves, &c., 
and from these leads on to the more intricate and 
hidden parts of the plant world. The illustrations 
are all from original drawings by the author, and are 
more than ordinarily helpful. It is a work that must 
meet with favor among teachers and private students. 
We heartily recommend it. 

Rural Hours. By Susan Fenimore Cooper. New 
and Revised Edition. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin 
&* Co. i2mo. pp. S37' Price, $i.2j. 
Field, Wood and Meadow Rambles. By 
Amanda B. Harris, Chicago: Interstate Pub' 
lishingCo. Square 8vo, Illustrated. Price, $1. 
Both these books will be found to be very pleasant 
out-door company during the hot dajrs of the summer 
vacation. And they are profitable companions as well, 
contributing not only to our entertainment, but as 
much to our instruction, teaching us how to see what 
is to be seen, and then telling us what it is that we see. 
Miss Cooper's book is an abridged and thereby im- 
proved edition of what, when it first appeared some 
years ago, was hailed and enjoyed by all lovers of 
nature for its simple, unaffected, yet accurate and 
correct, descriptions of the scenery about her home 
in Ostego county, New York; of the flowers, lakes, 



streams, birds, and so on, in that region, made speci- 
ally interesting to all Americans as the home of the 
anthor of the Leather-stocking Tales, and the scene 
of many of his stories. It is a book specially good 
for young folks to read, as it will aid them in the art 
of close observation, and perhaps lead them to at- 
tempt a similar record of every-day sights and objects 
in the vicinity of their own homes, in most of which 
there are thousands of interesting things to be seen and 
heard if only our senses and minds are open to them. 
Mrs. Harris's very handsomely printed, illustrated, and 
bound volume is written particularly for the young, 
and treats in a delightfully direct and familiar style 
of those common birds which may be seen and 
studied almost everywhere within the temperate zone. 
It is not a work on ornithology, yet it gives a good 
deal of ornithological instruction in its talks about 
the pewee, partridge, whip-poor-will, cuckoo, vireo, 
cat-bird, thrush, swallow, oriole and other feathered 
friends and acquaintances. The publishers have 
helped to make an unusually attractive book out of 
these pleasant sketches, and one partcularly well 
adapted for a birthday gift or other token of friend- 
ship and remembrance. Both volumes are such as 
our young people ought by every means be encour- 
aged to read. 

American Statesmen: Life of Henry Clay. 

By Carl Schurz, Boston : Houghton, Mifflin ^ 

Co. Two vols, i2mo,, gilt top. Pp. j8j, 424. 

Price $2.so. 

The American Statesmen series is more advanced 
than either of its two companion series, the Ameri- 
can Commonwealths or the American Men of Let- 
ters, these two volumes on Henry Clay being the 
fifteenth and sixteenth of the series. This subject is 
the only one thus far to whom has been accorded 
more than one volume. But he deserves it. For, 
though he was not the greatest statesman, orator, or 
man, of his times, he was as conspicuous as any, and 
his influence, if less direct and less openly recognized 
than that of some others, was certainly as far-reach- 
ing, and effective, and abiding. As intensely bated 
and maligned by some as he was loved and lauded by 
others, to write an impartial and true account of his 
life and work was no easy task. If it could be done 
by any one, the philosophical statesman, independent 
politician, and eloquent orator who has become his 
biographer certainly was the man to do it. The bio- 
graphy he has given us is more than a mere 
biography. It is a brilliant side-light upon that long 
and important period of our history which the life of 
Clay covered, illumining many an event and vital 
political question, as only the clear and just mind and 
the eminently strong yet graceful pen of Mr. Schurz 
could do. It is the study of a statesman by a states- 
man ; the description of an orator by an orator; it is 
a work worthy of its subject, and as worthy of its 
scholarly and cultured author. 

The Life of George Washington. By Washing- 
ton Irving, In four volumes. New York : John 
B. Alden, Bvo., half morocco. Illustrated. Price 
$4.00 per set : Cloth, $3.00, Vol. I, pp. 404, 

When Mr. Alden's edition of Irving's works ap- 
peared last autumn, it was promised that a similar ed- 
ition of Irvin^s Life of Washington would soon 
follow. The first volume of the latter is before ui, 
and when we say that it is even a handsomer and 
better-made book than the other " Works," it will be 
understood that it must be a very excellent publica- 
tion. In fact, it is the best piece of book-making 
Mr. Alden has ever done. The paper is fine, heavy, 
and of good texture ; typography large and dean, 



1887.] 



LITERAR Y DEPARTMENT, 



41 



with ample margins ; the numerous illustrations are 
nearly all equally good, while the binding is as dur- 
able as it is beautiful, with itfi marbled edges, and 
dark brown morocco back and covers. It is worthy 
of a place in the finest library. As to the " Life" 
itself, we need not recommend it. Its reputation is 
IS extended as the language. It is a book of double 
ndne; first because of its illustrious subject, and next 
beca\ise of its equally famous and always delightful 
iDthor. It is one of the classics of our literature. 
And never before was it offered in so worthy a form 
at 10 low a price. 

Tbe same publisher has also completed his hand- 
some half-morocco edition of Guizot's great work, the 
history of France^ in eight profusely illustrated 8vo. 
Tolnmes, offered at the unprecedentedly low price of 
^ for the set. It is a history specially interesting to 
yoang folks, and at such a price there are few schools 
which cannot afford to get it for their libraries. 

A Primer of Botany. By Mrs. A, A, Knight, 
Boston: Ginn &* Co, i6mo., boards, pp, 11^, 
Price, SS f^^s. 

An attractive little book, and in the hands of the 
wise teacher a very useful one for introducing the 
ttndy of plants and plant-life to the youngest scholars. 
It proceeds in the simplest manner possible, by direct 
observation and experiment, leading by induction up 
to the principles of the science. At the close of each 
chapter is a Review, oral and written, of what has 
been learned in the chapter or section. The book is 
an excellent one, and will be specially appreciated 
by primairy teachers, as well as by older beginners in 
the beautiful science of Botany. 

In Ole Virginia: Or Marse Chan and Other 
b Stories. By Thomas Nelson Page. New York: 
Charles Scrioner*s Sons. J2mo., pp. 2^0, Price, 

We call attention to this volume, not only because 
of the instruction to be derived from it on the life, 
manners, customs, and condition of the wealthier 
whites of Virginia and of their negroes, immediately 
before, during, and after the War ; but also because 
we regard the six stories of this book to be the most 
perfect specimens of the American short story thus 
&r produced in our literature. " Marse Chan'* and 
" Meh Lady" are unqualifiedly the best stories of the 
war that we have yet seen. All the stories are full of 
hnmor, and yet more touchingly pathetic. And they 
are as wholesome in their tone and influence as they 
are charming 'and delightfully entertaining reading 
for old and young. For resting the mind, and for 
pore enjoyment during the hot vacation weather, we 
can recommend this book to teachers and pupils alike. 

The Phillips -Exeter Lectures. Delivered before 
the Students of Phillips- Exeter Academy, i88s- 
1886. By Presidents McCosh, Walker, Bartlett, 
Rchinson, Porter, and Carter, and Rev. Drs. 
Hale and Brooks, Boston : Houghton, Mifflin &* 
Co. j2mo., pp. 208. Price, fi.jo. 
*■ ^ If only as specimens of the thought and style of 
^ eight of the most eminent educators, scholars, and 
orators of our country, these lectures are worth hav- 
ing and studying. But aside from this, their subject 
matter is so weighty, so Important, and so full of wis- 
dom, that it cannot fail to interest and benefit every 
reader, and particularly every one engaged in the 
noble work of educating the young. We can scarcely 
think of anything more practically helpful and profit- 
able in this work than for the teachers of our high 
and normal schools, for instance, to devote an hour, 
say each month, to reading to their pupils the whole- 
tome words of Edward Everett Hale on " Physical, 



Mental, and Spiritual Exercises;'' of Dr. McCosh on 
" Habit, and its Influence in the Training at School ;" 
of Dr. Bartlett on **The Spontaneous Element in 
Scholarship;" Dr. Carter on « The Sentiment of Rev- 
erence ;" Dr. Robinson on ** Men : Made, Selfmade, 
and Unmade;" Dr. Noah Porter on "The Ideal 
Scholar," and all the rest of these lectures. The 
volume is one from which every teacher and older 
student cannot fail to derive much profit and benefit. 

The Appeal to Life. By Theodore T. Munger. 

Boston : Houghton, Mifflin &* Co. idmo, pp, 

JSQ. Price, $1.^0. 

It is not often that we call attention to volumes of 
sermons in these columns. But then it is not often that 
we are privileged to see volumes of such sermons as 
these, so profound yet clear and plain, so fresh and 
unconventional, so filled to overflowing with Christ's 
spirit of " sweet reasonableness." They are so unlike 
most published sermons as to be most interesting 
reading not only to the specially "devout" and 
" churchly," but by their frank and manly Christian 
common sense, freshness of thought, exquisite liter- 
ary style, winning the attention and interest of every 
unbiased, thoughtful man and woman. The grand 
discourse on " Music as Revelation" will specially in- 
terest educators, and is alone worth the price of the 
whole volume. 

History of England for Beginners. By Ara- 
bella B. Buckley {Mrs. Fisher), with Additions by 
Robert H. Labberton. New York : Macmillan 
&* Co. i2mo. with Maps and Tables', pp. 380, 
What strikes one at once as a specially excellent 
feature of this beautifully printed and bound volume 
is the arrangement of the Table of Contents so as to 
serve the purpose of a clear and comprehensive 
Chronological Table of all the leading events in Eng- 
lish history from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1886. The 
maps too and genealogical tables are of unusual ex- 
cellence. As for the book as a whole it has the 
merits of clear arrangement and method and a simple, 
interesting style. The author being a very patriotic 
Englishwoman, she, of course, views all things from the 
English standpoint, which is sometimes radically dif. 
ferent from the American, and indeed from that of all 
the rest of the world. For example, few of us look at 
England's relations with Ireland, and the Irish Home- 
Rule movement, as does Mrs. Fisher. So also her 
views of England's colonial policy and her part in In- 
dian history, are very different from ours. Nevertheless 
the volume is one of more than ordinary merit and 
value for teachers, and as a text-book. 

A Third Reader. Stickney. Boston: Ginn ^ Co. 

i2mo. Illustrated. Pp. 728. Price, 55 cents. 

Says the prefatory note of this attractive little book : 
" If a pupil can be trained to enunciate well, to con- 
trol the slides of his voice, to vary the pitch and vol- 
ume, and to attend to these points in others' reading, 
he need only to understand and enjoy what he reads 
to make an agreeable reader." Which is veiy true 4 
but is p^itting the cart before the horse. How can 
he be trained thus if he do not first " understand 
and enjoy what he reads?" Fortunately the selec- 
tions given as reading exercises in the book are of so 
excellent a quality, that few children will not at once 
understand and enjoy them. Indeed it is the admir- 
able literary taste displayed in the making of these 
selections that gives this Reader a place far in ad- 
vance of many others. The make-up of the book 
is also to be commended ; the clear, large type, good 
paper, and substantial binding are what such a book 
ought to have ; the paper might with advantage be 
still heavier and more opaque. 



42 



^PENNSYL VANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[July, 



The Cheerful Voice. — ^The comfort and happi- 
ness of home' and home intercourse, let us here say, 
depend very much upon the kindly and affectionate 
training of the voice. Trouble, care, and vexation 
will and must, of course, come ; but let them not creep 
into our voices. Let only our kindly and happier 
feelings be vocal in our homes. Let them be so, if 
for no other reason, for the little children's sake. 
Those sensitive little beings are exceedingly suscept- 
ible to the tones. Let us have consideration for them. 



They hear so much that we have forgotten to hear; 
for, as we advance in years, our life becomes more 
interior. We are abstracted from outward scenes 
and sounds. We think, we reflect, we begin gradu- 
ally to deal with the past, as we have formerly vividly 
lived in the present Our ear grows dull to external 
sound ; it is turned inward and listens chiefly to the 
echoes of past voices. We catch no more the merry 
laughter of children. We hear no more the note of 
the morning bird. The brook that used to prattle so 



KIND WORDS CAN NEVER DIE. 



From " Day-School Bell." 
Abbt Hutcmimson. Arr. by H. Watbrs. 




1. Kind words can nev - er die. Cherished and blest, God knows how deep they lie, 

2. Child - hood can nev - er die — ^Wrecks of the past Float o'er the mem - o • ry, 

3. Sweet thoughts can nev - er die, Though, like the flow'rs, Their brightest hues may fly 

4. Our souls can nev - er die, Though in the tomb We may all have to lie. 




roll, tempo. 




Lodged in the breast ; Like childhood's sim- pie rhymes. Said o'er a thousand times. 
Bright to the last. Man - y a hap - py thing, Man - y a dai - sy spring. 
In win -try hours. But when the gen - tie dew Gives them their charms a - new. 

Wrapt in its gloom. What though the flesh de - cay. Souls pass in peace a - way. 




I r * ? £ v^ 



Go through all years and climes, The heart to cheer. Kind words can nev - er die. 

Floats on time's cease - less wing. Far, far a - way. Child - hood can nev - er die. 

With many an add - ed hue, They bloom a -gain. Sweet thoughts can nev - er die. 

Live through e - ter - nal day With Christ a - bove. Our souU can nev - er die. 





^^^ 



nev - er die, 

nev - er die, 

nev - er die, 

nev - er die. 



nev - er die. Kind words can nev - er die, 

nev - er die. Child - hood can nev - er die, 

nev - er die. Sweet thoughts can nev - er die, 

nev • er die, Our souls can nev.- er die. 



no, 


nev - er 


die. 


no. 


nev - er 


die. 


no. 


nev - er 


die. 


no. 


nev - er 


die. 




gaily to us, rushes by unheeded — ^we have forgotten 
to hear such things ; but little children, remember, 
sensitively hear them all. Mark how, at every sound, 
the young child starts, and turns, and listens ; and 
thus, with equal sensitiveness does it catch the tones 
of human voices. How were it possible, therefore, 
that the sharp and hasty word, the fretful and com- 
plaining tone, should not startle and pain, even de- 
press the sensitive little being whose haip of life is 



so newly and delicatelv strung, vibrating even to the 
gentle breeze, and thrilling ever to the tones of such 
voices as sweep across it? Let us be kind and cheer- 
ful spoken, then, in our homes. — Once a Week. 

The meaning of song goes deep. Who is there 
that, in logical words, can express the effect music 
has on us? A kind of inarticulate, unfathomable 
speech, which leads us to the edge of the infinite, 
and lets us for moments gaze out into that. — CarfyU, 






■iy 



THE 



SCHOOL ToraNAL 




AUGUST, 1887. 



THE object of school iDstruction is to dis- I 
cipline the mind and develop the mental 
faculties, to prepare children for the highest 
citizenship and the larger duties of life. 
The more intelligent and better educated 
society becomes the higher will be the 
standard required to meet the demands of 
soch a position. But in addition to educa- 
tion, there is one more element which is es- 
sential to a proper development of the 
duties of a citizen, and that is character, 
which is the crown and glory of life. "It 
is the noblest possession of man, constituting 
a rank in itself, and an estate in the genera! 
good-will, dignifying every station, and ex- 
kiting every position in society." If I 
were asked to formulate a maxim, it would 
be this: "Education is the most excellent 
attainment, and character, with the moral 
courage to do right, is the crown and glory 
of life." Let me say to those who are to 
receive the benefits of the school, that no 
virtue or achievement in this world, whether 
in society, art, science, literature, or the 
marts oftrade, can be acquired in a moment, 
hut step by step. 

Theri is no monument of brass or mar- 
Ue that can be erected in honor of any man 
which can compare in beauty, in character, 
OT in permanence, with the honor of being 
identified for years, and perhaps for all 
lime, with a system upon which the super- 
structure of our government is founded, and 
tm which the free institutions of thisconntry 
must forever rest — a system which we have 
inherited from our sturdy ancestors, who 
gave us the blessings of liberty, and declared 



that all men are bom free and equal. There- 
is no law of the State or rule of the School 
Board that gives the child of the rich any 
advantage whatever over the child of the 
poor man, even down to the color of the- 
cover that shall be used on a text-book, for 
the legislature of Massachusetts has recently 
declared, in the form of a statute, that Ibe- 
city shall furnish text-books to all alike, and* 
free of coSt, It only remains now for ther 
pupil to take such rank and position as he- 
or she may elect by personal applicationi 
and industry in the race for excellence,, 
which can only be attained by an honest, 
and upright performance of individual duty.. 
No two will travel the same road, or have- 
anything like a similar experience. £achi 
must build for himself or herself. It has. 
been truly said, "Every person has two ed» 
ucations one which he receives from others,. 
and one, more important, which he givea to- 
himself." Education, whether self-acquired' 
or imparted by others, is the most excellent 
attainment, as it enlarges the capacities of 
the mind, promotes their improvement, and 
renders a man respectable in the eyes of.' 
society. 

Dr. Holland, Cooper, and Mrs. Stowe- 
are American writers ^f fiction whose pro- 
ductions can be read profitably. Two good' 
works of Cooper's are "fhe Spy" and! 
"The Last of the Mohicans;" two of Mre. 
Stowe's are "The Mayflower" and " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin;" of Dr. HoHand's are "The 
Bay Path" and "Arthur Bonnicastle." 
Ten books that might be recommended to a 
boy fourteen years of i^ ^this would de- 



44 



FENNSYLVANTA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[August, 



pend somewhat upon one's knowledge of 
the boy and of his "bent"): Holland's 
'•Arthur Bonnicastle" and "Seven Oaks;" 
Kingsley's "Greek Heroes;" Scott's 
"Tales of a Grandfather;" Lamb's "Tales 
from Shakespeare;" "Robinson Crusoe;" 
"Gulliver's Travels;" "The Arabian 
Nights;" "The Swiss Family Robinson ;" 
Abbot's Hist«>ries, Higginson's History U. 
S., Weems' Life of Marion, etc. These are 
all standard works. It will not do damage 
to put in a liberal sprinkling of story-books 
of a simpler sort — anything that may tend 
to turn his taste away from the low, de- 
moralizing and weakening works so freely 
put into the hands of the young nowadays. 
It is as important to keep bad literature out 
of the hands of boys and girls, as to put good 
literature in. — Indiana School JaumaL 

The late John B. Gough in one of his 
powerful addresses, tells the following most 
touching story: 

I was once playing with a beautiful boy in the 
city of Norwich, Conn. I was carrying him to 
and fro on my back, both of us enjoying our- 
selves exceedingly ; for I loved him and I think 
he loved me. During our play, I said to him, 
" Harry, will you g^o with me down to the side of 
that green bank? ' "Oh, yes,** was the cheer- 
ful reply. We went together, and saw a man 
lying listlessly there, quite drunk; 4iis face up- 
turned to the bright blue sky ; the sunbeams 
that warmed, and cheered, and illumined us, 
lay upon his porous, greasy face; the pure 
morning wind kissed his parched lips and 
passed away poisoned ; the very swine in the 
field looked more noble than he, for they were 
fulfilling the purposes of their being. As I 
looked upon the poor degraded wretch, and then 
upon that child, with his bright brow, his beau- 
tiful blue eyes, his rosy cheeks, his pearly teeth, 
and ruby lips — the perfect picture of life, peace 
and innocence; — as I' looiced upon the man, 
and then upon the child, and felt his litde hand 
convulsively twitching in mine, and saw his little 
lips grow white, and his eyes dim, gazing upon 
the poor victim of that terrible curse of our land 
— strong drink — then did I pray to God to give 
me an everlasting capacity to hate with a burn- 
ing hatred any instrumentality that would make 
such a thing of a being who was once as fair 
as that innocent child. 



Men who are tempted to make money 
suddenly are almost invariably obliged to 
traverse the canons of morality. It is al- 
most impossible that they should keep them- 
selves to moderation. The fatal fire begins 
to burn within them. Avarice in its earliest 
stipes is not hideous, though at the bottom 
It is the same serpent thing that it is at last. 
In the beginning it is an artist, and the man 
begins to think, " I will redeem my parents. 



Rev. Dr. John P. Lundv, of the Penn- 
sylvania State Forestry Association, recently 
delivered a lecture at the University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, on the subject 
of the " Forestry Reform Movement." Dr. 
Lundy cited the fact that the absence of 
trees occasions the severe storms and bliz- 
zards so disastrous in our western and north- 
western States. Tree destruction, he said, 
devastated the country. Speaking of Penn- 
sylvania, noted for its magnificent forests, 
he said : " Once the State was as rich and 
lovely as any spot on the face of the earth. 
Now sudden changes of temperature are of 
almost daily occurrence. These conditions, 
destructive alike to health and agriculture, 
have been induced by continued and unre- 
stricted ruin of the wooded areas of the 
country. Trees attract rain, and where 
there are no trees there is no water — there is 
nothing to attract the rain. ' * Every farmer 
and landholder should take this lesson to 
heart and spare the trees that are yet left on 
their estates. 



In the first place, if you want to make 
yourself miserable, be selfish. Think all the 
time of yourself and your things. Don't 
care about anything else. Have uo feelings 
for any one but yourself. Never think oi 
enjoying the satisfaction of seeing others 
happy, but rather, if you see a smiling face, 
be jealous lest another should enjoy what 
you have not. Envy every one who is 
better off in any respect than yourself; 



Oh! I will repurchase the old homestead. 
Ah ! will I not make my village to bud and 
blossom as a rose? I will set my brotheis 
and sisters on high. What will I not do?" 
How many things do men paint in the sky 
which clouds cover and winds blow away, 
and which fade out with the morning that 
painted them ? I have noticed that men, | 
when they begin to make money suddenly 
and largely, carry with them the instincts ^ 
and generosities of their youth ; but where 
do you find a man who begins to make 
money fast, who begins to pull it in in 
heaps, who begins to think of large interests 
from day to day, who shaves and learns to 
look upon men simply to see what they will 
bear when put under his knife and under his 
screw, who begins to live with money and 
to gloat his eyes upon money — where do 
you find such a man that does not begin to 
have narrower feelings, and baser feelings, 
and sordid feelings, and avaricious feelings? 
Avarice grinds a man like emery. — Henry 
Ward B etcher. 



i«87.] 



TEACHING GEOGRAPHY. 



45 



think unkindly towards them, and speak 
lightly of them. Be constantly afraid lest 
some one shoald encroach upon your rights ; 
be watchful against it, and if any one comes 
near your thmgs snap at him like a mad 
dog. Contend earnestly for everything 
that is your own, though it may not be 
worth a pin, for your rights are just as much 
concerned as if it were a pound of gold. 
Never yield a point. Be very sensitive, and 
take everything that is said to you in playful- 
ness, in the most serious manner. Be jealous 
of your friends lest they should not think 
enough of you; and if, at any time, they 
should seem to neglect you, put the worst 
cofistnictMMa poasible upon their conduct. 
Do some or all of these things, and success 
is certain. You will be, and you ought to 
be, unhappy. 

Either the songs of our birds do not 
affect us as they did when we were younger, 
or the singers have for the most part fled 
away; for our hedge-rows are not half so 
well colonized with the thrush and kindred 
tribes as they once were, nor are the thickets 
and moist spots in our woods half so melodi- 
ous with the notes of the feathered songsters. 
Of many of the gentler and sweeter-throated 
varieties of birds none now remain to us, 
and in many localities only the larger birds 
of prey and the invincible, unconquerable 
English sparrows, remain as evidences that 
our climate will sustain bird-life. What has 
become of these vernal friends we were so 
long wont to welcome with the return of the 
daisies and buttercups ? Where is the lively 
mocking- bird, and his cousin, the cat-bird? 
What has come over the sober thrush that 
she no longer builds in our hedges; and 
why does the friendly little wren become 
year by year more shy? Where is the 
wood- robin that we so seldom see him? 
Are we becoming so sordid, so blood-thirsty 
and so venal that the birds are no longer 
willing to trust us, or have our close farming 
and our trimming and pruning and our 
growing density of population left them no 
secret places for their nesting? But the 
hedge-rows of crowded, noisy England are 
alive with the chatter of birds through most 
of the year, and England too is the home of 
Che sparrow to whose presence in this vicin- 
ity many attribute the disappearance of most 
oi our old acquaintances of wood and fen. 

It is said that President Lincoln once 
l^ve the following advice to a friend : "Do 
not worry. Eat three square meals a day. 
Say yoor prayers. Be courteous to your 



creditors. Keep your digestion good. 
Steer clear of all biliousness. Exercise. 
Go slow and go easy. Maybe there are 
other things that your special case requires 
to make you happy, but, my friend, these, I 
reckon, will give you a good life." Henry 
Ward Beecher's three rules of health were : 
<' Eat well, sleep well, and laugh well." And 
he wisely obeyed them all. 

In his proclamation appointing Arbor 
Day, Governor Ames, of Massachusetts, 
throws out the additional suggestion that ip 
each town a street or other public way 
should be selected for planting trees upop 
it in memory of Union soldiers who per- 
ished during the civil war. Probably this 
idea will enlist the co-operation of some in 
Arbor Day for its memorial features who 
might be less interested in its original pur- 
pose. Setting out rows of beautiful shade 
trees on a thoroughfare would be a very sen- 
sible and appropriate method of keeping 
green the memory of those who gave their 
lives for the country. It would also be 
easy to supplement the work by a simple 
and inexpensive tablet recording the pur- 
pose which had been thus carried out. 

Geography. — I recently observed a lessor 
in preliminary geography in a second year 
grade. The outline of work for the year 
was somewhat as follows : — 

Lessons on Animals: That live on the 
land, in the water, in the air; that live in 
hot parts of the earth, in cold parts, in for- 
ests, in plains, in deserts, on mountains, etc. 

Vegetation : Same as animals. 

People: Their kinds of homes ; what they 
wear, eat; and do; the animals they use; the 
distance and direction of their homes iroxfk 
the pupils' homes. 

The teacher began the lesson by saying, 
" I am thinking of a certain country. ' ' The 
pupils then asked the teacher various ques- 
tions regarding the vegetation, animals, and 
inhabitants of the country in order to de- 
termine from her answers what country she 
was thinking of. The following questions 
will illustrate the nature of those asked by 
the pupils: Does tea grow there ? Does rice 
grow there ? Does the black bear live there ? 
Are there silkworms in that country? Do 
the ped|;)le wear wooden shoes ? etc. When. a 
sufficient number of questions had been 
asked to indicate to the teacher that the pu- 
pils were thinking of the country she had iii 
mind, she asked if any one could write the 
name of the country on the board. One 
pupil was chosen from the volunteers, and 



46 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



wrote upon the board the name ''China," 
which the teacher stated was right. She 
then, in turn, questioned them closely on 
'the vegetation, animals, and inhabitants of 
the region. — Illinois Teacher. 

The men to whom in boyhood informa- 
tion came in dreary tasks along with threats 
of punishment, and who were never led 
into habits of independent inquiry, are not 
likely to be students in after-years; while 
those to whom it came in the natural forms, 
at the proper tiroes, and who remember its 
facts as not only interesting in themselves, 
but as the occasions of a long series of grat- 
ifying successes, are likely to continue 
' through life that self-instruction commenced 
in youth. — Herbert Spencer, 



AMERICAN CLASSICS IN SCHOOLS. 



BY HORACE E. SCUDDER. 



THE sentiment of patriotism must be 
kept fresh and living in the hearts of 
the youn^ through quick and immediate 
contact with the sources of that sentiment ; 
and the most helpful means are those spirit- 
ual deposits of patriotism which we find in 
noble poetry and lofty prose, 2& communi- 
cated by men who have lived patriotic lives 
and been fed with coals from the altar. 

It may be said, and with a show of truth, 
that it would be possible to bring into one 
compact volume the great, direct utterances 
of American poets, orators, and romancers 
upon the vital theme of our country, and 
that such a book as a vcide mecum could be 
mastered in a brief portion of the school 
' curriculum. But one feels instinctively that 
this end of patriotism is not to be attained 
by the concentration of the mind upon it 
for a given time ; that the sentiment of pa- 
triotism is not something to pass a written 
•examination upon, at the end of a course of 
study. The larger results are attained in 
' this as in other pursuits by broadening, not 
* by narrowing, the range. The book of pa- 
triotism which might thus be culled is an in- 
discriminated part of the whole body of 
American literature, and its power is greater 
*as one comes into acquaintance with the 
whole, and not with selected parts. It is 
'not the *' golden texts," so called, which 
animate the religious mind; it is the free 
^ and full use of the whole Bible ; and the lit- 
'erature of America, taken in its large and 
' comprehensive sense, is worth vastly more to 
American boys and girls than any collec- 



tion which may be made from it of ''mem- 
ory gems." 

I have written as if a prime advantage of 
making much of American classics in school 
lay in the power which this literature has of 
inspiring a noble love of country. But in 
the spiritual universe there are no fences, 
and the fields of patriotism and righteous- 
ness lie under the same stars. Righteous- 
ness transmuted into the terms of patriotism 
is the appeal from lower, material good to 
that which is higher and over-arching. Now 
our schools, with their close relation to the 
business of life, demand a reinforcement on 
the side of spirituality. They have been 
more and more secularized, and it will only 
be as the people become largely at one on re- 
ligious matters that they can ever recover a 
distinctly religious character. Meanwhile, 
literature and music remain as great spirit- 
ualizing forces, and happily no theoretic 
differences serve to exclude them from the 
common schools. It is to literature that 
we must look for the substantial protection 
of the growing mind against an ignoble, 
material conception of life, and for the in- 
spiring power which shall lift the nature into 
its rightful fellowship with whatsoever is 
noble, true, lovely, and of good report. Mr. 
Parsons, in his thoughtful, warning paper on 
The Decline of Duty, strikes the keynote of 
our present peril when he says, "A mater- 
ialist civilization can never be a safe one." 
He does not point out the preservative 
forces, nor intimate very distinctly to what 
we are to look for a corrective of present 
tendencies ; but in the same number of the 
journal containing his paper is a glimpse 
of a boyhood which leaves strongly im- 
pressed on the mind the figure of a " boy 
reading Plato, covered to his chin with a 
cloak, in a cold upper chamber." It is not 
so much in the story of that life that we are 
to seek for influences counteracting material 
greed as in words which have flowed from 
the lips of the man whose boyhood knew 
privations. How many young minds have 
leapt at the words, 

" So nigh is grandeur to our dust. 
So near is God to man, 
When Duty whispers low, Tliou mttsf, 
The soul replies, /can /" 

How many, also, have felt their pulses thrill 
with the exultant words of that declaration 
of independence, 

•< Good-by, proud world ! I'm going home!" 

But how large an inheritance of spiritual 
power might such minds acquire, if the gold- 
en days of their youth were spent over the 



1887.] 



ANERICAN CLASSICS IN SCHOOLS. 



47 



prose and poetry which embody a life of 
high endeavor and secret worship ! 

It is from the men and women bred op 
American soil that the fittest words come 
for the spiritual enrichment of American 
youth. I believe heartily in the advantage 
of enlarging one's horizon by taking in 
other climes and other ages, but first let us 
make sure of that great expansive power 
which lies close at hand. I am sure there 
never was a time or country when national 
education » under the guidance of national 
art and thought, was so possible as in Amer- 
ica to-day. The organization of schools is 
practically complete; statutes and public 
sentiment have carried it so far that an era 
of criticism has set in. Meanwhile, we have 
now for the first time a perspective of na- 
tional literature. The rise of new men and 
new methods was needed to give the requis- 
ite fulness to our conception of the art of the 
older school ; and as we move away from 
the dividing line of 1861, we are more 
clearly cognizant of that body of humane 
letters which was then inherently fixed, but 
needed the vista of a score of years to 
become defined and clearly marked to our 
eyes. 

V^e are not so much concerned to dis- 
criminate the work of the older Americans 
as we are ready to accept the men them- 
selves, with their well-recognized person- 
ality. The process of sifting goes on 
silently, but however it may gradually set 
the mark of approbation on this or that 
particular production, it is not likely that 
the group of men will be much enlarged 
or diminished. Any list made now of 
what, for lack of a better word, we may 
call standard American authors would in- 
evitably contain certain names, unless the 
maker of the list were possessed of some 
paradoxical humor. The majority vote in 
the long run determines the sway of literary 
rulers and govtmors. Just because there 
are a few authors who have an incontestable 
position in America, we may and ought to 
turn to them for the foundation of a love 
and knowledge of pure literature, and my 
plea is that whatever else is done in the way 
of reading in our common schools, these au- 
thors should command the chief and first 
attention ; that school courses should be ar- 
ranged so as to give them a definite place, 
just as our American school geographies 
give the United States in detail, and follow 
with rapid study of Europe, Asia and Africa, 
and just as United States history has the 
preference in order over European history 
and ancient history. 



The real point of practical reform, how- 
ever, is not in the preference of American 
authors to English, but in the careful con- 
centration of the minds of boys and girls 
upon standard American literature, in oppo- 
sition to a dissipation over a desultory and 
mechanical acquaintance with scraps from a 
variety of sources, good, bad, and indifferent. 
In a previous article on Nursery Classics in 
School, I argued that there was a true econ- 
omy in substituting the great books of that 
portion of the world's literature, which re- 
presents the childhood of the world's mind 
for the thin, quickly forgotten, feeble imag- 
inations of insignificant bookmakers. There 
is an equally noble economy in engaging the 
child's mind, when it is passing out of an 
immature state into one of rational, intelli- 
gent appropriation of literature, upon such 
carefully chosen classic work as shall invig- 
orate and deepen it. There is plenty of 
vagrancy in reading; the public libraries 
and cheap papers are abundantly able to 
satisfy the truant ; but it ought to be recog- 
nized once for all that the schools are to 
train the mind into appreciation of litera- 
ture, not to amuse it with idle diversion. 
To this end, the simplest and most direct 
method is to place before boys and girls for 
their regular task in reading, not scraps 
from this imd that author, duly paragraphed 
and numbered, but a wisely-selected series 
of works by men whom their country honors, 
and who have made their country worth 
living in. 

The continuous reading of a classic is in 
itself a liberal education ; the fragmentary 
reading of commonplace lessons in minor 
morals, such as make up much of our read- 
ing-books, is a pitiful waste of the growing 
mental powers. Even were our reading, 
books composed of choice selections from 
the highest literature, they would still miss 
the very great advantage which follows 
upon the steady growth of acquaintance with 
a sustained piece of literary art. I do not 
insist, of course, that Evangeline should be 
read at one session of the school, though it 
would be excedingly helpful in training the 
powers of the mind if, after this poem had 
been read day by day for a few weeks, it 
were to be taken up first in its separate 
thirds, and then in an entire reading. What 
I claim is that the boy or girl who has read 
Evangeline through steadily has acquired a 
certain power in appropriating literature 
which is not to be had by reading a collec- 
tion of minor poems — ^the power of long- 
sustained attention and interest. 

If we could substitute a full course of 



L 



48 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



reading from the great American authors 
for a course in any existing graded series of 
readers, we should gain a further advantage 
in teaching children .literature without 
lightening them with the vast spectre of 
literature. Moli^re's doctor spoke prose all 
his life without discovering it, and children 
taught to read literature may escape the 
haunting sense that there is a serious, vague 
study known as literature, which has hand- 
books, and manuals, and vast dictionaries, 
and cyclopedias, and Heaven knows what 
mountains, shutting it out from the view of 
ordinary mortals. There is a deal of mis- 
chief in teaching young people about litera- 
ture and perhaps giving them occasional 
s^cimens, but all the while keeping them at 
a distance from the real thing. 

At the same time, with American litera- 
ture for the great body of reading in our 
common schools, there will be the further 
advantage that just when the boy or girl was 
beginning to appreciate the personal ele- 
ment in books, to associate the author with 
what the author said, the teacher would be 
able to satisfy and stimulate an honorable 
curiosity. The increasing attention paid to 
authors' birthdays illustrates the instinctive 
demand from the school that the authors 
thus commemorated should be part and 
parcel of the school life. An immense 
store of fresh and delightful material is at 
the command of teachers, for use in illus- 
trating the works of the greater American 
authors ; and that part of the school course 
which is devoted to reading may thus be en- 
riched and vitalized in a hundred ways, to 
the manifest enlargement of the mind of the 
pupil. 

The objection is sometimes made to this 
general scheme that the slow development 
of the mind requires the books for reading 
to be carefully graded, and a great deal of 
very minute attention has been given to se- 
curing an easy, natural, and progressive 
grade. It is, of course, apparent that a boy 
who has mastered only easy combinations 
of words cannot at once be set to reading 
Thoreau's Wild Apples, however keen may 
be his interest in practical experiments upon 
the subject of Thoreau's paper. Grading is 
necessary, and it is entirely possible to ap- 
ply the principle to American classics for 
schools. Not literature made to order to 
suit certain states of the juvenile mind, but 
those parts of existing literature selected in 
a wise adjustment of means to end, — that is 
the solution of the problem of gradation. 
If Hawthorne's Wonder- Book is too hard, 
there are still simpler examples of Haw- 



thorne's sympathetic prose. The body of 
wholesome, strong American literature b 
large enough to make it possible to keep 
boys and girls upon it from the time when 
they begin to recognize the element of au- 
thorship until they leave school, and it is 
varied and flexible enough to give employ- 
ment to the mind in all its stages of devel- 
opment. Moreover, this literature is inter- 
esting, and is allied with interesting con- 
cerns j half the hard places are overcome by 
the willing mind, and the boy who stumbles 
over some jejune lesson in his reading-book 
will run over a bit of genuine prose from Ir- 
ving, which the school-book maker with his 
calipers pronounces too hard. 

The American classics have little by little 
been making their way into schools, edging 
themselves in sometimes under the awkward 
title of Supplementary Reading, and there 
can be no doubt that every year will see 
them more securely intrenched. It is notice- 
able that the movement in this direction 
is corrective of a somewhat recent condition, 
and encouragement may be drawn from the 
comparatively short life of the graded read- 
ing-books. Men in middle life remember 
when these books first came into vogue; 
before that time the reading-books were 
made up of selections from standard English 
literature. Many a person has grateful re- 
collection of these earlier books for the 
stimulus which they gave to a liking for fine 
literature, and certain passages in Shake- 
speare probably owe their celebrity less to 
the stage and less to the popularity of the 
plays in which they occur, than to the fact 
that they have been read and delivered by 
millions of school- children. But with the 
great expansion of the school system, and 
especially with the rapid growth of cities, 
the organization of schools became a prime 
consideration, and with this organization 
came a rapid development of school-books 
on the side which most readily appeals to 
the systematizing and mechanical mind. 
Reading-books were finely graded, and to 
secure this supreme good of gradation the 
individuality of literature was subordinated. 
That was used which was most convenient 
and lent itself most readily to the all-import- 
ant end of easy gradation. 

We have gone quite far enough in the me- 
chanical development of the common-school 
system. What we most need is the breath 
of life, and reading offers the noblest means 
for receiving and imparting the breath of 
life. The tendency of our schools is al- 
ways toward an assimilation of the common 
life of the country, and there is no danger 



1887.] 



THE CINCINNATI SCHOOLS. 



49 



that they will not be practical enough. 
Arithmetic passes into the making out of 
bills and the calculation of interest. Writ- 
ing gravitates toward business forms. Geo- 
graphy points to commercial enterprises. 
Reading finds its end in a Sunday news- 
paper. But the common life of the country 
has also its heroic, its ideal temper, and it is 
the business of those who have to do with 
schools to see to it that this side is not ne- 
glected. This requires thought, adaptation 
oi means to ends, organization. To secure 
a just equilibrium, we need to use the great 
power of reading, and apply it to what is 
noble and inspiriting. The spiritual ele- 
ment in education in our common schools 
will be found to lie in reserve in literature, 
and, as I believe, most effectively in Ameri- 
can literature. 

Think for a moment of that great, silent, 
resistless power for ^ood which might at 
this moment be lifting the youth of the 
country, were the hours for reading in school 
expended upon the undying, life-giving 
books! Think of the substantial growth of 
a generous Americanism, were the boys and 
girls to be fed from the fresh springs of 
American literature ! It would be no nar- 
row provincialism into which they would 
emerge. The windows in Longfellow's 
mind look to the east, and the children who 
have entered into possession of his wealth 
travel far. Bryant's flight carries one 
through upper air, over broad champaigns. 
The lover of Emerson has learned to get a 
far vision. The companion of Thoreau 
finds Concord suddenly become the centre 
of a very wide horizon. Irving has an- 
nexed Spain to America. Hawthorne has 
nationalized the gods of Greece and given 
an atmosphere to New England. Whittier 
has translated the Hebrew Scriptures into 
the American dialect. Lowell gives the 
American boy an academy without cutting 
down a stick of timber in the grove, or dis- 
turbing the birds. Holmes supplies that 
hickory which makes one careless of the 
crackling of thorns. Franklin makes the 
America of a past generation a part of the 
great world, before treaties had bound the 
floating States into formal connection with 
venerable nations. 

What is all this, indeed, but saying 
that the rich inheritance which we have 
is no local ten-acre lot, but a part of the 
undivided estate of humanity ? Universal- 
ity, cosmopolitanism, — these are fine words, 
but no man ever secured the freedom of the 
universe who did not first pay taxes and vote 
iu his own village. — Atlantic Monthly. 



THE CINCINNATI SCHOOLS. 



THE Cincinnati School Board has for 
years been unique in its organization. 
The schools have been managed largely 
through " local trustees." These local trus- 
tees were elected for each school district, 
and had in their hands the power to appoint 
all teachers in their respective districts, and 
also to supervise the schools. This local 
committee could put in any teacher or put 
out any teacher without consulting the Su- 
perintendent of schools, the principal of 
the district, or the general board of educa- 
tion. It also outranked the principal in the 
details of management; and the principal 
was responsible to this committee rather 
than to the Superintendent or the general 
board. 

Any school man will see at a glance that 
such a plan must prove utterly destructive to 
any adequate system of supervision. Under 
such an arrangement it was impossible that 
the Superintendent should be much more 
than a '* figure-head." 

When the Hon. E. £. White took charge 
of these schools last year and began to study 
their working, these defects were impressed 
upon him, and he has recently made a re- 
port to the board calling attention to needed 
changes. It is not necessary to say that the 
report caused a sensation, neither is it ne- 
cessary to say that the strength of hb posi- 
tion could not be gainsaid, and that the 
board is to be reorganized in accordance 
with his suggestions. 

And furthermore, the legislature has 
taken up the matter and passed a law taking 
from these local school boards the power ta 
appoint teachers, and giving it to the super- 
intendent, subject only to the approval of 
the board. According to this law the school 
board can reject a teacher nominated by the 
Superintendent, but can not put in a teacher 
that the Superintendent does not first name. 
This is as it should be ; if the Superinten- 
dent is held responsible for the efficiency of 
the school, he should have the right to se- 
lect his own teachers. This has been the 
custom in Indianapolis for many years, and 
should be the custom everywhere. Any 
school board that wishes to do the best thing: 
possible by the schools, will at once concede 
that a competent superintendent is better 
qualified to select and assign teachers than 
any school board, as such, can possibly be. 
There is only one possible objection to al- 
lowing Superintendents the privilege of 
nominating their own teachers, and that is, 
it is hard on those members of school boards. 



so 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



who are there chiefly that they may provide 
places for their daughters, their sisters, 
** their cousins and their aunts." 

If we were so disposed we could name 
several towns and cities in Indiana that 
need reforming in this respect just as much as 

did Cincinnati. Indiana School JoumaL 



BY WAY OF SUGGESTION. 



KEEP the school room warm, neat, and 
cheerful. If the walls are dingy, go to 
the director and offer to paper them if he will 
furnish the paper. Get some one in the 
district to help you, and hang the paper on 
Saturday. Do not take ''no" for an 
answer. Be determined, and you will suc- 
ceed. 

*2. Gather together some good pictures. 
Heliotype reproductions of the works of the 
greatest artists can be obtained for twenty- 
five cents to ji apiece ; also steel engravings 
of great American authors. Send for cata- 
logue and price list to Prang & Co., Chi- 
cago, or Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 
Mass. You can get them neatly framed for 
twenty-five cents each. Pay for them out 
of your first month's salary. They will then 
be your own, and you can take them where- 
ever you go. But if the children will unite 
and buy them for the school, that will be 
better for them. But have some good 
pictures on your papered walls. Be deter- 
mined, and you will succeed. 

3. Be kind, amiable, and active in trying 
to make the school a pleasant and happy 
place. Keep full of the spirit of helpful- 
ness and love for the children. 

4. Seat your pupils so that the orderly 
ones will help the disorderly ones. It is 
ihuch more important to regard this than 
to follow the rule of seating in classes. 
Put the mischievous pupil in good company. 
Good habits are catching as well as bad 
ones. 

5. Have regular and definite work for 
each pupil every hour in the day. Arrange 
the programme so that he will always have 
something to do. 

6. Combine your classes in writing, spell- 
ing, drawing, and geography as much as 
possible, so as to make as few classes as the 
school will admit of. 

7. Go to some printer's office and get a 
lot of slips of pasteboard with lists of the 
letters of the alphabet printed on them; 
cut these up into square bits with one letter 
on each square. Get also a lot of shoe-pegs 
from the shoemaker. Supply every one of 



the beginners with a number of these to use 
in spelling out his reading lesson on his 
desk, or in working out his number lesson. 
Have each child bring two little boxes to 
keep his supply of letters and pegs in. 
Every child must have a slate and pencil 
also. Be determined, and you will succeed. 

8. Be always on time, not only in begin- 
ning and closing the sessions, but in begin- 
ning and closing all exercises. Have a time 
for everything and everything on time. 

9. Be at the school-house early in the 
morning. You can then tidy things up and 
be ready with a cheerful " good morning'' 
for all who come. Be determined, and you 
will succeed. 

10. Be well prepared for every lesson you 
are to teach. Know it so well that you will 
not have to study your lesson in the class. 
You cannot teach what you do not know ; 
and if you do not teach well you may be 
sure that you will have trouble in governing 
your school. There are no rules for the 
good government of the school if the teacher 
cannot teach well. Teaching and govern- 
ing cannot be separated. 

Illinois School Journal. 



RUTLEDGE INSTITUTE. 



ADDRESS OF HON. H. C. HICKOK. 



THE cornerstone of Rutledge Institute of 
Morton, Delaware county. Pa., was laid 
with appropriate ceremonies, on Saturday, 
May 14th. The building will cost about 
jSooo, making it the most expensive public 
school building in the county. The First 
Regiment band was present and opened the 
programme at 4 p. m. Hon. H. C. Hickok, 
ex-State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion in Pennsylvania, made the formal ad- 
dress upon this interesting occasion. 

After referring to the difficulty of speaking 
in the open air and the disturbing influences 
upon thought and expression of the physical 
effort to be heard, Mr. Hickok remarked in 
substance that far more important than solid 
walls and imposing architecture is the work 
to be done in these school rooms when they 
come to be occupied. What shall be the 
instruction and character-building to go on 
there year after year from one generation to 
another? That depends entirely upon whom 
you will devolve that momentous trust. See 
to it, therefore, that you aim high, and em- 
ploy only the best qualified and most skillful 
teachers that you can procure; those who 
love the teaching art for its own sake, who 



i887] 



ADDRESS OF EX-STATE SUPT HICKOK. 



51 



can sympathize with and understand child 
life and from natural insight and professional 
training make school attractive to children 
and make them contented and happy. To 
that end do not employ teachers upon the 
" lowest bidder ' ' principle. Look for quali- 
fiations first, and when you have found 
them don't be parsimonious and mean in 
fixing the salary. Compensate your teach- 
ers so that they will work under the inspira- 
tion of buoyant hopefulness, and thus aid 
them to inspire their pupils with enthusiasm 
also. Buy anything cheap but cheap teach- 
ing, for it is the dearest article in the mar- 
ket and yields the poorest return for the 
money paid. In fact, the money paid for 
poor teaching is money thrown away — there 
is nothing to show for it. The dollars and 
cents supposed to be saved are no gain, it is 
only the profit of a loss, for what you pay 
you lose and get no consideration for it. 
If stunted minds and warped and distorted 
mental faculties were as plainly visible to 
the public eye as dwarfed bodies and dis- 
torted limbs from physical cruelty, popular 
indignation would drive incompetent teach^ 
ers from the field, and anathematize the di- 
rectors who employed them. 

Again, in any properly adjusted system of 
public schools, the primary school is the post 
of honor, first in the delicacy and difficulty 
of the task, and also in its importance in re- 
lation to the pupils' future progress. There- 
fore, assign your most skillful and intelligent 
teachers to the primary department, and pay 
them as high a salary as in any other grade. 
Thus only can you acquit yourselves of your 
duty to the young immortals whose fate is 
for the time being in your hands. 

'* The first footfalls of thought in the halls 
of the soul " should be under the most en- 
lightened and sympathetic guidance. If the 
firstjsteps be rightly directed the after-pro- 
gress will be smooth and satisfactory. The 
teacher's professional resources and range of 
mental vision should be broader and more 
luminous than the narrow horizon of the text- 
hook; as the sun in the heavens is more lu- 
minous and vivifying than the feeble rays of 
a tallow dip. If I were empowered to organ- 
ize a primary school and name the instruc- 
tor, I would select a Louis Agassiz at J5000 
a year and consider him cheap at the price. 
But as the Agassizs are not so numerous as are 
Delaware shad, and even the prospective bor- 
ough of Rutledge with all its brilliant ex- 
pectations is not likely to have that amount 
to spare for a single teacher, I must ask you 
to regard this ideal as a forecast of what 
some day, when education, in the fullest, 



truest meaning of the term, instead of the 
impoverished thing it now so often is, shall 
reach the commanding pre-eminence in our 
social economy to which it is entitled. 
Such teachers combining the wisdom of Sol- 
omon and the simplicity of a child with a 
heart always near to nature and her exhaust- 
less fascinations, and to childhood with its 
immortal yearnings, the rising tide of popu- 
lar intelligence in future years would be- 
come an ocean where now it is scarcely a 
rivulet. 

Another thing. I observe with regret 
that in your plans you have made no pro- 
vision for at least incidental manual train- 
ing. This could be done in a new enterprise 
much easier than in old communities that 
are slow to change. When the country was 
new, and the wilderness was to be subdued, 
reading, writing and ciphering were thought 
to be all-sufficient for the mass of the peo- 
ple, and were really about all they could 
find profitable use for in the average voca- 
tions of that day, but we have got past all 
that into the swamp of multitudinous studies, 
superficial and otherwise, that the educated 
strong men of half a century ago never 
dreamed of; and now the times require that 
we should cut loose in some measure from the 
over-mastering pedantry and padding of the 
text books into the better balanced theories 
of education that take in both muscle and 
mind. This is a very real world in 1 which 
we find ourselves and in which we have to 
do as well as to think ; and that education is 
one-sided and insufficient that does not pro- 
vide for both contingencies. That wonder- 
ful thing, the human hand, that no finite in- 
telligence could have created, needs to be 
educated, and to have the opportunity to be 
educated as much as any other of the sover- 
eign faculties and powers with which God 
has endowed us ; and it is already demon- 
strated that the two lines of education can 
go forward in harmoniotis co-operation, each 
the better for the other. Two hours once a 
week devoted to this subject would work 
wonders, and then the feeling would be one 
of surprise that it was not put into practice 
long ago. If you drop in at the Hollings- 
worth school-house, on Locust street, in the 
rear of the Academy of Music, any Friday 
afternoon before the school closes for the 
summer, you will be most favorably im- 
pressed by the intelligent activity and skill 
of the boys and girls (for both sexes are 
equally represented) in drawing, modelling 
in clay and wood-carving, and the self-evi- 
dent advantages of such training. At 17th 
and Wood streets you will find advanced 



52 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[August, 



stages of manual training upon a larger, yet 
systematic basis, in which the regular school 
studies are linked with work in wood and 
metals. We cannot undertake to teach 
trades in the public schools, but we can 
train the hand, the eye and the practical 
judgment at the same time that the men- 
tal powers are developed, informed and 
strengthened, and made available for use in 
whatever position in life the pupil may sub- 
sequently be placed. 

The world has no use at this period and 
on this continent for uneducated men and 
women except for their brawn and muscle, 
as hewers of wood and drawers of water for 
those who are in position to command their 
services. Educated mind and skilled labor 
hold the sceptre in practical affairs, and they 
who are not properly and efficiently edu- 
cated must be subordinate in the battle of 
life to those who are. From the logic of 
this position there is no escape, and it is a 
wrong done to school children to deny 
them the opportunities which are to fit them 
for success in the age and the land in which 
they live. Rightly understood, if you will 
read human nature between the lines, the 
cutting of furniture and fences by boys 
who happen to own a jack-knife is but the 
outward and spontaneous manifestation of 
an inborn impulse intended for good by the 
Creator who implanted it ; and the remedy 
is not repression and suppression, but guid- 
ance and direction. Give them tools to 
work withf and materials to work on, and 
the mischievous propensity becomes a com- 
mendable and useful virtue. 



ARITHMETIC IN THE SCHOOLS. 



BY PROF. JOHN W. COOK. 



THE essential facts of addition are the 
sums of any two numbers neither of 
which exceeds nine. Of these there are 
forty- five. The list may be readily written 
by any teacher. The child who has learned 
that two and one are three may not be able 
at once to tell the sum of two and two. If 
he will change the order in which he reads 
his objects, however, he will perceive that 
since he has the same number of objects as 
before, he must have the same result. Of 
these derived facts, obtained by changing 
the order of thought, there are thirty -six. 
There are, then, eighty-one in all. The 
first forty-five must be learned independ- 
ently; the remainder are readily derived 
from them. The child who has learned 



that seven and eight are fifteen will not en- 
counter serious trouble with seventeen and 
eight, twenty-seven and eight, etc. By the 
method here hinted at, the number of facts 
to be memorized is reduced to the minimum, 
and the subsequent work consists chiefly in 
using these elementary facts to discover other 
facts. There will thus be a constant refer- 
ence to what may be called the alphabet of 
combinations, by which any desired result 
may be spelled out. 

But miiltiplication, the second method of 
uniting numbers, calls for additional knowl- 
edge. In the work to 9-1-9=18, some of the 
'' multiplication table " is, or may be, found. 
What is called the '' table of ones " is there, 
the twos to nine twos, six of the threes, four 
of the fours, three of the fives, three of the 
sixes, two of the sevens, two of the eights, 
and two of the nines. Putting the limits of 
the necessary multiplication at 9-}-9» we find 
the following laying outside of eighteen: 
Three of the threes, five of the fours, six of 
the fives, six of the sixes, seven of the sevens, 
seven of the eights, and seven of the nines, 
— forty-one in all, thus increasing the whole 
number to one hundred and twenty-two. 

Turning to the resolving or separating 
processes and examining subtraction, and 
omitting all cases in which minuend and 
subtrahend are equal, we find the same 
number of facts as in addition. Since the 
process is substantially the converse of ad- 
dition, every fact learned there helps the 
acquisition of every fact here. There are, 
as we have seen, eighty-one of them. Di- 
vision and partition stand in the same rela- 
tion to multiplication that subtraction does 
to division. 

We have, then, a body of knowledge 
which the child must acquire. The facts 
comprising it may be tabulated so that the 
teacher shall know when the field is trav- 
ersed. These mastered, he is well on the 
way toward all necessary knowledge for 
ordinary computation. 

The separation of a number into equal 
numbers in its two forms we have called 
respectively, division and partition. It is 
here that the difficulties begin to thicken. 
Problems in addition, subtraction and mul- 
tiplication may always be resolved into ele- 
mentary problems or something quite aktf 
to them. What we call "long division, 
however, involves all of the other open* 
tions. When the divisor is a two-place 
number, the pupil attempts to utilize his 
knowledge by thinking of the left hand 
term as the divisor. This he should be en- 
couraged to do, and the second term should 



{ 



1887.] 



THE PETERS OF TO- DA K 



53 



be kept so small, for a considerable time, as 
not to interfere with his operations. Thus 
he divides by twenty, thirty, forty, etc., al- 
most as easily as by two, three or four. So 
with twenty-one, thirty-one, forty-one, etc., 
any of which offers far less trouble than six- 
teen, seventeen, etc. The increase of the 
rigbi-band term of the divisor, however, 
soon necessitates recalculation, and the pupil 
learns that he must make experimental cal- 
culations before settling upon the quotient, 
fijrtbe isolation of difBculties, the teacher 
may strengthen and establish the pupil's 
confidence in the sufficiency of the elemen- 
tary facts to help him through all the various 
problems that may present themselves. 

From a somewhat extended observation 
of pupils that come to the Normal school 
and from what observers of common schools 
tell me, I am convinced that the value of a 
thorough mastery of about two hundred 
and fifty elementary facts is underrated, and 
that the chief criticism to be made upon 
many teachers, at least so far as their num- 
ber work is concerned, is that they are un- 
viUing to devote sufficient time and energy 
to this elementary work. 

Illinois School Jovmal. 



THE PETERS OF TO-DAY. 



MYRIADS of deaths have occurred in well- 
nigh every minute of time in the history 
of the race. All the countless millions 
^bo have trod the earth have gone inevi- 
tably down into the grave ; why should that 
ooe death of a poor Jew upon a hill in Syria 
stand out apart from all others? Why should 
i each detail of his last hours be familiar to 
I so many millions to- day, now that long ages 
j have passed ? 

I It behooves business men, and secular 
I newspapers, too, to ask this question, for 
there is no power at work as real or as actual 
as that which comes from Calvary — nothing 
which so solidly underlies and gives a basis 
<>f motive to the least part of the every-day 
life and business of the world, as the faith in 
or disbelief of that death upon it. All other 
things change and go and are forgotten. 
£vcn a conquered army or a nation dying 
of famine is forgotten in a few months, with 
all the other dead. But if Jesus has not 
died, if there be any mistake or deception 
l*^t the life and sacrifice of that Man yon- 
der upon the cross, then the lives, the pur- 
pose, the deeds of all Christian men and 
*omen have been ludicrous, ghastly failures ; 
then all the finest civilization, all the help- 



ful brotherly humanity, all the reforms, all 
the progress of the world, in short, for two 
thousand years, have been a lie and been 
built upon a lie. 

This story of Calvary was meant for the 
hearing of all humanity. It is curiously free 
from all national traits; Socrates died a 
Greek among Greeks, but Jesus a man for 
men. Every detail of the history of those 
days is vital with meaning to each one of us 
here to-day. Take, for instance, the night 
on which he was betrayed : the awful soli- 
tude in which he stood. We forget the 
God in the man, as we watch him clinging 
to those friends whom he had loved, as 
death drew near, just as we may cling when 
that last hour comes. How, as they sat at 
meat for the last time, he gave to them a 
remembrance of himself, bidding them fare- 
well in words whose infinite pathos and hope 
have lifted the world to higher levels for all 
time, but which their dull ears did not com- 
prehend. How he took those whd were 
dearest to him out with him to the moun- 
tain to watch with him while he passed 
through that unnamable agony which no 
human soul can understand — how they did 
not watch, but took their ease and slept. 
Angels ministered to him, but perhaps the 
touch of one human hand-^a man's whom 
he loved and for whom he was dying — 
would have given more strength in that hour 
than all the aid of the heavenly host. How, 
when he was dragged through the streets 
by night to judgment, they all forsook him 
and fled. How, at last, standing alone in 
the palace of the high priest, he was con- 
demned to be guilty of death; and the 
crowd spat on him and buffeted him, and 
the very servants struck him with their 
palms; and standing afar off was Peter, his 
friend, the man who two hours before had 
sworn to die with him. He cried out as 
loudly now, " I know not the man." **And 
the Lord turned and looked upon Peter.'* 
The reproach, the judgment in that look, 
has come down to us through all the ages. 

And we here to-day, do we not call our- 
selves his disciples, just as did Peter? Are 
we beside him when his cause is on trial 
before the world ? Peter, too, was a faith- 
ful friend while the multitude crowded about 
his Master. But what about our behavior 
at home, or in the school, or in the office? 
Are we so patient, so honest, so truthful, 
that the man who buys goods from us, and 
the boy who sweeps out the office, or the 
pupils who look to us from yonder desks, 
have no doubt that we '*know the Man?" 
Or does it need only a petty annoyance or 



54 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



temptation to make us turn our backs on 
him, and deny as loudly as Peter? 

We call ourselves a Christian nation, too. 
Take the latest scandal trial, and all the depth 
of infamy which it indexed; take the last 
shooting-matches in Richmond and New 
York, and the condition of society which 
they show; take the Indian and the Negro 
as examples of the way in which we have 
dealt with his weaker brothers whom he 
left to our care ; take the reckless waste of 
opportunity everywhere about us in the 
home, the church, the school-room, in so- 
ciety at large. What are these things say- 
ing to the world if not, *' We know not the 
Man ?'' 

What if the Lord should turn now and 
look upon Peter? 



SNEERED AT. 



BY MARIE B. WILLIAMS. 



^^ ITS a shame and disgrace to the graduating 

1 class that any one of us should be dressed 
so shabbily!** said Edith Linton to a group of 
girls who were discussing the closing exercises 
of Lester Seminary, now near at hand. " Of 
course it reflects on us to have a* poor nobody 
with us.** 

" Particularly since that poor nobody is to re- 
cite the valedictory poem,** laughed good- 
natured Bessie Long. " If we could keep her 
in a comer, or draw attention from her by our 
own better appearance, she might be overlooked ; 
but if she is shabby she will be conspicuously 
shabby that night.** 

" When people can*t dress their children as 
they ought, they have no right to send them to 
a school like this,'* said Edith. 

"Oh, Tve heard Alga Rivers say her uncle 
in California pays her school-bills,** one of the 
girls answered. "She says her father is too 
poor to send her here, and she's going out as a 
teacher next year.**- 

" Why don*t her uncle in California give her 
decent clothes, then ?** Edith said. " It*s an 
insult to every scholar in the school to send a 
beggar here, where the first families in the 
country send their daughters. Here*s Blanche 
Armstrong. Blanche, we*re discussing Alga 
River's dress. You sit next to her. How shall 
you like your elegant white silk grenadine to be 
cheapened by her coarse white muslin ?*' 

Blanche Armstrong was an heiress, and a 
leader among the girls. She was not quick in 
her studies and was very indolent, but she was 
not purse-proud, and she had very generous 
instincts. She thought little of the money which 
was profusely lavished on her, but a great deal 
of the talent and genius which her money could 
not buy. Of late she had given great dissatis- 
faction to some of her companions by seeking 
the society of Alga Rivers. 

"How would I like it ?** she answered, in her 



slow way. " Well, I*d like it better if the schol- 
arship covered by the coarse white muslin could 
be communicated by contact to the white silk 

frenadine. If I could have written that val^ 
ictory poem I'd be willing to make a bonfire 
of my wardrobe and go in coarse serge, at least 
for awhile.** 

"Oh, my ! what noble sentiments!*' sneered 
Edith. " Now, for my part, I must confess ^ 
I think to dress well is as necessary to make a 
lady as her birth, or manners, or anything else." 

"Oh, but Alga's dress is so awful coant, 
Blanche !" cried Susy Randolph. " It's a muslin, 
just as coarse as lining, and is made perfectly 
plain : not a rufHe or flounce on the skirt, not a 
shred of lace on the neck. Nothing but a nar- 
row frill of the muslin. Why, it's so shabby 
one of our servants would be ashamed to wear 
it!" 

"You know,** said a gentle-looking girl 
" Alga*s mother used to be a lady. Oh, I doo't 
mean she isn*t a lady now, but she used to be 
rich ; and, poor as sne is, she will not let Alga 
wear imitation lace or jewelry. She says it's 
vulgar, and that a clear, plain, white muslin, do 
matter how coarset is in better taste than any 
imitation." 

" She*s right !" Blanche said, rousing up to 
animation. " With Alga*s fine figure and face, 
she can stand the severest simplicity. I only 
wish I could, for Tm disgusted with finery." 

" rd like to see you forced to wear Alga's i 
dresses for awhile !" Edith cried. " I don't thiolc ' 
we*d hear anything more about simplicity." \ 

Blanche seldom took the trouble to argue any 
question with her companions. She did not 
answer, but sauntered with her usual languid 
step to the extreme end of the play ground. A 
girl sitting on a bench under the shade of a tree, 
with dark hair cut short like a boy*s, and bright, 
eager gray eyes, was reading intendy in a large 
book she held on her knee. 

" Tve come here for auiet, Alga,*' Bland 
said, throwing herself on the grass. "The 
are chattering like so many magpies overtbi 
and they've given me a headache." 

Alga pushed up her short hair with an im 
tient, boyish gesture. 

" Chatter, yes ! I believe you, especially wb 
dress is the subject. Of course, they've * 
discussing my coarse, mean muslin. That 
give them enough to talk about until the end 
the session. Don't deny it, Blanche. I know 
dress was the topic." 

"Why should I deny it?" Blanche saii 
quietly. " You are above such things as ' " 
I am sure, and you can afford to be indiffi 
to their foolish talk — you who have so m 
else to think of.*' 

"But I do mind it!*' the giri cried, v 
mently. " It hurts me to the very quick, 
don't mind telling you this, Blanche, for I 
lieve your my friend ; but, do you know 
willingly give up most of the prizes I expect, 
be decently dressed, and know that dun 
Edith Linton, wouldn't be able to sneer at 
Oh. of course, I'm ashamed to feel so, and 1 
you're ashamed of me for saying it, but its 
truth nevertheless." 



i«87.] 



SNEERED AT. 



55 



Blanche sat almost astounded at this revela- 
tion. She had believed that people who pos- 
sessed talent lived habitually in lofty regions, 
where such petty things as dress never intruded. 
It was the first time her friend had ever spoken 
of her personal feelings in such matters, and she 
was confounded at the revelation. 

" I never thought — I never dreamed you were 
buitby such things !'* she stammered. 

"Why, they are constant pin-pricks, and 
often make me cross and irritable. I shall be 
glad to get away from here ; but then I suppose 

I shaU be obliged to endure the same vexation 
wherever I go. Of one thing -I am certain : a 
poor teacher won't be expected to dress like rich 
people!" she added bitterly. 

"We're such intimate friends, you know,** 
Blanche said hesitatingly, " and we are about 
the same size. Now, why can't you wear one 
of my dresses that evening ?*' 

Alga put her hands over her friend's mouth. 
"Don't say any more, Blanche. I know I'm 
very foolish, but mv dear mother has given me 
some lessons of independence that I can't for- 
get. My dear, I don't think it would mend 
matters for me to show myself ashamed of my 
dothes by flaunting in borrowed finery. I only 
wish poor mamma had been able to get me a 
few yards of lace ; a muslin frill looks so cheap 
and dowdy. You see I'm cursed with a taste 
for delicate toilet accessories." 

"I wish you'd let me help you," Blanche 
sighed. 

" You do help me !" Alga cried, throwing her 
arms around her friend's neck. " Your friend- 
ship gives me a better opinion of girls, and 
helps my better nature ; but you shan't help my 
frivolous, groveling tastes. It's all over now, 
Blanche," raising her bright face, where not a 
shadow remained. *' My dark hour has passed. 
I had become demoralized bv dress-talk and 
spitefulness, but * I've wakened to my marcies,' 
ss good old Mammy Dinah used to say. It's 
among my ' marcies ' that kind Uncle John has 
pen me a good education, and my grumbling 
B over until 1 get back home and begin to prac- 
tice the 'minor economies,' as old Professor 
Allen calls them." 

This was brave talk, but Blanche, who was a 
^ent observer, and in a litde way a philoso- 
pher, noticed that as the eventful day drew near 
^^ grew very grave, and was often foolishly 
in^ble. If by chance she came upon a litde 
^ot of girls discussing dress, she would turn 
from them with a flushed face ; her sharp wit 
vas onsparingly used on her companions, and, 
of OHirse inspired in them a feeling of intense 
dishke. They whispered to each other that she 
^*^ so cross and envious that they hated the 
very s^t of her, and hoped she would lose the 
prizes. 

She did not, however. She took them with 
& defiant air, so unlike her usual calm dignity, 
that her teachers stared with surprise. A few 
bours before the evening exercises Blanche, 
who was alone with her, said, "You are not 
yourself. Alga. What is the matter with you ? 
^u are so nervous I'm almost afraid you will 
««ak down this evening." 



" I shouldn't be surprised if I did," she an- 
swered, gloomily. " When I am angry I lose 
my memory, and if I forget a word of my poem 
I'm sure then to become so confused that I shall 
make a failure. Oh, you don't know all I have 
undergone — the hidden taunts and insults that 
have met me at every turn. To-day I got a 
caricature of mvself in the cheap muslin I am 
to wear. A nightful thing, with a hideous 
motto that I won't repeat. Do you know, 
Blanche, I've a great mmd to go to bed and 
say I'm too ill to appear. I've lost all courage." 

"You must not do that, in justice to yourself 
and your friends," Blanche said, gently. "Your 
uncle will be grieved, and I shall be so morti- 
fied that I shall not dare to raise my head. 
Think of your mother, too, and forget sdl these 
annovances." 

" 1 11 try," Alga said, with a faint smile; "I 
certainly am nervous, from over-study, 1 sup- 
pose, or I shouldn't be in such a frame of mind. 
Blanche, you don't know what it is to feel that 
you are so disliked that your schoolmates are * 
all watching eagerly to see you fail, and if you 
do they rejoice. If I could only forget them." 

Toward night the graduating class appeared, 
dazzling in their embroidered muslins and 
grenadmes made in the most fashionable man- 
ner. 

"How do you like my dress?" "Oh, it's 
perfectly lovely!" "What a stylish fit!" "How 
beautifully your hair is dressed!" "What ex- 
c]^uisite flowers !" were whispers heard on every 
side. 

Carrying her head very high, a hot flush on 
her cheeks, Alga entered the room. She did 
not know that her coarse muslin fitted her per- 
fectly, and in the absence of all trimmings 
showed off the lines <A her fine figure to the 
utmost advantage. 

It seemed taller and finer for the classic sim- 
plicity. It suited her style, and with a pang, 
Edith Linton recognized the fact. But she did 
her malicious best She threw as much con- 
tempt in her glance at the despised muslin as 
her eyes could express, and gathered up her 
costly lace flounces as if she was afraid the 
mushn might touch them. 

"Where on earth is Blanche?" she cried, 
affectedly. "O girls, I'm just dying to see that 
lovely dress she received from Paris. It's an 
elegant costume — gloves, fan, shoes to match. 
Here she comes now. Oh, good gracious !" 

These exclamations drew all eyes to Blanche. 
Where was the magnificent toilette ? A plain 
white muslin, made very much like Alga's, 
neither flounces, laces, ribbons, nor even a 
breastpin, but a white rose at her neck standing 
in lieu of one. 

"It's a Cinderella reversed, isn't it, girls?" 
she said, smiling. " I was so disgusted with my 
finery I wanted a change, and I thought Alga's 
dress looked so nice. But I've surprised her as 
much as anybody, I see," crossing over to' Alga 
and taking her hand. " I only wish I looked 
half as well as you look, dear,' she said, look- 
ing at her with frank admiration. " We're such 
plain birds we shall, I think, be obliged to keep 
together to-night, and I am glad of it." 



V 



56 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[August 



It was as much as Alga could do to keep from 
bursting into tears 

" I know what you've done this for, you dear, 
noble girl,*' she whispered, her eyes shining 
through repressed tears. " Yes, and you shan't 
make this sacrifice for nothing. Do vou think 
I could fail with you before me ? Til do my 
best, for you've made me forget my own foolish- 
ness and the petty malice of the other girls." 

She did her best, and her best was very good, 
indeed. Her poem was greeted with app&use, 
and Blanche heard more than one person ask 
eager questions about that handsome girl who 
repeated the valedictory poem so exquisitely. 
" Such simplicity of dress — actually classic, you 
know." 

Blanche and Alg^a were close friends through 
life. Some years afterward, when one day they 
were talking over their old school-life. Alga 
said: "If it hadn't been for that kind act of 
vours, Blanche, I don't know what would have 
Decome of me. I was so bitter at that wretched 
Utde Edith and the others that I did not care 
what became of me. To be sure, it was foolish 
and wrong, but I could not help it. When you 
restored my faith in others you restored me to 
myself. I've never forgotten the lesson." 

*' I learned one, too,' Blanche said, laughing. 
" I found that the simpler the dress, if it only 
fits well, the more it is admired, by gentlemen, 
at least; I don't answer for ladies. You are 
able now to wear what you choose, but I have 
never seen you look half as well as in that 
coarse, plain muslin." 

*' I keep it as an heirloom," Alga said, with 
her old impetuosity. " When I married I told 
my husband the story, and when my children 
are older, if I ever see them embittered against 
any one, thev shall hear how silly their mother 
was, and what a wise, good friend she was 
blessed with. Ah. Blanche, was there another 

girl in the world who would be willing to sacri- 
ce an exquisite toilette just to do an act like 
that ?" — Youths' Companion, 



BEETHOVEN.— Margaret Fuller. 

Mo9t intellectual master of the art, 

Which, best of all, teaches the mind of man 

The universe in all its varied plan, — 
What strangely mingled thoughts thy strain impart ! 
Here the faint tenor thrills the inmost heart, 

There the rich bass the Reason's balance shows ; 

Here breathes the softest sigh that Love e*er knows ; 
There sudden fancies, seeming without chart, 

Float into wildest breezy interludes ; 
The past is all forgot, — hopes sweetly breathe. 
And our whole being glows, — when io ! beneath 

The flowery brink. Despair's deep sob concludes. 
Startled, we strive to free us from the chain, — 
Notes of high triumph sw«ll, and we are thine again 1 



MUSIC AS A REVELATION OF GOD. 



BY REV. T. T. HUNGER. 



PRECoaousNESS of intellect, love of criti- 
cisid, of excitement, and self-gratification, 
are not the signs of a healthful, hopeful 
youth, cherishing noble ideas, which, real- 
ized in manhood, would bring about a 
purer state of siDciety. — Kriege. 



CREATION is interpreted to us by the five senses, 
all of which act by some kind of impression and 
turm the one bridge between ourselves and the world 
of matter — one bridge of sensation, but dividing, as 
it were, at the end where it touches man, and be- 
coming sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. If 
man were considered as made up of mind and heart 
and an animal nature, sight might be regarded as re- 
vealing creation to his mind, hearing to bis heart, 
smell and taste and touch to his animal nature. The 
distinction is only apparent and is vaguely general, 
for as the five senses are but one sense of touch, lo 
man is a being who cannot be divided into parU; 
man is one. But the distinctions are practicUy vala- 
able, and are necessary to a classification of knowl- 
edge. By the eye we discover an immeasurable 
universe packed with thoughts, or lawsand pnenses 
that are based on thouglus— chiefly mathematical; 
for whatever else the universe may be and may ex- 
press, it is mathematical, and mathematics, as all will 
confess, touches only the intellectual side of us. It is 
true that we may see, zxidfrel by seeing, but if crea- 
tion were revealed to us only through the eye, we 
should know far more than we sliould feel. So atf- 
other organ is provided that shall bring creation to 
us as emotional brings — the ear, conveying sound. 
It is true that the eye can feed the heart and the ear 
can minister to the mind ; they play into each other; 
still, the distinction is real. Hence, if using the eye 
we look at creation and find mathematical laws in 
gravitation and crystallization, and so infer, as we ^ 
must, that there is a mind behind the laws thai 
speaks to our minds through them, so using the ear 
and hearing sounds that touch our hearts, we must 
infer that there is a heart behind the laws of sound 
that seeks to reveal itself to us through them. >Ve 
cannot escape this conclusion. For as the mind can 
get out of creation no more mathematical relations 
than were put into it, so the heart cannot get from 
sounds more emotion than was originally lodged in 
the laws that produce sounds; the effect never ex- 
ceeds the cause. If the laws of nature seen by the 
eye reveal an infinite thought or thinker, so these 
laws heard by the ear and aaing on the heart reveal 
an infinite heart that ordained them. But the laws 
of sound rest as fully on mathematics as do the laws 
of gravitation and crystallization, and so point to the 
same source — eye and ear, mind and heart, resting 
on One who is both mind and heart. There «•* 
theories that conceive of the source of creation as 
only thought, because they find everywhere thought- 
relations; other theories which claim that it is force, 
because they find a universal and indestructible en- 
ergy ; but it would be as logical to claim that^ thi» 
original source is feeling or emotion, for there is as 
much in the universe to awaken emotion as there w 
to indicate thought or energy. Indeed, as we only 
come to full consciousness of ourselvesinemotionsr^ 
emotion or feeling being the highest exercise of o* 
nature — so far as we can reason from our nature J 
its origin, it indicates that we spring from • ^^""^^ 
feeling, or an infinite Heart. Hence the higb» 
wisdom has declared that God is Love, and that tK 
worids were made by the Son of God— the eteroa^ 
begotten manifestation of Love; and the severe* 
science cannot logically assert the contrary- 

Leaving the field of metophysics, let us enter toe 
world of sound that lies about us and see how ▼ 



I887.J 



MUSIC AS A REVELATION OF GOD. 



57 



it is— how packed with emotions — ^how thoroughly 
attuned it already is to the heart of man — a very 
voice of God which, if it could utter all its notes at 
oDce, would give forth an infinite and eternal har- 
mony. 

There is lodged in all created things — so far as we 
know— a capacity for sound. There is no sut)6tance 
K) coarse and unyielding, except perhaps some clays, 
baft has its note which may be brought out under con- 
ditioos either of concussion or tension. Strike any 
solid iMog, and in addition to the noise caused by 
the vibiating air you will hear a certain note or key 
that belongs to the thing itself; or stretch auiy tenst- 
bie thing and it will give out a note peculiar to itself 
when it is sufficiently touched. We do not hear 
gases when they are gently moved, nor a bubble 
vben it hursts, but only because our eairs are dull to 
their fineness. The pipes in the organ have had no 
capacity given them, but simply yield up what their 
original substances contained. Once they were solid 
woods, gross tin or lead hidden in the heart of the 
earth, but even there they had this capacity for sound, 
and their note and quality, as they had color and 
chemical affinity. Man has only developed what 
was within them By arranging their shape and size 
and passing a current of air through them, we obtain 
a sonnd which the ear pronounces a musical note. 
And so we speak of a brassy sound — ^refernng it not 
to a law of vibration nor to the shape of the instru- 
■ent, but to its substance. Not only a certain kind 
of wood is required by the violinist, but only a cer- 
tain quality of that wood will give him the quality of 
MMind he desires. Some substances give forth their 
notes without re-arrangement by simple concussion, 
or friction, or tension. Water falling from various 
heights, aiid reeds of different lengths swept by the 
wind, and branches of trees bending under the storm, 
otter their notes, sometimes forming almost harmony. 
And so we may consider the earth as a harp strung 
with innumerable strings, silent yet, but full of tuneful 
Knnds and needing only the skill of man to bring 
them out. This universal capacity for sound or tone 
is not a bare and unrelated thing, but is connected 
with a law of music which has its seat first in the air 
ud then in the mind of man. We find in the air 
tbe musical scale or octave consisting of eight notes 
fenned by quicker or slower vibrations, and so hav- 
ifig a mathematical basis. All we can say of this 
kw is that it is a law — ^why and how we cannot tell. 
Corresponding to this law of the air is a law of hear- 
ng within us, so that the musical sense with which 
vc are endowed accords with the musical law of 
^hntion. Thus the scale or octave has two appar- 
<U tonrccs or foundations— one in the air, the other 
u> man. The octave does not more truly exist in 
the mathematicad vibration of air than in the mind, 
^c *peak vaguely if we say that main has a capacity 
^hearing the octave in the air; the law of the oc 
^^« with its mathematical exactness, is wrought into 
his aatnre as thoroughly as it is wrought into the ex- 
(nittl world. The wonderful thing here is not the 
■dapiatioii of naiture to man, but the absolute iden. 
tity of the law in nature and the law in man ; for if 
we onlj alently think the octave, we think it as un- 
pcr the same mathematical law as when we hear it 
ta actual vibrmtion. We behold here a manifestation 
of God that goes far beyond that of a skillful de- 
2|eBer— forcing on us the thought that God is in the 
*«t themselves. And so, at once, we leap to the 
tnod conclusion that it is because God is so im- 
•w»ed, as It were, in these laws that we can use 
^hcm for His praise beyond any others revealed to us. 
The snbjea is full of suggestion at this point. 



Most impressive is the teleological aspect of it. Be- 
gin as far back in creation as you will — ^in the geo- 
logic ages when there was no ear to hear — and you 
find this capacity for sound in all material things; 
no harmony, no music as yet, but only a note ready 
to be brought out, and in the forming air a law of 
vibration ready to turn the note into harmony, and 
finally the ear of man ready to catch the harmonies 
that his skill evokes, and behind the ear the soul 
ready to praise God in the sounds and harmonies so 
prepared from the beginning. Here is an orderly 
sequence of steps aind adaptations mounting contin- 
ually higher — ^proceeding from God in creation and 
at last ending m God in the accorded praise of His 
own conscious image. 

We do not find in nature what may properly be 
called music, but only its materials and its laws. 
Man only can create music, for nothing is perfect in 
creation until, in some way, it touches or passes 
through man. He is the end and object of creation, 
amd its processes sure full and have meaning only 
when they issue in him. Everything in nature is a 
puzzle until it finds its solution in man, who solves 
it by connecting it in some way with God, and so 
completes the circle of creation Like everything 
else in nature, music is a becomings and it becomes its 
full self when its sounds smd laws are used by intel- 
ligent man for the production of harmony, and so 
made the vehicle of emotion and thought. But 
sound even before it becomes music may be the oc- 
casion of emotion, though not of complex emotions, 
or — we may say — ^intelligent emotion. It is the pe- 
culiarity of the sounds of nature that they awaken 
but a single emotion ; each thing has its note and 
some one corresponding feeling. Enter at evening a 
grove of pines and listen to the wind sighing through 
the branches ; the term by which we spontaneously 
descril)e it indicates the one feeling of pensive mel- 
ancholy it awakens, but an orchestra could not ren- 
der it more effectively. It lacks, however, the qual- 
ity of intelligence because it is not combined with 
other sounds for some end. The song ** What are 
the wild waves saying ? " raises a qucsdon hard to 
answer. It is not a hymn to the grea^ Cieator until 
it has passed through the aulonng and reflecting 
mind of man. But even if there is no music in na- 
ture — not even in the notes of birds, as the men of 
science tell us, for the birds but whistle — there are 
the materials of music, all furnished with their notes 
set to corresponding emotions; amd the gaunut is 
broader than has been compassed. Beyond the 
reach of the ear of man is a universe of sound — 
vibrations slower and deeper than those of Niagara, 
quicker and finer than those of the mosquito's wing, 
and each is dowered with power to awaken some 
emotion that now we do not feel because we do not 
hear the sound. The materialists are much con- 
cerned about the possibility of an environment in 
case of a future life. Where and of what? they 
ask. Well, here is an environment of possible emo- 
aon transcending present knowledge, and so perhaps 
awaiting minds to feel it. It is difiicult to believe 
that God has put Himself into creauton in the form 
of emotional sounds and no ear be made to hear 
them. If a part of creation comes to a realized use 
in man, why not the whole ? If creation is the path 
between God and man by which they come to each 
other, must not man journey along the whole of it, 
even as God has ? 

But if there is no music in nature there is a proph- 
ecy and some hint, and even faint articulation of it. 
In a favoring spot an echo often starts another echo, 
but an octave above, and in rare places still amswer- 



58 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



ing echoes not only in the same key but always in 
hannony, softer and sweeter. This is almost music, 
and seems a call to man to liberate it from the prison 
of matter and suffer it to become the harmony it is 
striving to express — reminding one of that striking 
passage of Goethe's child correspondent : " When I 
stand all alone at night in open nature, I feel as 
though it were a spirit and begged redemption of me. 
Often have I had the sensation, as if nature, in wail- 
ing sadness, entreated something of me, so that not 
to understand what she longed cut through my very 
heart." The child uttered the deepest philosophy 
and touched the very se%et of creation — even this, 
that God is not above creation as a mechanician, but 
is in it by indwelling presence, one with its laws. 
Himself the secret energy of its processes and the 
soul of the sentiments and thoughts lodged within it, 
and so coming to man for recognition. There is no 
fuller revelation of God in nature than is found in 
these laws of sound by which He comes into the very 
heart of man, even to its inmost recesses of love and 
adoration ; and it requires only a sensitive, child-like 
heart to interpret this speechless music locked within 
lUture as the voice of God pleading to be let out into 
music and praise through the heart of man, for so 
only can His works praise Him. 

I turn abruptly from this world of sound as a reve- 
lation of God, to music as a revelation or prophecy 
of the future. I do not say the future world nor the 
future of humanity in this world, as I mean both and 
regard them as one. There is a future of this world 
in a historical sense, and there is a future world that 
is above history; but if death is all that divides them, 
and if death is abolished, they become one. Hence, 
while the distinction in some ways is to be retained, 
in moral ways the two worlds are to be regarded as 
one. Regenerated humanity and heaven are inter- 
changeable terms; they are alike, and one simply 
passes on and up into the other. It is a central con- 
ception of Christianity that death is but an incident 
in the external history of man. Hence Christ sweeps 
it out of His path almost as with the scorn of indif- 
ference. Hence also in the Apocalypse, with this 
principle to guide us, we read ot heaven and find it 
refers to this world; the new Jerusalem comes down 
from God out of heaven, and the tabernacle of God 
is with men. Is it here or there ? We need not an- 
swer except to say that it is both, but under a con- 
ception of eternity and not of time. This inseparable 
blending of moral perfection and heavenly existence, 
so confusing to ordinary thought, is itself a revelation 
not to be passed by, and one under which we should 
teach ourselves to think and act. In its struggle 
with thought and language to unfold the way to fu- 
ture perfection, the universe itself is taxed for forms 
of expression. The sun and moon, the stars, the sea, 
thunders and lightnings, the four winds, the rocks, 
mountains and islands, fire and earthquake, hail and 
smoke, trees and green grass, horses and lions and 
locusts and scorpions, the clouds and the rainbow, 
dragons and floods, eagles and nameless beasts, the 
serpent and the lamb, the forces of nature in their 
mightiest exhibition, the travail of birth, the cities 
and the nations, all angels and men, temples and al- 
tars, kings and queens and wine of wrath, bottomless 
pits and fiery lakes, death and mourning and famine, 
merchants with their merchandise of gold and the 
souls of men — such are the materials of which the 
drama of human society is composed as it moves on 
towards perfection. But as the end draws nigh, this 
tumultuous scenery of the elements and of lower 
nature passes away, and another order of imagery 
appean. Now we behold a city lying four-square. 



open on all sides, paved with gold, watered by a 
river of life and fed by a tree of Ufe and lighted by 
the glory of God. But underneath the whole mighty 
process of advancing righteousness and continuous 
jndgment is heard the note of praise — Sharpers harp- 
ing with their harps — and, at the end, the song of 
Moses and of the Lamb--the song of deliverance 
and victory. The underlying or central image of 
the Apocalypse is song — the voice of harpers mul- 
ling with the voice of great thunden and of many 
waters and of a great multitude — ^heard throughout 
and heard at last in the universal ascription — ^" Hal- 
lelujah ! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth." 

If we take this central image and ask why it is 
used to describe heaven or the future of regenerated 
humanity, the answer would be — because of its fitness. 
If this final condition were defined in bare words, 
it would be as follows: Obedience, Sympathy, Feel- 
ing or Emotion, and Adoration. These, in a sense, 
constitute Heaven, or the state of regenerated hu- 
manity. By the consent of all ages, heaven has been 
represented under a conception of music, and will be 
in all ages to come. It is subjected to many sneers, 
but the sneer is very shallow. The human oiind 
must have some form under which it can think of its 
destiny. It is not content to leave it in vagueness. 
It is a real world we are in, and we are real men and 
women in it. We dwell in mystery and within Umi> 
tations, but over and above the mystery and the Umi- 
tation is an indestructible sense ot reahty. I am, and 
I know that I am. Standing on this soUd rock, I 
find reality about me, nor can I be persuaded that 
other beings and things are dreams or shadows. It 
is in my very nature to believe in reality, and to I 
demand defihite conceptions, nor can I rest in vague- 
ness or be content with formless visions and tbetr 
abstractions. Thus the human mind has always 
worked and thus it always wrill work — ^leaving behind 
it the logicians and plodders in science, in the free 
exercise of the logic of human nature. I do not ab- 
solutely know what sort of a world this will be when 
it is regenerated, but I must have some conception of 
it. I do not absolutely know what heaven is like— it 
will be like only to itself—but if I think of it at all. 
I must do so under some present definite conception. 
The highest forms under which we can now think 
are art-forms — ^the proportion of statuary and arcfai* 
tecture, the color of painting, and music. 'The 
former are limited and address a mere sense of 
beauty, but music addresses the heart and has its vo- 
cation amongst the feelings and covere their whole 
range. Hence music has been chosen to hold and 
express our conception of moral perfection. Nor is 
it an arbitrary choice, but is made for the reasons 
that music is the utterance of the heart, it is an ex- 
pression of morality, and it is an infinite language. 
Before the sneer at heaven as a place of endless song 
can prevail, it must undo all this stout logic of the 
human heart. We so represent it because when we 
frame our conception of heaven or moral perfection, 
we find certain things, and when we look into the 
nature and operations of music, we find the same 
things, namely: Obedience, Sympathy, Emotion, 
Adoration. 

Sculpture and painting have their laws which thcj 
must rigidly obey, but they address chiefly the sesK 
of form and proportion and color, and end chiefly in 
a sense of mere beauty and fitness; they are largely 
intellectual, and yield their results chiefly in the intel- 
lect. But music goes farther. While its laws are 
as exact and fine as those of form and color and even 
more recondite, any breaking of them begets a deeper 
sense of disobedience. When we see a distorted 



I887.J 



MUSIC AS A REVELATION OF GOD. 



5^ 



fonn or ill matched colors, the eye is offended, bat 
there is no such protest as that of the ear when it is 
assailed by discord. False proportion and crudely 
joined colors provoke what nuiy be called mental in- 
dignation, but nothing more; the borders of feeling 
are reached but not deeply penetrated. But a dis- 
cord of sounds lays hold of the nerves and rasps 
them into positive pain. In fine natures it may even 
came extreme physiological disturbance. A statue 
oottld not be so ugly nor a painting so ill-colored as 
to produce spasms, but such a result is quite possible 
through discord. The sensitiveness of musicians is 
not a matter of sentiment, and is the farthest from 
affectaiicn, but is a matter of nerves. The protest 
aod the pain are exactly of the same nature as those 
cassed tr^ a fall and concussion. But, reaching the 
mind along the wounded nerves, it awakens there the 
I same feelings of anger and resentment that we feel 
when we have been ruthlessly struck. A discord of 
sounds is unendurable, but we hardly say that of vio- 
i lations of form and color. This shows that we are 
I much more finely related to the laws of sound than 
to those of form and color, and that the relation 
covers a wider range of our nature; or, in other 
I words, that music is a better type of obedience. 
I When its laws are broken, the history of disobedience 
I is written out in the protests of our whole being — 
I from quivering nerve to the indignation of the heart. 
There is alK> an exactness in the laws of harmony 
I thai makes obedience to them specially fine, and so 
I ft to be a type of it. While, as in every art, it can 
onij approximate an ideal — ^never reaching, perhaps, 
actual harmony, — it is more rigidly under law and 
comes nearer its ideal than amy other. It is able 
) oioie thoroughly to overcome the grossness of matter 
\ and to use it for its ends than is statuary or painting 
-Hiature is more pliant to it. There is a latitudinax- 
ianism in other arts that admits of defense, but there 
is none in music. The sculptor may trench on the 
Uws of form for the sakd of deepening expres- 
BOD, but the musician seeks higher effects by an 
increasing adherence to the laws of his art. If he 
sdmits a discord it is not as a variation from harmony, 
jxtt as a denial of it, and is used to shock the hearer 
iito a deeper sense of the investing concord. Nor is 
sny other art so fine in the distinctions it makes. 
Nothing can be more exact and more minute than 
the laws of light by which form is revealed, but the 
cje is not so keen to mark slight departures from the 
law of form as is the ear in noting variations in its 
^ffl. A highly-trained musician can detect a vari- 
ation from the pitch of ^th of a semitone, but the 
jxst mechanical eye could not detect a correspond- 
ioglj 6ne variation of a line from the perpendicular, 
mx could the nicest sense of color perceive a like 
aviation of shade. There is also this peculiar and 
iiiaestive difference between the eye and the ear and 
^ action : the eye never transcends the laws of 
^ht and form ; it always acts within the limits of 
''^'tlMmatical laws, and is transcended by them, but 
[ the ffluscal ear recognizes laws for which no scien- 
cuic basis is yet found. In the tuning of any stringed 
uutniment certain requirements of the ear are heeded 
for which no reasons can be given ; the problem is 
^ sobde even for such an one as Helmholtz — sug- 
; Casting that music is that form of art in which man 
^presses his transcendence of nature. As man him- 
Klf leaches beyond nature and its laws, and goes 
<>vcr into another, even a spiritual world, so music is 
^e art that lends itself to this feature of his nature, 
piing along with it and opening the doors as it mounts 
loto the heavens. 
This fine obedience in music is beat seen, however, 



in its execution. When voice joins with voice in the 
harmony of their contrasted parts, and instruments 
add their deeper and higher tones — trumpets and viols 
and reeds each giving their various sounds — voices 
as of a great multitude it may be, and instruments 
as of the full orchestra — and all, binding themselves 
down to exact law, conspire to the utterance of mani- 
fold harmony, we have not only the most perfect il- 
lustration of obedience but the joy of obedience; 
one is immediately transmuted into the other; we are. 
thus let into the soul of obedience and find it to be 
joy — that its law is a law of life. The pleasure we 
feel in music springs from the obedience which is in. 
it, and it is full only as the obedience is entire. Thus 
we see how this art becomes prophetic. There is a 
double yet single goal before humanity — the goal of 
obedience to the eternal laws and the goal of bliss. 
The race is long, and slowly are the mile-stones of 
ages passed, but when the foot of the runner has- 
touched the last bound, his hands also touch either 
pillar of the goal; he has obeyed and he is blest. 
But in all the race he has a continual lesson and a 
constant presage in this divine art of music — ^its laws 
glorifying obedience and its joy feeding his tired, 
spirit. 

Music is, beyond all other arts, the expression and 
vehicle of sympathy. The highest action of man's, 
nature is the free play of sympathy — not agreement 
of thought nor concurrence of will, but feeling with 
another. This alone is true unity. If the human 
race achieves any destiny it will be of this sort ; if 
there be a heaven it will be a heaven of sympathy. 
The promise and presage of it are not only wrought . 
into our hearts but into the divine art we are consid- 
ering. No other art, no other mode of impression, 
equals music in its power to awaken a common feel- 
ing. The orator approaches it, but he deab chiefly 
with convictions, said conviction is a slow and hard 
path to feeling, while music makes a direct appeal. 
A patriotic hymn does its work far more surely and 
quickly than does an argument for the Constitution ; 
and the orator is not effective till he borrows from . 
music something of its rhythm and cadence and pur- 
ity of tone. Wendell Phillips, the most persuasive 
orator of the age, spoke in as strict accord with the 
laws of music as a trained singer, smd often it was ■ 
the melody of his voice that *<won the cause." 
Music leaves logic behind in the race towards sym- 
pathy and aaion, and if it were not itself noble and 
true, if it did not hide and lose its power when 
yoked to a bad cause, it would work great mischief 
in society. It abets reason, and only discloses its full . 
power and works its mightiest results when used in 
the service of truth. Hence there is no music in 
nations and races that are without nobility of thought, 
add there is no truer test of the quality of a nation, 
than its music. Bach and Haydn and Beethoven 
would be impossible in a nation that did not produce 
a Kant, a Schelling, and a Schleiermacher ; and the 
former are as truly exponents of its character as the 
latter. 

The main office of music is to secure sympathy. 
When a great singer, taking words that are them- 
selves as music, joins them to notes set with a 
master's skill, and, pouring into perfect tones the 
passion of a feeling heart, so describes some tragic 
tale pf death, every heart of a thousand hearers beats 
with a common feeling, and every mind, for the time, 
runs in the same path of pity and sadness ; for the 
moment there is absolute sympathy. If instead a 
truth or principle underlie the song, there is also a 
temporary agreement in thought. The moral and 
social value of such experiences is great ; they lead 



6o 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[August, 



away from selfishness, and point to that harmony of 
thought aud feeling towards which humanity is strug- 
gling. So, too, in producing music, its highest effects 
can be gained only when the performers not only 
read and utter alike, but feel alike. Hence there is 
in music a moral law of sjrmpathy as imperative as 
its mathematical laws. Hence also no one who is 
centrally selfish ever becomes great either as com- 
poser or performer ; and often — when everything else 
is perfect — the defect lies at this very point. ** If I 
could make you suffer for two years,'* said a teacher 
to a noted singer, " you would be the best contralto 
in the world." It follows with sure logic that no one 
can truly sing God*s praises who does not adore God. 
No training of voice or touch can compass the divine 
secret of praise. The feeling of praise — not as mere 
feeling, but as solid conviction — must enter into the 
utterance or it lacks the one quality of highest effec- 
tiveness. It is said that the undevout astronomer is 
mad, but the undevout musician is an impossibility. 
If we fail to distinguish between what may be called 
fine and genuine rendering, it is because it is not al- 
ways easy to distinguish between reality and unreal- 
ity. What is the matter with the music ? is a ques. 
tion often asked. The technical rendering may be 
£aultless and the defect lie in that inmost centre 
whence are all the issues of life and power. In the 
nature of things there is the same reason for faith, 
consecration, devout feeling, and holy living in the 
choir as in the pulpit, and there is noting unbecom- 
ing in the conduct and feeling of the preacher that is 
not equally unbecoming, and for the same reasons, 
in singers of the divine praises. 

Any musical sound, however produced, immedi- 
ately seeks to ally itself with other sounds, but it 
selects only those that are in agreement with it, and 
passes by all others. Strike a note on any instru- 
ment, and the sound will start into audible vibration 
other sounds, but only those harmonious with itself. 
Thus in the very depths of music there is planted 
this law of sympathy — like seeking like, and joining 
their harmonious forces. Hence it is that those who 
feel alike, and are keyed as it were in their nature to 
the same pitch, turn to music for expression, and, on 
the other hand, voices that blend lead to blended 
hearts. Love often has this origin and grows through 
the mingled song of two voices. Households that 
sing are the most sympathetic and harmonious in all 
their order. Christian altruism and mutuality find 
their highest expressions in song, and are fostered by 
it. Upon the whole, men agree in the . maUer of 
music better than in anything else. Call a synod of 
all the churches — orthodox and heterodox, Puritan 
and Prelatical, Protestant and Catholic, and while 
they could not put ten words together in which they 
would agree, they would all unite in singing the Te 
Deum, The Prelatical churches certainly touch a 
great truth when they sing their creeds, for a creed is 
in reality for the heart, with which we believe unto 
salvation. Here we come close to the fact that music 
is a revelation of future perfection. That ultimate 
condition.will be one in which the separating power 
of evil is ended, and men have attained to the wis- 
dom of love. They are no longer developed by an- 
tagonism and isolation, but under a law of mutuality. 
Then each life shares in the power and volume of 
every other, and the peculiar value and quality of 
each is wrought into a total of perfect .unity. We 
search in vain for any expression or type of this des- 
tiny until we enter the higher fields of music, where 
it is written out with alphabetic plainness in the eter- 
nal characters and laws of nature. The united ac- 
tion of the full chorus and orchestra is a perfect 



transcript, down to the last and finest particular, of 
perfected human society. The relation of voices to 
instruments and of instruments to each other, the 
variety in harmony, the obedience to law drawing its 
power from sympathetic feeling, the inspiration of t 
noble theme, the conspiring together to enforce t 
mighty feeling which is also a thought — we thus ban 
an exact symbol of the destiny of humanity. If t 
is never reached, then indeed prophecy will htn 
failed and love also ; and then the noblest ait we 
know will have turned into a delusion — a nourisher 
of sickly dreams — the chiefest vanity of a vain and 
meaningless world. 

Music as an expression of fteliftg is a prophecy of 
that grander exercise of our nature for which we 
hope. It is the nature of feeling to express itself. 
Thought may stay behind silent lips, but when it be- 
comes feeling it runs to expression. So far as we can 
reason from ourselves, we cannot believe that the 
universe sprang out of thought. Thought would not 
have made this mighty expression that we call cres' 
tion; it is an expression of feeling — some infinite 
emotion that must find vent or the infinite heart will 
burst with its suppression. Music is an illustration 
of this law of our emotions, and is the natural ex- 
pression of great and deep feeling. When great 
crises fall upon nations and oratory fails to give full 
vent to the heroic purpose of their hearts, some poet 
links hands with some composer, and so a battle- 
hymn sweeps the armies on to victory — the fiery 
clangor of the Marseillaise, or the sad, stately rhythm 
of the John Brown hymn. History all along culmi- 
nate? in song. The summits of Jewish history, from 
Miriam to David, are vocal with psalms. There is 
nothing grand in thought, deep in feeling, splendid 
in action, but runs directly to song for expresaon. 
When feeling reaches a certain point, it drops the 
slow processes of thought and speech and mounts 
the wings of song and so flies forward to its hope. 
'*Othat I had wings as a dove;" the feet are too 
slow to bear us away from our sorrow to our rest In 
the simplest life there is always this tendency of feel- 
ing, whether of joy or sadness, to voice itself in 
melody. 

When night draws its curtain gloomily around ns, 
and all the weariness of the day and the sadness of 
past years are gathered into oua hour, forcing tears, 
idle but real, to our eyelids, deepening and swelling 
into a burden of despair, how natursJly we turn to 
music for utterance anti relief. Some gentle strain is 
sung by tender lips, or perchance some chord of har- 
mony is wafted from the distance, and the sad spell 
is broken. Goethe makes a chance strain of an 
Easter hymn defeat the purpose of a suicide— t 
thought diat Chopin has wrought into one of his 
Nocturnes. As in nature there is a resolution of 
forces by which heat becomes light, so emotion, of 
whatever sort, if entrusted to music, turns into joy. 
What a fact! Here is the world of humanity tossiiig 
with emotions — ^love, sorrow, hope— driving men 
hither and thither — and here is music ready to take 
these emotions up into itself where it purifies and 
sublimates them and gives them back as joy an^ 
peace. What alchemy is like this? how heavenlfi 
how divine ! If, in the better ages to come, theit 
still be weariness, sorrow, disappointment, delayed 
hope, may we not expect that this transmutation of 
them into joy which goes on here, will continue to 
act there ? We are moving on towards an age and s 
world of sympathy, and sympathy is the solvent of 
trouble. If so, there must be some medium or ac- 
tualized form of sympathy, for there will never come 
a time when Vnind can act upon mind without some 



i«87.] 



MUSIC AS A REVELATION OF GOD, 



6i 



medium, and the art-idea is probably eternal. In 
some supernal sense, then, music will be the vocation 
of humanity when its full redemption is come. The 
lummit of existence is feeling, the summit of char- 
acter is sympathy, and music is the art-form that links 
them together. 

Music is the truest and most nearly adequate ex- 
prasion of the religious emotions, and so becomes 
piophetic of the destiny of man as a religious being. 
** The soul of the Christian religion," says Goethe, 
"is reverence." It is also the great, inclusive act or 
condition of man as he comes into perfection. Goethe 
adds» with profound suggestiveness, that it must be 
tai^bt The highest conception of the use of crea- 
tioo is as a tuition in reverence. Whatever else it 
may teach, it teaches this, or, if it fails in this, it 
teiohes nothing. Materialism is breaking up and 
disippearing under the discovery of laws and pro- 
cesses and causes for which it has no explanation, 
and all things are resolving into mere symbols of will 
and mind and feeling. Already matter has eluded 

I the touch of our senses, and our recognition of it as 
I thing in itself is a mere conventionsdity of speech. 
The resolution of it into force or motion, and of its pro- 
cesws into forms of thought, is a drawing out of more 
tbao every alternate thread from the veil that hangs 
between creation and its Source; the veil may never 
be wholly put aside, but it grows continually thinner, 
letting through revealing rays of truth and glory. 
When this process gets full recognition — as it surely 

I will— and men become tired of the senseless play of 
agnostic phrases and catch-words, and philosophy 
tnumphs as it always has triumphed and always will, 
there will be but one voice issuing from creation — the 

I voice of praise, and but one feeling issuing from the 

\ beait of man — ^the feeling of. reverence before the 
Rvealed Creator. Then the heart of man will re- 
quire some form of expression for its mighty and uni- 
versal conviction. We have already a great oratono 
of the Creation, but we shall have a greater still — 
profoonder in its harmonies and more majestic in its 
ascriptions. 

We have in music the stft-form that is not only 
fitted to express our religious feelings, but is wholly 
fitted for nothing else. I mean that music is crea- 
tively designed for religion, and not directly for any- 
thing else. Like all great arts, it has a large pliancy 
tjmragh which it may be adapted to many uses. Mu- 
acmay be made degrading and a minister of sen- 

I Mality or trivial pleasure, but never by its own con- 
ient, nor with a full use of its powers. When music 
ia used to pave the way to vice, certain instruments 
are rigidly excluded, and the nobler tones are ex- 
dttnged for " aoft Lydian airs." This exclusion and 
perversion every true musician detects as a lack in 
the music itself, and the spirit of music — like a fet- 
tled Samson — pleads with him for a better use and 
'aIIct exercise of its nature. Such use of music is 
^e the kN)k of scorn in the face of beauty ; no other 
f>ce oould express the scorn so well, but the beauty 
is Hill a protest against its use for such an end — ^it is 
'>*^ for something better. So music lends itself to 
'^oiiott every human feeling down to the vilest, but 
always with suppression of its power. It is not till 
it ia used for the expression of that wide range of 
^fing which we call religious that it discloses its full 
P>weii. Then it is on its native heath ; it gathers 
ts full orchestra from the organ to the drum, from 
aoftest viols and flutes to tinkhng cymbals, from in- 
itniments that are all passion to instruments of aL 
^<>st passionless dignity; then it covers the whole 
Kale of its vast compass, from one pure note of voice 
or instnimfnt to its highest possible combinations, 



from a slumber song to a hallelujah chorus. It is 
not a matter of fancy but a fact of science, that 
music never seems to be satisfied with itself except 
when it is used in a religious way ; it is always seek- 
ing to esca[>e into this higher form, even as man is 
himself. We hardly leave scientific ground when 
we say that music itself is a holy thing, and is always 
seeking to create holiness by some inherent law. It 
always strives to destroy and overcome its opposite — 
not by absolute destruction, but by conversion. Strike 
all the keys of a piano, and some strong, righteous 
notes will gather up the agreeing notes, silence the 
others, and create a harmony out of the discord. 
When a rough, loud noise is made — like an explosion 
~-the harmonious notes sift out and drop the discord- 
ant ones, so that the final vibration in the distance is 
no longer jarring noise, but soft and pleasing har- 
mony. An over-refinement of thought this may 
seem, but it is no finer than the laws of nature. It 
is, at least, an illustration of what it does in man, 
silencing the discord of his tossed life, and refining 
every sentiment and purpose into sweet agreement. 

Beethoven put this process into musical form. In 
one of his symphonies, he opens with four full, strong 
chords from the entire orchestra; then the separate 
instruments begin to war upon them, strive to over- 
power them with the blare of trumpets, to drown 
them in the complexities of the violins, to silence 
them under the rattle of the drums; but the primal 
chords, yielding at times, still hold their own, gather 
force, reassert themselves, and at last overpower their 
antagonists by patient persistence and all-conquering 
sweetness, rise into full possession of the theme, and 
sweep on into harmonies divine in their power and 
beauty. 

The truth that music is for religion is equally evi- 
dent in the fact that nothing calls for it like religion. 
Men fight better under the stir of music, but they can 
fight well without it. Business does not require it. 
Pleasure craves it, but the voice and zest of young 
life supply its lack. It is not needed in the enaaing of 
laws, nor in the pleadings of courts. It might be left 
out in every department of life save one, and nothing 
would be radically altered; there would be lack, 
but not loss of function. But religion as an organ- 
ized thing and as worship, could not exist without it. 
When song dies out where men assemble for worship, 
the doors are soon closed. When praise is repressed 
and crowded aside for the sermon, the service sinks 
into a hard intellectual process for which men do not 
long care. Eloquence and logic will not take its 
place — why, it is difficult to say until it is recognized 
that music is the main factor of worship— a fact ca- 
pable of philosophical statement, namely : worship 
being a moral act or expression, it depends upon the 
rhythm and harmony of art for its materials; they 
are the substances — so to speak — ordained by God 
and provided in nature out of which worship is made. 
And so the Church in all ages has flowered into song. 
It takes for itself the noblest instrument and refuses 
none. It draws to itself the great composers, whom 
it first attunes to its temper and then sets to its tasks, 
which invariably prove to be their greatest works. In 
no other field do they work so willingly and with so 
full exercise of genius. There is a freedom, a ful- 
ness and perfection in sacred composition to be found 
in no other field. In all other music there is a call 
for more or for something diffierent, but the music of 
adoration leaves the spirit in restful satisfaction. Dry- 
den, the most tuneful of poets, divided the crown be- 
tween old Timotheus and the divine Cecilia, but 
surely it is greater to ** draw an angel down " than 
«lift a mortal to the skies." 



62 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[August, 



The fact that all religious conviction and feeling 
universally ran to music for their full and final ex- 
pression, certainly roust have some philosophical ex- 
planation. In rough and crude form it may be stated 
thus : Music is the art-path to God, in whom we live 
and move and have our being. We may get to God 
by many ways — by the silent communion of spirit 
with Spirit, by aspiration, by fidelity of service, but 
there is no path of expression so open and direct as 
that of music. The common remark that music 
takes us away from ourselves, is philosophically trae. 
When under its spell we transcend our ordinary 
thought and feeling, and are carried — as it were — 
into another world ; and if it be sacred music, that 
world is the world of the Spirit. When the spell 
ends and we come back to this present world, we do 
not cease to believe in that into which we were lifted. 
While there, lapped in its harmonies and soaring in 
its adorations, we felt how real that world is, and 
how surely it must at last be eternally realized. To- 
wards that age of adoring harmony humanity is 
struggling, and into that upper world, where the dis- 
cords of time and earth are resolved into tune, every 
earnest soul is steadily pressing. 



TEACH OBEDIENCE. 



WHAT A REFORM EXPERT SAYS ABOUT THE 
BEGINNING OF CRIME* 



MANY a passionate child rules the house- 
hold. The little baby on its mother's 
knee goes into a passion because its dinner 
is withheld from him, or some toy denied 
him. He shrieks, and strikes his mother, 
and the mother says: ''Poor little boy, he 
has such a passionate nature; he can't be 
crossed," and yields to him. She ought to 
spank him — spank him hard — for being in a 
passion, and give him nothing till his pas- 
sion has cooled. The child, though he be 
so young that he cannot speak, if he be old 
enough to lift his fist and strike a blow, de- 
serves punishment and needs to have a les 
son taught it. The mother who neglects 
this increases the chances of her son's going 
to the gallows. When the child is older, 
there are better disciplinary punishments 
than spanking; but when the child reaches 
such an age that they are useful, it may be 
too late, his temper may have grown into a 
dominating force in his character that can- 
not be eradicated. Mothers sometimes say 
when a child shows a vile temper and 
shrieks a good deal, that it would endanger 
his life to punish him ; perhaps so, but you 
still more endanger his future if you don't 
punish him. Many a gallows' tragedy has 
had its beginning on the mother's lap. 

Day by day I see criminals, hundreds of 
them — thousands of them in the course of 
the year. I see scores of broken-hearted 
parents wishing rather that their sons had 



never been bom than they had lived to bear 
such burdens of shame and disgrace. I hear 
the wailing of disappointed mothers, and 
see humiliated fathers crying like children 
because of the sins of their children. I see 
mothers growing gray between the succes- 
sive visits in which they come to inquire 
about the boy in prison. And seeing these 
dreadful things till my heart aches and 
aches, I say to those mothers and fathers 
whose boys have not yet gone astray, to 
mothers and fathers whose little families are 
the care of their lives, teach your children 
obedience. I want it written large. I wish 
I could make it blaze here in letters of fire. 
I wish I could write in imperishable, glow- 
ing letters on the walls of every home— obe- 
dience, obedience, obedience ! Obedience 
to law — to household law; to parental au- 
thority; Unquestioning, instant, exact obe- 
dience. Obedience in the family ; obedience 
in the school ! Whenever, from the begin- 
ning, from the first glimmering of intelli- 
gence in the child, there is expression of 
law, let there be taught respect for it and 
obedience to it. It is the royal road to 
virtue, to good citizenship; it is the only 
road. — W. M. F, Round in Independent, 



TEACHERS' TENURE OF OFFICE.* 



BY E. E. HIGBEE. 



WE have no national system of education. 
From the ''Bureau of Education" at 
Washington carefully compiled statistics and 
circulars of valuable information are issued, 
but nothing which carries with it any author- 
ity of law. Each State has its own school 
system. These State systems, however, 
while differing much in specific details, have 
many general features common to all, and 
we are justified in speaking of an American 
system of education in harmony with the 
peculiar character of our political and social 
institutions. In view of these common fea- 
tures, we feel authorized, in determining 
the teacher's tenure of office as it now is, to 
confine ourselves in great measure to the 
conditions of school affairs in the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, assured that these 
conditions must be nearly the same in very 
many of our States, if not in all. 

The selection of teachers, and all coo- 
tracts relating to their employment and com- 
pensation, are within the sole jurisdiction of 

♦ Read before the National Council of Educatioo 
at Chicago, July ii, 1887, ^y Dr. E. E. Higbcc, 
Sute Superintendent of Public Instruction, Penna. 



18870 



TEACHERS TENURE OF OFFICE. 



63 



school boards, or school directors, elected 
with but few exceptions by the people of 
the various school districts. These district 
school boards change in part from year to 
year, a certain number of directors going 
out aod new ones coming in each year. On 
this account, very naturally the employment 
of teachers has come to be by contracts 
binding only for one year. In other words, 
the ordinary practice in Pennsylvania is to 
hire teachers of our public schools by the 
jBir. 

In our higher institutions of learning, 
generally operative as corporations under 
State charters, and maintained by gifts and 
tuition fees, and not within the jurisdiction 
of the common school system, teachers are 
employed at a fixed salary, and their term 
of office is during good behavior. So» also, 
in our State system of free schools, the most 
advanced schools, generally called ''High 
Schools,'' while in form employing teachers 
hy the year, in fact most generally re-elect 
the same teachers from year to year. Sala- 
ries in High Schools are naturally larger 
than in the lower or sulx>rdinate schools, 
and hence there is not so much temptation 
for the teachers to change in search of larger 
compensation. 



. In our public schools of a lower grade 
than the "high school," changes are much 
more frequent. The salaries are generally 
so small, and varying from district to dis- 
trict, and from county to county, that in 
the search for better compensation we are in 
gieat danger of having a large body of itin- 
erant teachers, nomadic educators. Indeed, 
I may safely say, we have such peripatetics 
already. There is hardly an3rthing which 
Bright be called tenure of office. Every- 
tiling is left to the mere wish of the direc- 
tors on the one hand, and the mere whim 
of the teachers on the other. 

As long as a teacher finds that he must be 
larded as a hirelingy with no guarantee of 
icmaining in ofRce over a year and with all 
the uncertainties of an annual election be- 
fore his vision, and not a member of 9^pro- 
ftisum, properly so-called, which claims 
ycspect because it requires special high qual- 
ifications — which is recognized in its rights 
Md privileges because it represents an im- 
portant factor in the social life and advance- 
ment of the State, and which commands 
compensation commensurate with its worth 
and high responsibilities — so long, we re- 
peat, as a teacher finds himself not connected 
with a profession^ properly so-called and 
generally recognized, he lacks one of the 
greatest incentives to professional study, and 



is tempted to make his teaching not even a 
calling, but only a stepping-stone to some 
other work. His zeal and concentration of 
effort, which alone can make him a master 
workman, are entirely gone. Indeed, the 
statement made by the French Commission- 
ers relative to our teachers is not much ex- 
aggerated, and in many sections the picture 
is fully verified : " For many young persons 
this temporary profession is the means of 
procuring the funds for continuing their 
studies. . . . The profession of teacher 
would appear to be a sort of stage, where 
the girl waits for an establishment suited to 
her taste, and the young man a more lucra- 
tive position." It is needless to dwell upon 
the injury done to every teacher by such a 
" tenure of office," or rather want of tenure 
of office. 

But serious as is the injury to the teach- 
ers, still more serious is it to the taught, 
and especially so in their ethical develop- 
ment. That pioral culture which is gained 
by mutual trials, and cares, and sympathies, 
and affections — the endearing and ennobling 
sentiments which grow out of a long con- 
tinued relation of master and disciple, the 
force of which enters and abides in the life 
through all our years, is almost entirely lost, 
because our teachers are perpetually chang- 
ing. Year by year these teachers come and 
go, and gain but a transient acquantance 
with their pupils as they hurry by. They 
stay not with the children so as to become 
familiar with their whole family life, or con- 
versant with their temperaments and habits. 
They abide not with the pupils as long- 
tried and revered guides (Jn parentum ioco)y 
the power of whose guardianship of love 
grows mightier from year to year. They 
vanish from view so quickly as to leave no 
clustering reminiscences for maturing child- 
hood to gather and profit by the delight 
thereof. Their life, and thought, and high 
purpose have had no time to enter the 
child's soul, and fill its depths with high 
hopes and aspirations. They are, to the 
children, almost as pedagogic trampSy not 
teachers — ^and who can measure the ethical 
loss there is in all this? ' 

When we bear in mind what broad re- 
sponsibilities are involved in the relation 
between teacher and pupil, this loss becomes 
more apparent. It is true the relation here 
referred to is mediated by an organized 
system, which at the outset is alike external 
to teacher and pupil. An earnest teacher, 
however, will strive to master the system and 
the routine necessarily connected therewith. 
This he can do by a careful examination of 



.64 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



the best and most successful schools, or by 
a regular and thorough course of practice in 
a Normal School. But back of all this there 
is a relation of far deeper significance in 
which the two come face to face — where will 
meets will and mind challenges mind, where 
soul speaks to soul, deep answering to deep, 
where in fact there comes to be a kind of 
spiritual co-existence, the force of which 
reaches far beyond the hour of recitation and 
class discipline and becomes a life-long 
motive of good or evil. A relation of this 
character demands more time than a month 
or a year. Indeed the whole power of it is 
thrown away by the frequent changes which 
now characterize the management of so 
many of our schools. 

How shall these evils be remedied ? How 
shall the teacher's tenure of office be made 
less precarious, and our schools be assured 
of the continuous service of good teachers 
for a series of years ? How shall the teach- 
er's calling reach up to a recognized /ri^/irj' 
sion^ so that we may secure professional 
teachers whose inward culture of character 
and professional advancement are such as to 
give to their presence and personal influ- 
ence a power more far-reaching than all 
merely common attainments of science can 
ever be. 

So much is dependent upon public senti- 
ment, and so much power is intrusted to 
the various district school boards elected 
directly by the people, that we cannot ex- 
pect any efficient or permanent reform un- 
til, by the continuous and concerted efforts 
of our best educators, the evils of our pres- 
ent system are fully unmasked and the pub- 
lic mind and heart aroused to a sense of 
danger and impelled to make efforts toward 
escape therefrom. 

Added to this, more rigid requirements 
must be demanded of those who wish to en- 
ter the profession. Our superintendents and 
commissioners must begin the work by en- 
larging the scope of their examinations, and 
by promptly refusing all candidates whose 
attainments are only ordinary, and whose 
special professional studies have not been 
thorough. 

Our State Normal Schools must carry for- 
ward the work by adding largely to their 
directly professional training and practice, 
until they hold the same relation to the 
practice of teaching as law and medical 
schools do to the practice of law and of 
medicine. 

The compensation of teachers must be 
greatly enlarged. Here the difficulties are 
such as to demand special legislation to pro- 



tect the teachers and guard against the pos- 
sible ignorance and penuriousness of district 
school directors. Schools are maintained 
by direct taxation in most of our States. 
This taxation is usually local, /. e,y it is im- 
posed by the school board itself; and also 
general, /. ^., each district receives its share 
of the State appropriation which comes from 
the State treasury. To guard the teacheis 
a minimum salary should be fixed as a nec- 
essary condition of receiving the State ap- 
propriation. 

How the present practice of hiring by the 
year may be avoided, so as to give some 
hope that the same teacher may hold his of- 
fice for a series of years, and not be subject 
to removal from year to year, is a difficult 
problem. It has been suggested that to 
county boards of education, appointed by 
the central school authority of ' the State, 
the selection of teachers and their retention 
in their respective fields of labor should 
be intrusted. 

This radical change, which cannot be ef- 
fected at once, may serve to point out the 
goal towards which we should move. We 
must bear in mind, however, the necessity 
of the cordial co-operation of teachers and 
directors, and that such episcopal jurisdic- 
tion of a county board appointed under 
State auspices would require the greatest 
prudence or it would only make matteis 
worse. 

In truth, we can accomplish little by leg- 
islation until we agitate and agitate, persist- 
ently keeping the subject before the people 
until the disease itself shall be so thoroughly 
diagnosticated and understood as to hurry 
the sufferer to some physician and remedy. 
Then the necessary legislation will be forth- 
coming. 

In the meantime we, as educators, must 
insist upon more rigid work upon the part 
of our examining superintendents and com- 
missioners, and with one mind and heart 
build up and advance our Normal Schools 
that from them may go forth teachers who 
know what the profession demands, and who 
are ready to meet the demands however far 
these may reach, and form a professional 
body of men who shall give tone and direc- 
tion to the whole educational work. Our 
Normal Schools must work with our schools 
of law and medicine and divinity, and their 
diploma must be the sign and seal of pro- 
fessional attainments sufficient to warrant 
the holder to enter into the high dignity 
and responsibility of a profession which the 
State should honor and all the people gladly 
recognize. 



iw;.] 



ADDRESS TO SWARTHMORE GRADUATES, 



65 



ADDRESS TO GRADUATES.* 



BY JOSEPH WHARTON. 



GRADUATES of Swarthmore College: 
In the perpetual flow of time there are 
momeDts of unusual importance as turning 
points or partings of the ways, yet, so en- 
giosung in the ceaseless succession of events 
tbat even these salient points are liable to 
be too lightly passed by ; the bark glides on, 
the rock that threatened or the grove that 
allured, as we approached, is already here 
—is gone — ^and another object seizes our 
attention. 

The observance of anniversaries, the em- 
phasizing of important events by suitable 
ceremony check this headlong rush; and, 
by inviting us to look backward and for- 
ward, tend to keep us aware of our true 
position. It is well, therefore, on occasions 
hke the present, to pause long enough to 
consider our ways, that is, to regard them 
steadfastly and gravely, or with the stars, as 
the word signifies, the large and splendid 
serenity of the stars being well adapted to 
bring calm judgment into supremacy over 
smaU excitements. As Emerson has it, 
upon the citizen issuing at night from a po- 
litical meeting, the stars look down, as if 
saying, "Why so hot, little man?** 

In this calm spirit of consideration, let us 
now briefly review your position at this turn- 
ing point in your careers, the leaving of this 
kmd mother Swarthmore for other instruc- 
tion and other experience in this great, rich, 
perilous world. 

You have already escaped or overcome 
many dangers, and have gained many 
powers; your education elsewhere and here 
has provided you with many tools to fashion 
your future, to support yourselves, and in 
various ways to serve the communities you 
are to live in. 

If you were asked to specify your attain- 
ments, you could doubtless make out a for- 
midable list of them, perhaps somewhat 
thus: *< Having studied grammar, logic, and 
rhetoric, we have learned to speak and to 
^te our own language accurately, forcibly, 
UHi elegantly ; we have knowledge of some 
tongues akin to ours, and with the aid of a 
dictionary can understand a page of Horace 
or Xenophon ; we comprehend the rudi- 
ments at least of chemistry, astronomy, and 
physics generally, can compute and reckon 
vith numbers and signs, can survey land, 

•By Joseph Wharton, President of the Board of 
Hanagen, to the graduating class of Swarthmore 
College, June 21, 1887. 



design bridges, machines, and houses; we 
have some acquaintance with what used to 
be called the natural sciences, the knowl- 
edge of minerals, plants, and animals; we 
are not ignorant of the arts of agriculture 
and food-getting, of textile and fictile man- 
ufactures, of obtaining and working in 
metals, woods, glass, and gums ; some other 
things, however, such as biology, law, med- 
icine, we have not yet mastered." 

Though no one of you can justly claim to 
have acquired all this, the list of your ac- 
tual achievements might be slightly alarm- 
ing to those of an older generation, trained 
on a more frugal mental diet, which yet 
built them up to the full stature of man. 

You have had wide opportunity, and you 
have acquired much that is more valuable ; 
but here I ask you to reflect how large a 
part of your attainments relates to merely 
material things, to those things which we 
share with **'the beasts that perish," as the 
Bible quaintly calls our less developed or re- 
tarded brethren. For they also provide 
themselves with food, some of them store 
it up, and some even cultivate it; many 
build for themselves habitations, some 
clothe themselves, some make roads, some 
work in wood, some in clay, some make 
paper and others make silk; many travel 
over great spaces of land, water, or air as 
surely and as swiftly as we. Man's naagnifl- 
cent progress in applied science is but an 
expansion of what has been done by such 
creatures as beavers, orioles, and wasps. 

Have you grown in any other direction 
than in this line of material gain and of es- 
tablishing your own comfort by control 
over inert substances and over other living: 
creatures ? For there is something beyond* 
all this, important as it is ; and of an order 
in which "the beasts of the field " probably 
do not share — though the little we know of 
their laws and languages cautions us to« 
speak moderatel/ — namely the striving afterr 
an ideal moral perfection. 

It is unnecessary to waste time upon 
Berkeley's fantastic paradox, that, because - 
our only knowledge of the material world*, 
comes from certain impressions conveyed, 
by our senses to the brain, which impres- 
sions we cannot logically prove not to be- 
hallucinations, therefore what we conceive.- 
to be the material world may be non-exist- 
ent; we have faith in our senses, and are* 
sufficiently assured of the reality of the ma- 
terial world. But in searching after the 
cause or origin of the phenomena of matter 
and of human life (I am not speaking off 
primordial creation), a spiritual life and at 



66 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



spiritual world unappreciable to the outward 
senses have come to be conceived of, and on 
reflection many wise men have come to re- 
gard all sensible objects as expressions of 
immanent spirit which clothes itself accord- 
ing to its various nature with those various 
forms, reaching in this manner the concep- 
tion of a spiritual world, at least as real as 
the material world, and its actual basis. 

We thus obtain rather clear notions of 
Substance and Essence, of Matter and Spirit 
(or force), of Stoff und Kraft, We have 
Power of all kinds in the realm of physics, 
proved to be interchangeable and mere va- 
rieties of one force, moulding, compelling, 
transforming, perhaps even animating Mat- 
ter, which may be, though not yet proved to 
be, one stuff. Now, as the little bit of in- 
dividualized force which animates a viper 
compels every molecule of matter which it 
appropriates to build ijp and perpetuate that 
loathsome creature, while another little bit 
animating a dove builds up unerringly, gen- 
tle, and pleasing forms, each after its kind ; 
so the spirit of one human being builds 
upon itself a mind and a material form full 
of hatred, cruelty, and vice, while the spirit 
of another clothes itself with mind and 
body wherein love, virtue, and reason rule. 
One of these spirits must obviously spread 
misery around it and sink into still greater 
debasement, while the other as surely must 
impart happiness, and rise into greater 
power and purity — supposing each spirit to 
continue unchanged. 

But here observe that whereas the inert 
masses, the plants, and the brutes, continue 
in their several places and conditions un- 
changed, or else undergo so slow a secular 
change as only to be noted by such obser- 
vations and inferences as those of Darwin, 
man has the singular power of modifying 
his own spirit, and thus of changing not 
only his course but his character ; the fac- 
ulty of easily falling, or, with the assistance 
of what Matthew Arnold calls " the power 
outside himself that makes for righteous- 
ness," the faculty of rising. Not that man 
can create for himself a new organ, or a 
new sense, or can, " by taking thought, add 
one cubit to his stature," but that by fixing 
his attention and strong desire upon some 
ideal towards which he steadfastly labors, 
he can so nourish the favorable promptings 
. and so suppress the adverse ones as to ap- 
proach his ideal. Manifold tendencies, and 
latent or unexpanded faculties, exist in man 
— it was a good man who said that he found 
in himself the possibility of committing 
• every crime he had ever heard of — and this 



or that may be trained up or pinched off so 
as to shape the character as the gardener 
shapes his trees. The individual himself 
can thus shape himself. 

Granted that we do not create the genus 
of our faculties, nor all the circumstances 
that surround and influence us; yet we can 
to a great extent control the faculties, and 
by patient continuance in accepting and re- 
jecting, can cause the circumstances to 
serve our purpose, so that we issue at last 
something like that which we long and 
strenuously desire to be. One of those 
concrete bits of wisdom, a proverb, de- 
clares that what a man ardently craves in 
his youth, he possesses abundantly in his age. 
The man's spirit turning forcibly toward 
a certain aim, and so continuing, becomes 
flxed in that course to the extent of a 
change in its character ; the spirit (or Es- 
sence) being so changed, the sum of his 
faculties (or Substance) changes correspond- 
ingly; this change affecting, indeed, not 
the individual only, but by persistence and 
heredity the race also. 

The importance of holding before the 
eyes of the mind and of the spirit models 
or ideals worthy of striving after, now be- 
comes apparent. As the wise old Greeks 
kept in their homes and in their public 
places statues of the strongest and most 
beautiful men and women, in order that 
their children might perceive what they 
ought to become, so is it meet that the chil- 
dren and youth of our time should have 
before them models of spiritual power and 
loveliness which they will, unconsciously 
perhaps, imitate. 

Doubtlest the greatest boon that noble 
men and women bestow upon their kind is 
not the performance of some specific ser- 
vice, but rather the demonstration that hu- 
manity is capable of such excellence, so 
that multitudes of observers may say, each 
for himself, "I, even I, may come to re- 
semble him, and so I will." 

Thus, when we read the Bible accounts of 
Jesus, we clearly see that his healing of the 
sick and feeding of the hungry are compar- 
atively trifling achievements, and that even 
his wonderful preaching is not his greatest 
boon to man nor the chief source of his 
enormous influence upon all succeeding 
generations. It is the splendid ideal which 
he vividly sets up and personifies, and 
which, as it is dwelt upon, becomes an in- 
separable part of our consciousness that 
elevates mankind; it is the demonstration 
by his life that such transcendent love and 
I wisdom and purity are possible. 



Ig87.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



67 



Solomon says, ''With all thy gettingsget 
understanding." Have you, in all your 
gettings of learning and science, gotten this 
understanding that the most important part 
of your education, ever progressing, ever 
fruitfiil, is the perfecting of your own spirit, 
out of which all other good things must flow? 



If you have gotten this, the question which 
I put to you is answered. You have entered 
upon a contest, not indeed easy, nor shorter 
than your lives, but in which you will be 
victors, so that through this life and at its 
close each of you will surely be found 
' * statuens in parte dextra, * ' * 



» ♦ ♦ 



Editorial Department- 



THB SCHOOL JOURITAL. 



LANCA8TBR» AUGUST, 1887. 



LLHICBEE. 



J. P. McCASKEY. 



** Yc nay be aye stickin' in a tree. Jock ; it will 

be groirin' when ye're ueepin'." Scotch FArwur, 

THE address of Joseph Wharton to the 
graduates of Swarthmore College, given 
elsewhere in this issue, has the charm of 
freshness as well as the merit of brevity and 
stimulating suggestiveness. There is " nub" 
in it, enough to furnish half a dozen average 
commencement addresses. It is cry^llized 
thought that will set people to thinking, and 
make them do their own thinking whether 
they want to or not, regardless of the solar 
temperature. Mr. Wharton is well known 
as one of Philadelphia's most sagacious and 
successful business men, proprietor of the 
American Nickel Works, at Camden, New 
Jersey. He is also a conspicuous illustration 
of the happy union that can exist between 
dassical learning, scientific attainments, and 
the closest attention to practical business 
pursuits. " The literary fellers" are not all 
useless and helpless when brought into con- 
tact with the exacting business world. Mr. 
Wharton's interest in educational affairs is not 
confined to words. In 1881 he gave a hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars to the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, to found the School 
of Finance and £k:onomy which bears his 
name and is the only one of its kind in the 
country. Its aims are high, and it cannot 
hut exert a commanding influence for good 
^ugh the thoroughly trained and capable 
young men who go out from its walls to exert 
a controlling influence in the world's affairs. 
What a fortunate thing for the State and 
for the Nation, if more of our millionaires, 
barthened with riches which they do not 
know how to use wisely, were possessed of 
Mr. Wharton's breadth of view — if their 
early opportunities had been such as to give 
them a clear insight into the character and 
wants of the educational world and to in- 



spire them to devote their surplus means to 
educational work in some one or more of its 
many channels, where the beneficent re- 
turns would be Targe aad perpetual ! Most 
of them have very little idea how rich and 
satisfying would be the reward to their own 
souls — reward the greater in proportion as 
mind and spirit are superior to sensuous and 
material things. 

At the late session of the Legislature of 
the State of New York, an act was passed 
makings a special appropriation for the pub- 
lication of a work on School Architecture. 
The State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion is authorized thereby to procure and 
publish approved plans and specifications 
for school houses, at a cost ranging from 
^600 to ^10,000. This is a measure of no 
little importance to the school interests of 
our own State. It is as urgently demanded 
in Pennsylvania as in New York. Though 
repeatedly asked for by the Department of 
Public Instruction, the Legislature has not 
yet seen fit to vote the sum of five thousand 
dollars needed. The work on School Archi- 
tecture which was published in 1855, under 
the supervision of Dr. Thos. H, Burrowes, 
has long been out of print, and a new one 
that shall give the latest improved plans for 
school-house building is imperatively needed 
for distribution to every school district in 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

The following decision in reference to 
certificates and the renewal of the same is 
republished from a former number of The 
Jaurnaly by request, for the information of 
all parties interested, teachers, superinten- 
dents, and school officers generally : 

A Provisional Certificate is good for one year 
from the date of issue in the county, city or bor- 
ough where it is granted, and cannot be made 
valid elsewhere by a Superintendent's endorse- 
ment. A Provisional cannot be renewed without 
a re-examination of the person holding the same. 

A Professional Certificate is valid in the county, 

* Standing at the right hand — Dies Ira. 



68 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



city or borough where issued during the official 
term of the Superintendent issuing it, and for 
one year thereafter. A Professional Certificate 
" may be renewed by a County, City or Borough 
Superintendent without re-examination, after 
having fully satisfied himself by personal obser- 
vation in his or her school of the competencv 
and skill as a teacher of the person holaing it. * 
Such a certificate cannot be renewed after it 
has expired by limitation of law, and directors 
cannot legally employ as teachers persons hold- 
ing so-called Professional Certificates endorsed 
after they have ceased to be valid. 

We congratulate Supt. R. M. Streeter, of 
Titusville, Prof. E. O. Lyte, of Millersville, 
and Supt. T. M. Balliet, of Reading, upon 
the honorary title of Doctor of Philosophy 
recently conferred at the Centennial of 
Franklin and Marshall College. They are 
among the most earnest and scholarly men in 
the common school work in Pennsylvania. 

The harp of Miss Jean Glenn, of Mercer, 
Pa., will be an attractive feature of the In- 
stitute platform this fall, and we hope that 
it may be seen and heard in many counties 
of the State. This young lady sings re- 
markably well, and plays her accompani- 
ments upon the classic instrument. '' There 
is something in the shape of harps, as tho' 
they had been made by music," Bailey sa)rs 
in FestuSy and Miss Glenn again makes clear 
the fact that they were made for nothing else. 

The Clarion State Normal School, the 
newschoolinthe Thirteenth District, under 
the principalship of Prof. A. J. Davis, has 
taken firm hold of its work. The advanced 
stage to which the elementary Normal 
Course is carried, and the low cost to stu- 
dents, as shown by the catalogue just issued, 
must commend the school strongly to teach- 
ers who are desirous of fitting themselves for 
better work in the school-room. For cata- 
logue, address the Principal, at Clarion, Pa. 

Mr. David H. Zook, Secretary, Bell- 
ville, Mifflin County, renewing the sub- 
scription of his Board, a few days since, 
writes : "I have been a reader of The School 
Journal for twenty-five years, ten years as 
teacher and fifteen as director, and think it 
has never been so good as under its present 
editorial management." Thanks to Mr. 
Zook for his good opinion. 

''I cannot understand why so few Boards 
in Lehigh County read your valuable 
Journal. We could not well get along 
without it." So says Mr. F. G. Bemd, 
Secretary. The reason, no doubt, is that 
they do not know they are missing a good 
thing, which they might just as well (and 



better) be receiving and enjoying for each 
of the twelve months in the round of the 
year. Were they regular readers of The 
Journal they would be more interested in 
their schools; they would have more 
ideas in the line of school improvement; 
and the schools of their respective districts 
would give evidence of these all-important 
qualifications possessed by the Directors. 

"The Boanl voted solid for its contin- 
uance," says Mr. G. L. Deardorff, Secre- 
tary, of York Springs, Adams County, in a 
letter just received. They have done this 
for a number of years, and it is such orders 
we regard with especial satisfaction. Orders 
from old subscribers are doubly welcome. 
But, none the less, we are alwa3rs glad to add 
new Boards to our list. Mr. L. A. Hoff- 
man, Secretary, Bennett, Pa. (July 27th), 
orders back numbers of Vol. 35 to each 
member of his Board, and subscriptions for 
Vol. 36. 



The San Francisco correspondent of the 
New York Tribune, writing under date of 
June 25th, makes the following unhappy 
showing for California as a publisher of 
text-books for her public schools : 

When the system of issuing public school 
text-books by the State was adopted, there were 
general predictions of the future by expeits. 
These predictions have come true already, 
when not more than half the contemplated 
books have been published. The book depart- 
ment of the State printing ofHce has been forced 
to shut down because all available funds are 
exhausted. The original estimates, by which 
the State Legislature was induced to sanction 
the work, were absurdly low. and nearly $60,000 
was spent in changes in the printing office. The 
estimated total cost of the qoo,ooo books was 
$89,950. Only 187.000 books have been fin- 
ished, and $157,500 has been spent on them. 
The books have cost more than double the es- 
timated price ; in fact, the State is paying more 
for these text-books than the best school-books 
can be bought for in the open market. 

And is it thus that youngsters "out West" 
speak of our steady-going Commonwealth ? 
The educational journal of Minnesota, in its 
issue for July, says : 

Pennsylvania has but recently passed a law 
requiring each school district to maintain not less 
than six months of school per annum. How the 
shade of William Penn has endured shorter 
terms for two centuries we do not know ; but one 
thing is certain, Pennsylvania has awakened to 
the need of doing something to keep from being 
run over. Perhaps the news from Dakota, 
hardly a dozen years old yet, has stirred her up 
in the rural districts. 

Boys should be more respectful, and not 
speak thus flippantly of their elders. 



i«87.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



69 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION. 



THE National Council of Education con- 
sists of about seventy members, of whom 
from fifty to sixty were present. This is a 
deliberative body, carrying on its work 
through seven Committees, as follows: 
Committee on Pedagogics, on Secondary 
Education, Normal Education, Hygiene in 
Education, State School Systems, Educa- 
tional Literature, and Educational Statis- 
tics. Each of these committees presents an- 
nually a report to the Council upon some 
subject relating to the special department of 
work in its charge. These reports are read 
before the Council and discussed. The re- 
ports and the discussions that follow are 
printed and circulated by the Council. 

The Council convened on Thursday, July 
7th, and closed on Tuesday afternoon, July 
1 2th. Reports were read from each of the 
committees in the order named above, as fol- 
lows: The Function of the Public School, 
the Relation of High Schools to Colleges, 
Teachers* Institutes, the Relation of Mental 
Labor to Physical Health, Teachers' Tenure 
of Office, School Libraries, and Points for 
Constant Consideration in the Statistics of 
Education. 

The representation in the Council from 
Pennsylvania is Dr. H. S. Jones, Erie, Dr. 
N. C. Schaeffer, of Kutztown — elected at 
the session at Chicago — and the present Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction. 

The opening session of the National Edu- 
cational Association was held on Tuesday 
evening in the Exposition Building, an enor- 
mous structure capable of accommodating 
an audience of several thousand people. 
The first hour of the session was occupied 
by Theodore Thomas and his famous orches- 
tra, after which the addresses of welcome 
and replies consumed the remainder of the 
evening. It was a grand occasion, grand 
even for the " convention city " of Chicago. 
On the following day the Association or- 
ganized into its specific departments, and 
discussed specially-prepared papers, among 
vbich, in one of the departments, was a 
paper by Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, of Kutztown 
^ Normal School, upon the general topic 
of "Learning by Doing," which was dis- 
cussed at length by Colonel Parker and others. 
The meeting at Chicago was a grand suc- 
cess, due in no small degree to the indefati- 
gable labors of President W. E. Sheldon, 
who was voted on every hand a model pre- 
siding officer, as well as a practical business 
pun of extraordinary aptitude for the spec- 
ial work in hand. 
At least ten thousand teachers were pres- 



l ent from all parts of the country, from 
which fact alone the benefits of such an or- 
ganization must be evident, stimulating edu- 
cational thought and activity throughout the 
entire republic. The most prominent edu- 
cators from the Union at large were present, 
giving their experience and counsel in the 
presence of such as were ready to receive and 
act upon it on returning to their respective 
fields of duty and labor. 

In all probability the next session of the 
Association will be held on the Pacific Coast, 
encouraged to do so by special invitation of 
the Legislature of California, aud at the 
urgent desire of the people of San Francisco 
no less than of the educators of all that re- 
gion of wondrous development. 

Our stay of some days in Chicago was 
especially enjoyed from the fact that we were 
a guest in the delightful home 6f an old High 
School pupil of a third of a century ago, a 
substantial lawyer of the great city, Wm A. 
Montgomery, Esq., a very prince of gentle- 
men and good fellows. 



THE CLEARFIELD MEETING. 



THE meeting of the State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation at Clearfield was well attended, 
and the programme carried out in a very 
satisfactory manner. The total enrollment 
was 437, of which more than half was from 
Clearfield borough and county. The opera 
house in which all the sessions, both day 
and evening, were held is well adapted for 
the purposes of such a meeting ; M. L. Mc- 
Quown, esq., former County Superinten- 
tendent, but now engaged in the practice of 
the law, threw open his convenient offices 
for the use of the various committees ; and 
ample space was afforded in the court house 
adjoining — which is connected with the 
opera house on the second floor by a bridge 
thrown across the street — for a very credit- 
able exhibit of work from the Pennsylvania 
State College, and the Indiana, West Chester 
and Clarion State Normal Schools. 

The opening session on Tuesday morning 
was one of the best in the history of the As- 
sociation. Among the speakers was Ex- 
Senator William A. Wallace, whose home 
ftpm boyhood has been in Clearfield, and 
who has always been generous and uncom- 
promising in his support of the common 
school — often, during a long life of private 
responsibility and public service, weighed 
in the balances and never found wanting in 
voice or vote when the interests of general 
education were involved. His address of 
welcome was most earnest and able, charac- 



70 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



teristic of the man. Mr. Murray also made 
a forcible and impressive address. 

Dr. Mendenhall's lecture upon "The 
Earth," on Tuesday evening, was one of the 
most interesting scientific addresses it has 
ever been our pleasure to hear. Who be- 
sides is more clear in his discussion of these 
subjects? or can more thoroughly impress 
his hearer with a sense of his mastery of the 
matter under consideration? Henceforth 
we agree with him that the Earth is not a 
fluid mass with an egg-shell crust, but a 
solid globe with pockets here and there 
containing more or less fluid matter ! 

The question of drinks, of many kinds, 
was discussed in its various aspects on Wed- 
nesday afternoon. Prof. Dinsmore presented 
some simple but striking experiments, that 
can be shown in almost any school-room, to 
prove the presence of alcohol in cider and 
beer as well as in wines and the stronger 
alcoholic beverages. 

Dr. H. S. Jones, Superintendent of the 
Erie schools, read a common sense paper in 
answer to the question " What is the Object 
of Examinations in Graded Schools? " and 
Dr. D. J. Waller, Principal of the Blooms- 
burg State Normal School, discussed the 
subject of the " Resources and Industries of 
Pennsylvania ' ' with such exhaustive detail 
as was possible within the limits of the time 
allotted. The inaugural of President Cough- 
lin ; the question of closer supervision, by 
Prof. Hamilton ; of reading and elocution, 
by Miss Radford ; the teaching of drawing, 
by Prof. Augsburg; county mstitutes, by 
Prof. Daniel, and other topics of educational 
interest, with general discussion of the same 
upon the floor of the Association, gave 
variety to the programme and sustained in- 
terest in the sessions to the end. 

The programme was pleasantly varied by 
music, readings, and recitations. The gen- 
eral music of the sessions was conducted by 
Prof. Geo. C. Young, of the Kutztown 
State Normal School. He used a selection 
of songs from the Franklin Square Song 
Collection, printed especially for this occa- 
sion, and we have never known the singing 
at the day sessions to be better than under 
his leadership. Miss Maggie Dotts read and 
sang very well ; Miss Jean Glenn, who sang 
several times, is a charming vocalist; and 
Miss L. E. Patridge, a delightful reader. 

The exhibit of students' work, which oc- 
cupied some three or four rooms in the 
court house, attracted much attention. The 
Clarion State Normal School, which is new 
to the field, made a creditable showing, 
though not extensive; the West Chester 
school made a good exhibit of lead pencil 



and crayon work ; and the Indiana school, 
of crayon work and drawings in illustration 
of anatomy, geography, botany, etc., re- 
lief maps, kindergarten gifts, botanical spec- 
imens (numerous and handsomely mounted), 
and written and descriptive work from both 
Model and Normal schools. The exhibit of 
the Pennsylvania State College was strong 
in its wood and iron work, with an admira- 
ble showing in mechanical drawing. 

The officers of the Association, and the 
committees, both local and general, left 
nothing undone that would contribute to the 
success of the meeting. Supt. Coughlin as 
president of the Association, Prof. Young- 
man as chairman of the executive commit- 
tee, and Supt. Savage as chairman of com- 
mittee on enrollment, acquitted themselves 
like men ; Supt. Keck is a model treasurer, 
and Mr. Sickel a first-class ticket agent. 

A full report of proceedings of the Clear- 
field meeting, including the papers that were 
read, will appear in the September issue of 
The School Journal, The Association ad- 
journed to meet at Scranton, on such day 
in July next as shall be appointed by the 
Executive Committee. 

On Friday morning a pleasant party, un- 
der the energetic lead of Dr. George M. 
Philips, made the run to Bell's Gap and 
Rhododendron Park, a favorite resort in the 
Alleghenies, some twenty-three hundred feet 
above sea level. Two or three hours were 
spent here. The day was bright; Supt. 
Walton was so fortunate as to have a text- 
book on botany; the rhododendrons were 
in full bloom ; wild flowers grew in profu- 
sion ; and "the strength of the hills," their 
mighty slopes covered with the virgin forest, 
was everywhere about us. Of course the 
trip was one not soon to be forgotten. 

The State Superintendent regrets that he 
could not be present during the entire ses- 
sion of the Association, and that a mistake 
in reading the railroad time-tables prevented 
his addressing the meeting. He had a 
number of imperative engagements during 
this week — Tuesday, the examination of the 
Soldiers' Orphan School at Mt. Joy ; Tues- 
day evening, meeting of the Association of 
College Presidents in Lancaster; Wednes- 
day, Teachers' Association at Clearfield; 
Thursday, examination of Soldiers' Orphan 
School at McAllisterville ; Friday, the train 
for Chicago, which place must be reached 
on Saturday, where he was expected to read 
a paper before the National Council of Edu- 
cation. He reached Clearfield before noon 
on Wednesday, and was to address the As- 
sociation at 4 o'clock, supposing that his 
train left at 5:30 p. m. At 3:30 p. m., just 



M7.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



71 



after Mrs. Hunt had gone upon the platform, 
it was found that the train would leave at 
four o'clock, and to make other imperative 
connections it was necessary for him to be 
on his way again before Mrs. Hunt had con- 
cluded her address. 



THE COLLEGE ASSOCIATION OF 
PENNSYLVANIA. 



DURING the Fourth of July week there 
was held in Lancaster, under the imme- 
diate auspices of Franklin and Marshall 
College, an educational meeting of no little 
importance to the general school interests of 
the State. It was the first regular meeting 
of the College Association of Pennsylvania, 
and the leading institutions of the higher 
education in the Commonwealth, fittingly 
headed by the University of Pennsylvania, 
were all fairly and ably represented. A 
Constitution was adopted, and the perma- 
nent organization of the Association became 
an assured fact. 

The object of the Association, as set 
forth in the Constitution, is, in substance, 
to promote the common interests of the Col- 
leges by securing harmonious action and co- 
operation in all matters pertaining to the 
general welfare of these institutions, and 
also to labor for closer identification with 
the public school system of the State. This 
latter question was brought to the front, at 
the second session of the meeting, by a 
rather aggressive paper read by President 
Kagill, of Swarthmore. In this papers and 
subsequent remarks, Dr. Magill could not 
forego the opportunity of reiterating, with 
lengthy elaboration, certain views with 
which those present, and the public in gen- 
eral, were already familiar. An animated 
discussion ensued, and if an inference were 
to have been drawn by the thoughtful spec- 
tator from the ** loudest" words spoken, the 
conclusion might have been, that the lead- 
ing object of the Association was to take 
ore of the common schools — especially the 
High schools and the Normal schools. 

A little reflection, however, revealed the 
ito fact that the few who thus "aired" 
theiDselves upon certain phases of the 
^^ school system, did so from force of 
^ix^ and that the dignified silence of the 
great majority of distinguished College 
Presidents and Professors was a fitting 
protest against the introduction of any mat- 
ter liable to prejudice the public-school 
ooen against the aims and purposes of this 
Association. 



With the reading by President Apple, of 
Franklin and Marshall, of a thoughtful and 
masterly paper upon the true end of educa- 
tion — in the attainment of which all the 
agencies of the public school system, no less 
than the Universities and Colleges, have a 
living and abiding interest and each their 
several parts to perform, ho single one of 
them being more important than any of the 
others in their respective spheres — it became 
apparent that the predominant animus of 
the convention had been well expressed, 
and the sentiments of the large majority of 
the members present truly reflected. 

There are enough subjects of immediate 
concern to the Colleges interested, to en- 
gage the earnest attention of the Associa- 
tion for some time to come. Many of these, 
such as the particular functiqn of the Col- 
lege proper, the agreement upon a uniform 
curriculum, the determination of require- 
ments for admission, etc., are likely to be- 
come burning questions in the near future, 
and we think it was felt that they are of a 
more or less delicate nature and must be care- 
fully approached ; so that it is not a matter 
of surprise that this first meeting was largely 
tentative. Indeed, it was not a little amus- 
ing to observe the "feeling around" dispo- 
sition that could not be entirely concealed. 

We can merely allude to the forceful paper 
of Prof. James, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, in which he made a powerful plea 
for his ideal American University, which, 
by the way, is a very lofty ideal, embody- 
ing many excellent features, presented in 
such manner as to command respect and 
attention. It should be widely read. 

Before the meeting finally adjourned, 
ample evidence had been given of a sincere 
desire to co-operate with the public school 
agencies of the State in effecting a proper, 
and, if possible, an organic bond of union 
between the Common Schools and Colleges. 
With this end in view, it was unaminously 
determined to hold the next annual meet- 
ing at the same place that the State Teach- 
ers' Association might select for its meeting, 
and during the same week, either immedi- 
ately before or after, so that there might be 
an opportunity afforded for the members of 
both to come together. It is to be hoped 
that some such arrangement may be made, 
for nothing but good can come from the 
meeting together of men who, though in dif- 
ferent spheres, are zealously engaged in the 
common cause of education. 

Not the least pleasing feature of this meet- 
ing was the interchange, by telegraph, of 
cordial greetings between the College Asso- 



72 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



ciation and the State Teachers' Association 
then in session at Clearfield. It is a step in 
the right direction , and, as we believe, only 
the beginning of a movement that needs 
but be given fair and free course to develop 
into lasting results of untold advantage to 
the educational interests of the State. Let us 
then hail the day, when the " aristocracy of 
learning" shall be broken down, and the 
School -master and the College Professor 
shall stand upon the same platform, harmo- 
niously working together for the speedy 
realization of what may be summed up in 
the words, — the best education for the great- 
est number. 



INSPECTOR WAGNER. 



IT has been amusing to note the effect of the 
local criticism of ex- Inspector Wagner's 
recent street-cleaning operations in Philadel- 
phia. To this criticism he replies that 
" some people are never satisfied, even with 
a good thing — ^should they get to Heaven, 
and find the streets of i6-carat gold," he 
adds, " they will at once begin to growl be- 
cause they are not i8-carat." The ex- In- 
spector makes wry faces over the nauseous 
cup, but it is the same that his own hand has 
often commended to the lips of others. As 
Inspector he found the Soldiers' Orphan 
Schools good "i6-carat" schools, but he 
condemned them with little or no discretion 
because their appointments were not, in 
large measure, those of Girard College, an 
" i8-carat " institution, with which he hap- 
pened to be somewhat familiar. The cost 
per annum of the education and mainte- 
nance of a pupil at Girard College is about 
three times as much as at one of the Sol- 
diers' Orphan Schools — 1150 in the latter 
case and about ^450 in the former. 

One of the loud complaints which the ex- 
Inspector made against the management of 
the Soldiers' Orphan Department, was that 
one of his predecessors in the work of inspec- 
tion did not, as the law requires, spend 
twenty- four hours at each of the schools on 
the occasion of each official visitation. When 
he himself became Inspector, the law seemed 
of so little account that he spent less than 
half that time in the performance of his legal 
duties. His besetting sin of talking loudly 
about the law, and at the same time disre- 
garding its plain provisions himself when he 
sees fit to do so, is apparent from the fol- 
lowing discussion in the Chamber of the 
Philadelphia Select Council, as reported In 
Hie Press of Friday, July 15th : 



Director of Public Works Wagner came in for 
a scoring in Select Council yesterday afternoon 
for a mistake in awarding the contract for a 
purifier at the Ninth Ward Gas Works. 

When the ordinance for approving the con- 
tract and sureties of James R. Floyd for the 
erection of the purifying house and other build- 
ings for $25,000 was called up, Mr. Patton 
moved to postpone until time could be had to 
investigate " the illegal action of Director Wag- 
ner in making the award/* before the work had 
been ordered by Councils and before an appro- 
priation had been made. 

" It is true/' said Mr. Freeman, " that the 
Director has made a mistake. It is only a 
slight error, but he promises that he will not do 
it again.*' 

" I will withdraw my motion to postpone,*' 
said Mr. Patton, " but I can not vote for the 
bill. I do not think this was a slight error. 
Had it been done by any other head« of depart- 
ment before the Bullitt bill went into effect there 
would have been a great howl, and none would 
have been quicker to condemn than would have 
been the Director of the Public Works when he 
was chairman of the Finance Committee. I 
am opposed to approving a contract never au- 
thorized by Councils. This is an illegal act. A 
purifier may be needed, but I do not believe in 
curing no legislation by bad legislation." 

" ItMr. Patton withdraws his motion to post- 
pone," said Mr. Horn, " I will renew it. This 
contract has been entered into illegally, and I 
want to find out where the fault is. This being 
for over $25,000, is a very important matter. U 
Director Wagner wants to enter into contracts, 
let him come to us, as he should have done, and 
get the anthority." 

" The Director's mistake," said Mr. Freeman, 
" has been one only of method. The Gas Trust 
has always made such contracts as these with- 
out consulting Councils, and he simply followed 
the precedent. He has admitted his error, and 
asks that Councils now make the award legal. 
It may be a little late.'* 

** No one knows the laws governing these 
matters," said Mr. Patton, " better than Direc- 
tor Wagner himself. He knew that he had no 
right to do this thing, and he should not plead 
an ignorance of the law, a plea which would 
not be accepted in any court** 

The New Era says: "The Philadelphia 
Press^ under the significant caption, * Direc- 
tor Wagner Too Fast,* shows how that offi- 
cial has been ' reorganizing the Gas Bureau 
in his own way,' which is in direct violation 
of the city ordinance passed under the re- 
quirements of the Bullitt bill. The result is 
that the City Controller cannot countersign 
warrants for the payment of the employees 
unless Councils endorse his irregularity. 
Councilman Iseminger, of the Finance 
Committee, said 'it appeared to him that 
Gen. Wagner had far exceeded his author- 
ity, and should be made to conform to the 
law as he finds it, as much as any other 



1887] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT, 



n 



public official or private citizen.' This is 
apparent to any man of ordinary intelli- 
gence^ but then Gen. Wagner is no ordinary 
man — in his own estimation. This was very 
clearly demonstrated in the lying accusation 
he brought against Dr. Higbee about pigeon- 
holing certain documents, and then enter- 
ing the plea, '/ am Gen. Wagner,' when 
convicted of falsification by his own corres- 
poodence. The man who would thus wan- 
tonly trample upon truth by denying his 
own record is not likely to hesitate at such 
a trifle as municipal law." 



TWO WORTHY TEACHERS. 



PROF. JOHN BECK. 



TWO remarkable teachers of Lancaster 
county have recently attracted our at- 
tention — one from the celebration by his 
old pupils of his 96th birthday at Lititz, the 
scene of his labors for a full half-century, 
where 2326 pupils, drawn from many States 
and even from beyond the seas, were at one 
time or another under his instruction ; and 
the other from his extraordinary life of toil 
and endurance, with such record of success 
under adverse circumstances as is well-nigh 
unparalleled in the annals of the school room. 

We remember Prof. John Beck very 
pleasantly from the early days of the county 
institutes, when he was a familiar figure 
upon the platform, gray- haired, good- 
natured, and always with something to say 
that was worth the hearing. He was a brave, 
glad soul, not merely content but happy in 
his work and amid his surroundings. He 
lived the only life that is worth living, that 
of cheerful activity and conscious usefulness 
to others. Though unable to accept the 
cordial invitation to be present at Lititz on 
Thursday morning, June i6th, with his old 
pupils, many of them now venerable men, 
we drop a flower upon his grave, for mem- 
ory and for hope. All really good things 
ve for eternity — good men among them. 

In response to the circular of mvitation 
Mtne forty or fifty well-known gentlemen 
dissembled to do honor to their old Master, 
^^IjUhaniel Ellmaker, Esq., who entered the 
school in 1826, was called to the chair, 
upon taking which he said: "Our teacher, 
whose memory we revere, was always wont, 
on calling his pupils together, to ask the di- 
vine blessing. In memory of him whom we 
so loved, let us ask the Rev. Dr. Hark to 
offer prayer." In his address which fol- 
lowed the prayer, Mr. Ellmaker spoke most 



fittingly of the man and the occasion. We 
take but a single paragraph : 

This is a meeting for no selfish purpose, to ad- 
vance the interests of no individual or party, to 
start or build up no new enterprise. But all 
come here on a work of love, to honor the mem- 
ory of a beloved teacher long since called to 
his rest. To us how many tender recollections 
cluster around the name of John Beck. We 
scholars looked up to him as the remarkable 
man of the age. He was a great and good man. 
The world is better for his having lived in it. 
He was our instructor, our guide, our fHend. He 
sought to elevate our thoughts to high and noble 
purposes. He was a Chnstian, and only when 
the secrets of eternity are revealed, will be 
known the good influence he exerted upon the 
youth of this country ; for he was a missionary 
for good, without and far beyond his own school 
rooms. 

Letters were read from persons who were 
unable to be present; and extended re- 
marks were made by Hon. D. W. Patterson 
and perhaps a dozen others of Prof. Beck's 
old school boys. The line was then formed 
to proceed to the cemetery. Main Street 
seemed crowded with people assembled to see 
the gray-haired men pass by, a number of 
whom had been pupils in the little town 
more than half a century ago. At the church 
the line was joined by the Rev. Mr. Reinke, 
who led the procession up the long avenue 
leading to the city of the dead. It was "a 
perfect day in June. ' ' Hundreds had gath- 
ered to witness the ceremonies. After 
prayer, to the music of a dirge, the old 
pupils, with heads uncovered, passed silently 
around the grave, placing their floral offer- 
ings upon the low memorial stone. Singing 
by the Maennerchor Society closed the ex- 
ercises at the cemetery, after which the com- 
pany returned to the Springs Hotel. In the 
afternoon an organization was effected, the 
purpose of which is the erection of a monu- 
ment to the memory of the venerated teacher. 
The formal address of the day was by Simon 
P. Eby, esq., of Lancaster. We transfer it 
to our columns as a worthy tribute from the 
heart as well as the head, to the memory of 
a noble school-master who '* being dead 
yet speaketh." 

MEMORIAL ADDRESS BY MR. EBY. 

To the soldier who has led the armies of his 
country to victory, to the statesman who has 
pleaded the cause of his people successfully, to 
the incorruptible judge who unmoved by the 
blandishments o\ power administers the law 
without fear or favor, to the physician who by 
patient research has unlocked the secrets of 
nature and alleviated pain and suffering, to the 
scientist who by his untirine efforts has sub- 
dued the elements and brought them to minister 
to man's comfort, to the inventor who by labor- 



74 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



saving machinery has lifted burdens from the 
toihng millions, to the pains-taking farmer who 
by long ^ears of industry has clothed the bar- 
ren hillsides with waving i^rain and caused 
luscious and wholesome fruits to grow where 
none grew before, to the skillful sailor who 
guides his ship through storm and darkness 
safely into port, to the brave engineer who re- 
mains at his post and goes down in the wreck, to 
save the lives of all the passengers entrusted to 
his care — ^to all these belong the honor and grat- 
itude of the people—over these we build costly 
mausoleums, sing their heroic deeds in verse, 
and care for their widows and orphaned chil- 
dren. But to him who has dealt with things far 
more precious than earth or &a or air — ^to the 
Teacher who has trained immortal minds to 
virtue, patriotism and usefulness — to him be- 
longs the very best we can offer : we will en- 
shrine his image within our loving hearts, and 
cause the pleasant story of his life to be told to 
our children's children. 

To-day we do merited honor to such an one, 
John Beck, our beloved teacher — a shining ex- 
ample both as an instructor of youUi and in his 
character as a man. He began his life's work, 
as he tells us, in a very humble way ; teaching 
at first five apprentice boys three evenings in 
each week, in the then quiet and secluded 
Moravian village of Lititz. Having intended to 
follow a different calling, being modest of his 
own abilities and highly sensible of the respon- 
sibilities connected with the undertaking, he de- 
clined several times the offer of position as a 
teacher. Finally, however, upon the urgent 
request of the people of Lititz, he acceded to 
their wishes, and on January 2d, 1815, took 
charge, with many misgivings, of the village 
school of twenty-one boys, kept in a building 
once used as a blacksmith shop. From that 
eventful day and from that small beginning in 
^e red-tile-roofed school-house, forward for 
fifty long years, until May, 1865, when he vol- 
untarily laid down his work, wrote his valedic- 
tory letter addressed to his former 2326 pupils, 
and signed it as "their humble teacher," he 
devoted all his great energies of mind and 
body singly to the task at first so reluctantly as- 
sumed. 

During that extended period he labored early 
and late, without haste and without rest, 
patiently, faithfully, vigilantly, devoutly to the 
end — the germs of knowledge implanted in 
his mind while at Nazareth Hall, where he re- 
ceived the elements of his education, growing 
with his growth and strengthening with his 
strength, as the field of his usefulness widened 
before him. On the site of the old blacksmith- 
shop he erected his new Academy. But even 
this was soon found too small to hold the con- 
stantly-increasing numbers who came flocking 
in from far and near to enjoy the benefit of his 
instructions. More room had to be provided, 
and the large three-storied stone building adja- 
cent, known as the "Brothers* House," was 
likewise appropriated for school purposes. In 
1840, or 'even earlier, when most of us here pre- 
sent became his pupils, the school had obtained 
a wide reputation and by reason of its numbers 



had been divided and graded so as to occupy 
four separate apartments, one in the new house 
and three in the stone building, each presided 
over bv an assistant teacher, he retaining the 
control and management of the entire establish- 
ment; teaching special branches and havin? 
care of the boys generally in and out of scho(M 
when not under the immediate charge of his 
assistants. 

Boys will be boys, and whoever undertakes 
to manage a number of them such as Mr. Beck 
had scattered in sets of from four to six or more, 
through the village, in their different boarding 
houses, at an age when thev are ready for aU 
kinds of mischief and hardest to control, will 
find his hands more than full ; yet he always 
proved himself equal to the difHcult task. 
Without being intrusive, his watchful eye 
seemed always to be where it was most needed. 
And if any of us became noisy at our boarding 
houses, be it ever so seldom, Mr. Beck was 
sune to look in about the time the noise was at 
its worst ; if we played any tricks about town he 
was sure to soon find it out. 

Whatever may have been his mode in earlier 
days of bringin|f refractory pupils into order, at 
the time of which we speak the rod had en- 
tirely disappeared from the schools. Or if it 
continued to exist, it was only in the imagina- 
tion of the transgressor and the traditions of 
the past. He needed no rod. His presence 
alone was sufficient to command obedience, and 
his rules were seldom broken even in his ab- 
sence ; though boys then, as now, were not per- 
fect, and in spite of their good intentions would 
forget themselves and sometimes get into 
scrapes. 

He exercised a wonderful influence over the 
young ; was quick to read character and gain 
confidence. He encouraged the timid, com- 
forted the distressed, cheered the despondent, 
restrained the forward, convinced the perverse 
and refractory by an appeal to the reasonable- 
ness of his demands, or subdued them as with 
a flash of his displeasure, for when aroused he 
was awful. He was a man of decided charac- 
ter and great energy. This no doubt contrib- 
uted much to the influence he wielded as teacher. 
But the true secret of his power over his pupils 
lay in the great love he bore them. It is a well- 
known fact that boys too timid to remain in 
other schools felt at home in his. And others 
who could not be governed elsewhere willingly 
submitted themselves to his control. They Felt 
that in him they had a Master who dealt with 
them squarely ; and while his displeasure might 
come suddenly and overwhelmingly like a flash 
of lightning, there was no lingering bitterness in 
it. His reproof was an honest reproof, free from 
scorn. We all highly prized his good opinion 
and strove to deserve it. He was just and im- 
partial, his heart being large enough to tadce us 
all in. Boys while young are apt imitators, and 
his frank, open, manly way of dealing with us 
was of great benefit to us as an example. 

His ability to impart knowledge and interest 
pupils, especially beginners, was extraordinary. 
The most complicated problem became clear 
through his explanation. There was life and 



i«7.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



75 



cheerfulness in what he did ; and when he took 
a class he usually had them at work ten or more 
minutes before tihe appointed hour. " Time is 
precious,*' he would say, and there was no 
idling when he taught. 

How we boys were attracted by this broad- 
breasted, warm-hearted man ! How we loved 
to gather around him whenever there was an 
opportunity between school hours, and pl)r him 
with questions, and listen to his explanations ! 

Happy and exempt from restraint were those 

dunce gatherings both to the pupils and the 
mister. Yet how free from anything that could 
lower or detract from the respect we bore him. 
And woe to the presumptuous youth who on 
sudi an occasion sought to take undue advan- 
tage of the master*s condescension ; a look of 
reproof more withering than words, put down 
the offender so that he would never again risk 
that offence. 

His learning was solid and practical rather 
than abstruse. As a teacher of penmanship we 
question whether he ever had his equal, cer- 
tainly never his superior. And in his weekly 
winter evening lectures, he became truly elo- 
quent, at times reaching the sublime. Some of 
his descriptions, when assisted by illuminations 
from his magic lantern, seemed to our youthful 
minds like glimpses of the Apocalvpse. It may 
also be said to his credit, that much of his know- 
ledge and his methods of teaching, was self- 
acquired. And he not only instructed himself, 
but like a master-workman who prepares his 
own implements with which to work, he usually 
selectea from among the pupils of his own 
school the assistants he needed, and trained 
them for the places he wished them to fill. His 
school was emphatically a school for the people. 
hi it was taught that which was useful in all the 
valks of life. And therein sat, without difference 
or distinction, the heir to millions by the side of 
&e chanty scholar, the humble country lad be- 
side the sons of some of our most eminent and 
(Anguished cntizens. All alike had to hew up 
tot the chalk-line marked out for them by the 
Master. 

The bodily health of his pupils also engaged 
lus serious attention. Cleanliness with him 
was one of the cardinal virtures. Regtdarly 
every morning when the school assembled for 
pnvers, the boys were ranged in line, and had 
to show clean hands, feet, teeth, neck, head and 
^0thes. Such as failed to pass his rigid inspec- 
tion were at once sent home to put themselves 
^ proper condition. That his pupils might have 
^necessary exercise, he provided for them an 
"ttple play-ground, properly inclosed. Over 
^ central arch of the entrance to this, on the 
^tside, was painted an eagle, emblematic of 
^thand strength, bearing adoft a scroll in- 
soibedin letters of gold with the motto, " The 
'^Bsult of exercise is health." And on the inside 
over the same arch, surroimding a globe and 
other implements of the school room, appeared 
the admonition in gilt letters : " In all your 
actions and amusements, avoid profane lan- 
Snage and quarrels:'* The result of this care of 
their physical condition by the Master, was very 
^e sickness among the boys and small doctor 



bills. Out of the great number under his charge, 
there was only one death during fifty years. 

He was a pious man, and his religion was of 
that healthy and commendable kind that makes 
little outward show, but served him as a light to 
his everyday life. In the house of worship,, 
where he led his school at least twice a weeK,^ 
his demeanor was reverent and becoming. On 
the walls of his different school rooms were 
hung, neatly and artistically painted on boards, 
the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, 
and other suitable admonitions, as " Lying lips^ 
are abominable in the eyes of the Lord, * and 
" Nichts wissen ist keine schande, aber nichts. 
lernen wollen." Although a devout Moravian, 
strongly attached to his church, he never sought 
to proselyte from the boys entrusted to his care.. 
In a town where there was at that time only one- 
church, and almost everything, even the titles^ 
to land, under control of that particular denom- 
ination, with his Academy close by the church 
building, where every hour, whether of study or 
of recitation, was regulated by the clock in the : 
church steeple, he and his assistants neverthe- • 
less scrupulously avoided everything of a sec-- 
tarian influence, open or covert, to draw those - 
in their charge to their own fai^h. The only- 
creed taught by them, besides the branches laid 
down in the curriculum, was the broad one of 
the beauty of virtue, the duty of morality, man-- 
liness of character, charity to one another, love* 
of country, obedience to the laws, the sanctity/ 
of religion, and our accountability to God. 

He was exceedingly kind of heart. How 
simple and yet how considerate and touching 
was the manner in which he provided for the 
widow of his old master the shoemaker, who* 
had urged him to engage in the work of teach- 
ing, by making her comfortable and happy in . 
her little infant school, enabling her to support: 
herself without any seeming obligation to him 
or to any one else. Add to all this that he was . 
equally fortunate and happy in his family rela- 
tions, and we may well pomttohim as a rare in- 
stance oi 2k successful man in all the affairs of life- 
Strong as the oak tree deeply rooted among 
the rocks, lovely in his strength as is the blos^ 
soming linden with the honey-laden bees thick 
among its branches, constant in his purpose as- 
the evergreen pine on its native hillside — withi 
the accumulating years descending upon his. 
shoulders lightiy as fall the autumn leaves, and! 
the snows of age covering his precious head as 
with a crown of honor — he looms up before us, 
even at this distance of time, a character grand, 
full-grown and evenly -rounded, almost without 
fault or blemish. Planting, as a teacher, alike 
the seeds of leamine and the precepts of relig- 
ion and morality, with unabatea zeal and unflag- 
ging industry, deeply into the minds and hearts- 
of mousands who sat at his feet or came within 
the sound of his voice; to be by them carried < 
into the workshop, the busy market, the quiet: 
farmhouse, the tented field, the smoke and roar 
of battle, the pulpit, the bench and bar — what 
man will undertake to count the harvest that, 
with God*s blessing, has already ripened and is 
still ripening from the grains scattered by his 
fatherly hand? The angeh alone can measure 



76 



PENNSYL VANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



it. Then listen to the words of humility ad- 
dressed to us in his valedictory: " I do not," he 
says, "ascribe this to mv own labors, however 
I may have tried to develop the true qualities of 
manhood, and to foster the seeds of religion. 
No ! to God, to Him to whom I have so often 
commended you, and on whom I have so often 
called to grant me wisdom and understanding 
that I might instruct you aright — to Him be aU 
the glory." 

Lovea and respected by all who knew him, 
doubly endeared to us his pupils, a good citizen, 
a kind friend, an affectionate husband and 
father, an humble Christian, a man upright in 
the sight of God — ^his allotted time here finished, 
he has gone, like the good steward, to lay the 
closed book of his well-spent life at the feet of 
that all- wise, most mighty and most merciful of 
all Masters, the Divine Architect of the universe, 
the Great Jehovah, of whose wonderful works 
he used to discourse to us in bursts of almost 
inspired eloquence. Although passed from 
earth, he still speaks to us from beyond the 
grave in the closing words of his valedictory, of 
Sie blessed hope of meeting us again. "Who 
knows," said his old master, when he advised 
him to become a teacher — "who knows to 
what it may lead ; you may possibly become a 
more useful man than if yuu remain a shoe- 
maker." So may we say to-day, Who knows 
but our departed nriend has been called from his 
place on earth only to fill a higher one in a bet- 
ter world, and that the blessed words may have 
already been spoken to him, "Well done, thou 
good and faithful servant ; thou hast been faith- 
nil over a few things, I will make thee ruler 
over many things." 

And we, a few of his many pupils on this, the 
96th anniversary of his birthday, have come to 
show our respect, acknowledge our obligations, 
and testify our endearing love for him, by plac- 
ing upon his grave the tributes of our affection, 
emblematic of the mingled strength, loveliness, 
and constancy of his character — leaves of the 
oak, flowers of the field, and sprays of the ever- 
green pine, all bound together with the sym- 
bol of Hope and Imm.irtaliiy. 

In conclusion, Ici u > iiope that our coming to- 
gether here may be but the forerunner of other 
Rke reunions, and that before we separate to- 
day, a labor of love may be resolved upon, 
which in the course of a few more years will 
place some enduring memorial of our teacher 
near the spot where he so faithfully labored for 
fifty years — z. memorial which shall continue to 
speak of him as eloquently as granite and mar- 
ble can speak, so that the place that knew him 
so long and so well, shall continue to know him 
long after all of us have passed away. 

PROF. JAMES W. ANDREWS. 

On Sunday morning, June 19, 1887, there 
died at the county-seat of Lancaster county, 
another remarkable teacher. He had reached 
the advanced age of sixty-two years, and 
during the last thirty-five years of that time, 
which included all of his life as an instruc- 



tor of youth, the left arm was the only mem- 
ber of his body that was not hopelessly par- 
alyzed. His life was spent in a large chair, 
with an attendant to wait upon him, and he 
was lifted about like a helpless child. 

After a thorough course in language and 
mathematics, he opened a school of ad- 
vanced grade August 8, 1859, at Union, 
Colerain township, Lancaster county, 
which became widely known for its excel- 
lent course of training. For a p^eriod of 
twenty-six years, with the exception of a 
short time when an assistant was employed, 
because, we suppose, of an unusually large 
attendance, all the work of the school was 
done by himself. 

In 1879 ^^ ^^ proposed by his former 
pupils to celebrate the twentieth anniver- 
sary of the founding of the school. The 
movement took the form of a popular dem- 
onstration, which was held in the Union 
Presbyterian church on August 8th of that 
year. There were upwards of 2,000 persons 
present, and two bands of music enlivened 
the occasion. Rev. C. W. Stewart, D. D., 
pastor of the Union church, delivered the 
address of welcome. Prof Andrews, seated 
on the chair to which he had been confined 
for so many years, called the roll of boys 
and girls who, in twenty years, had attended 
the school. The result showed that over 
three hundred and fifty were present of the 
fifteen hundred pupils who haid been in at- 
tendance from first to last. Many had 
died, and others were scattered over differ- 
ent parts of the country. There were ad- 
dresses and essays appropriate to such an 
interesting occasion by old pupils, many of 
whom had come long distances to be pres- 
ent on this memorable day. 

This heroic teacher was buried near the 
scene of his great life-work. Let weaker 
souls whose path of duty lies in humble 
school-room ways, when tempted to queru- 
lous repining, grow strong as they recall the 
story of this man's uncomplaining struggle 
with what seemed most adverse fortune. 
Let them emulate, though it be afar, the 
grandeur of his silent endurance, and the 
splendor of that triumph which he won. 

At the funeral, which was largely attended, 
at the same church where in 1879 ^^ ^^ ; 
called the roll of the living and the dead, ! 
the Rev. Dr. Theodore Appel, for many 
years a member of the Faculty of Franklin 
and Marshall College, and the aged and 
honored instructor of Prof. Andrews, made 
an address much as follows : 

I propose on this occasion to give you a few 
of my own personal recollections of our de* 



.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



77 



ceased brother, which I think will serve to illus- 
trate the following words of Scripture, found in 
Isaiah, liv. 8, 9 : 

" For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither 
are your wajrs my ways, saith the Lord. For as the 
heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways 
Ingher than your ways, and my thoughts than your 
thoughts.** 

1 met the deceased for the first time in the 
spnng of 1853, at his father's home in Lancas- 
er, where I was then a boarder and an inmate, 
His, apparently, was a sad case. Previous to 
tius he had been connected with a large mer- 
cantile establishment in Philadelphia, where by 
his eneivy and his fidelity to his trust, he had 
gained Uie confidence of his ei^loyers. His 
prospects for promotion and future success were 
flattering. Had his health therefore been 
spared, the probability is that, by his native en- 
ergy, intelligence and diligence, he would have 
arisen in the course of time to honor and wealth 
among the merchant princes of the metropolis. 
But God ordered it to be otherwise. Providence 
had a higher and better work for him to do in 
his day. His employers trusted him, and at 
times allowed too heavy a burden to rest on his 
shoulders. In the heated season of 1852, as a 
consequence, his nervous energies gave way, 
and he was brought home to his father's house 
paralyzed, which soon afterwards left him with 
the use only of his head and of one of his arms. 
Thus the bright prospects before him seemed to 
go out in utter darkness when he was onl^ 
twenty-eight years of age. The skill of physi- 
cians was called into requisition, but his pecu- 
liar case baffled their science and wisdom. It is 
doubtful whether any one of them fully under- 
stood it, or perhaps ever met with one exactly 
like it 

When we first met he had no hope of recov- 
ery from the disorder which had seated itself 
deeply in his system. Naturally gifted with a 
strong constitution, he was more helpless than a 
child. He was, however, resigned to his lot, 
and apparently happy — at least as much so as 
could be expected of one in his circumstances. 
He was fond of conversation, able to converse 
on almost any topic that might be introduced. 
He was an attentive reader, and from this he 
also derived a truly rational enjoyment. Thus 
he passed his time with some degree of comfort 
and satisfaction to himself, which otherwise 
must have been sad and dreary. Never did I 
bear from his lips a murniur or a word of com- 
plaint over the sad dispensation of Divine Prov- 
idence widi which he had been visited. 

On one occasion he inquired of me what I 
taught of his studying Latin. I encouraged 
'ttm to undertake it, assuring him that I would 
give htm such help as he might need. It ap- 
peared to me that this would be a healthful ex- 
ercise to his intellectual faculties. He went to 
work with his Latin ^mmar, and with his one 
hand he literally earned out the precept of Hor- 
ace, in poring over the classics with '' a noc- 
tnrnal and diurnal hand." It turned out that 
lie needed little assistamce from me. He was 
liis own teacher. 

In leas than six months he had the old Roman 



language, and perhaps, few college graduates, 
after studying it for five or six years, could read 
it with greater facility. He then concluded to 
try his skill with the Greek, where he met with 
the same success. Our opinion is that few 
clergymen could read the original language of 
the New Testament with a better understanding 
of the meaning of its words. After studying 
French in the same manner so as to gain access 
to its beautiful literature, he was urged to take up 
the German language. To this at first he was 
somewhat reluctant, but it was not long before 
he found a new world, and a new source of pro- 
fit and pleasure in the study of the German 

^ classics. He was always wont to express his 
surprise at the beauty and strength of this great 
ana noble language. 

So far as we remember, Mr. Andrews never 
spoke of any practical use which he expected to 
make of his knowledge of these languages. 
Probably no such a thought ever ent(;red his 
mind. God, however, in all His all- wise provi- 
dence, opened up the way by which he was 
enabled to turn to rare account these acouisi- 
tions, so as to make himself eminently useful in 
his day and generation. His worthy father and 
mother, who were his principal earthly support, 
were unexpectedly called away by the hand of 
death. This was a fearful blow to him, to his 
brothers, his sisters, and many others. I dis- 
tinctly remember the early morning when the 

^sad intelligence reached us that the father was 
no more, and, soon afterwards, that the mother 
had also fallen asleep. Their memory is still 
green in this community. The sisters felt their 
responsibility, and together exerted themselves 
in various ways to sustain themselves and their 
afflicted brother amidst the rude shocks. of .ad- 
versity. 

But James, the brother, a man, we mi|;ht say, 
with only one arm, but a vigorous brain, like- 
wise essayed to support himself, and one also 
whom he had lovea in his early youth, in the 
useful and honorable profession of teaching. 
Friends and acquaintances in this part of the 
county secured for him pupils, and he soon es- 
tablished a school of high grade, which for man v 
years — from 1859 ^^ '^^5 — ^^ sustained with 
credit to himseU and with great benefit to 
this immediate neighborhood and surrounding 
country. All this is well known, and it is not 
necessary for me here to dwell upon it in its de- 
tails. One who was well acquainted with his 
work — his pastor, the Rev. Dr. C. W. Stewart 
—on a public occasion some years ago thus 
spoke of it, and no doubt truthfully : " f speak 
advisedly and without exaggeration when I say, 
that there is not a school of the same grade in 
the State, where superior advantages are offered 
in thorough drill and faithful teadiipg," 

But whilst he was thus a diligent teacher in 
this community for many years, he was all the 
while also a diligent learner. He continued to 
improve his mind and to extend his knowledge 
in various directions. He searched thoroughly 
the different branches of mathematical science 
and of natural philosophy, read intently in his- 
tory, and became, in fact, a learned man. One 
of &ie most learned in this country, as a teacher 



78 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



or principal of a classical High School, he 
brought the highest and best qualifications to 
his work in the instruction of youth. 

He was familiar with all the arguments which 
skepticism and infidelity bring against the Bible 
and the Christian religion, but they made no 
permanent impression on the mind of Prof. 
Andrews. He saw clearly how superficial they 
were, and was always ready to answer and re- 
fute them. He had an unshaken faith in Chris- 
tianity from his youth upwards ; yet he did not 
see his way clear to make a pubhc profession of 
his faith in Christ until he had approached the 
meridian, so to speak, of his years. Accord- 
ingly, wiUi his mental faculties well developed, 
his mind clear, he devoted himself fully in 
body and soul, in life and death, to the service 
of Christ, his Lord and Redeemer. It must have 
been an impressive sight when such a man as 
he, in ^e spirit of a little child, appeared before 
the Church Council to profess his faith in Christ ; 
and no doubt it continued to be so, when from 
time to time he appeared in the church of his 
fathers to unite with others in celebrating the 
dying love of his risen Lord. 

From all this and much more that might be 
said it is evident that Prof James W. Andrews 
did not live in vain. He has left behind him a 

food name, an honorable fame. He reflected 
onor on this part of our great country and upon 
the church in which he was baptized, trained 
for usefulness in life, and prepared for a happy 
death. Though dead, he yet speaketh. He has 
shown for us a bright example. ^€ all have, 
at one time or another, our trials and tribula- 
tions, for it is only through these that we must 
enter the kingdom of Heaven. ^ Sometimes we 
grow weary, faint-hearted, discouraged, but let 
us remember that others have also had their 
trials, and yet have stood erect to the end, fight- 
ing the good fight of faith. So it has been with 
our departed fnend and brother. Through 
storm and sunshine he calmly pursued his 
course, and now, as we have good reason to be- 
lieve, he has gained the unfaihng crown of life. 



THE MERCHANT PRINCE. 



THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENT. 



THE name best known in Philadelphia is 
that of her merchant prince, John 
Wanamaker. He is a very Napoleon of 
energy and enterprise among the business 
men of that great city, and it would seem 
to most men that all his time and thought 
must be absorbed in the management of his 
vast mercantile and other interests. On 
the contrary, few men have given more 
active personal aid to Christian and human- 
tarian work. He has for a generation been 
identified prominently with the work of the 
Young Men's Christian Association in the 
city and in the State, and for upwards of 
thirty years has been the active Superin- 



tendent of the Bethany Sunday-school — in 
great probability the most important work of 
his busy, useful life. On Sunday, June loth, 
a special programme of exercises was ar- 
ranged to celebrate his fiftieth birthday, of 
which the Phila, Ledger gives the following 
account : 

Mr. Wanamaker knew nothing of the cele- 
bration until he entered the school building, 
when the members rose to their feet and greeted 
him by singing a verse from one of Miss Haver- 
gal's poems. On either side of the reading desk 
were floral designs in the shape of vases — one 
bearing the date 1837, the other 1887. Various 
parts of thwchool room were also appropriately 
decorated with flowers. 

Rev. Arthur T. Pierson, D. D., Pastor of 
Bethany Church, welcomed the Superintendent 
Dr. Pierson said that in the past Mr. Wana- 
maker himself had conducted the school in a 
very satisfactory manner, but to-day the order 
was reversed and he found others in charge. 
Dr. Pierson, in behalf of the school, gave Sie 
Superintendent a cordial greeting, and com- 
mented on the success which had crowned Mr. 
Wanamaker s long and faithful services as an 
officer of the school. After a prayer, Wm, H. 
Wanamaker was introduced, and tendered his 
congratulations to the Superintendent. The 
speaker said whatever good he had done in his 
life had been inspired, encouraged, and di- 
rected by his elder brother. 

Rev. Thomas C. Horton, Assistant Pastor of 
Bethany Church, read a congratulatory letter 
fi-om Rev. J. R. Miller, a former pastor. Ad- 
dressing Mr. Wanamaker, Dr. Miller said in his 
letter: "As God's angels look down on your 
hfe on your birthday,! verily believe that the 
part of your work which appears most radiant 
to them is that which centres in this sacred 
place (Bethany Church). I think all your 
money might be swept away, and all the fabric 
of business which your hands grasp, and you 
would not be poor while the work abides which 
you have wrought here on hearts and hves." 

Mr. Horton also read a paper prepared for 
the occasion by the session of Bethany Church. 
In this the session said to Mr. Wanamaker: 
" For thirty years you have been largely the 
inspiration and encouragement of this enter- 
prise (Bethany Church), of which you were 
mainly the originator. Throughout its history 
your generous giving and personal sacrilices ; 
your fertility in suggestion and zeal in execution; 
your identification with the poorest and hum- 
blest, and your ready acquiescence in the will 
of the majority, have gone far to promote every- 
thing good, and to shape unselfish character 
and stimulate energetic endeavors on the ^ 
of others." 

Mr. Wanamaker was then called, and said 
this had been the most perfect surprise of his 
life. He said he had not intended to allow any 
observance of his birthday, and this would not 
have taken place if he could have prevented 
it. Anything personal to himself he wanted to 
run away from, for "I would sooner help one 
of these boys," he went on to say, " by putting 



18870 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



79 



a new thought into his heart, or giving a word 
of cheer to that struggling boy, than have the 
newspapers publish whole columns of any busi- 
ness enterprise in which I have taken part. I 
have had more credit in the work at Bethany 
than belongs to me, for there have been many 
helpful, patient, considerate teachers and others 
working with me. After all, Bethany School 
and Giurch owe their place not to any one or 
any six persons, but to hundreds who have 
joined hands and helped day after day. If I 
had my life to go over I would give greater 
adhesion to the things I chose thirty years ago 
than I have been able to give in my poor, dis- 
jointed work. I would have fewer things to do, 
and the things I did have my hands on I would 
do better." 

Mr. Wanamaker said it was to «him a great 
joy that when the Sunday-school was younger 
and counted for less, the Lord led him to see of 
how great value it was and how much he could 
do in it and through it. The greatest philoso- 
phers and greatest statesmen on both sides of 
the sea have come to realize that the Sunday- 
school is one of the greatest powers known to 
the world for the education, not only pf the 
heart, but the mind. Concluding, he said there 
was in his heart a great wish that in .whatever 
years he had yet to spend, if he could not be 
with Bethany, he coula at least spend them in 
a large manner for the school. 

The lesson for the day was then taken up. 
Each attendant was given a card printed in gold 
as a souvenir of the birthday celebration. The 
card presented to the Superintendent was 
printed on satin. 



ITEMS FROM REPORTS. 



Berks. — Supt. Keck : Thus far I have heard 
▼ery little complaint about the six months* law. 
The Tilden directors will build a new school- 
house in the Becker district. Boyertown is 
building a very fine two -story school-house. 
The Kutztown directors improved the surround- 
ings of their building very much, and supplied 
two rooms with patent furniture. The Womels- 
dorf Board changed the term to nine months. 
Muhlenberg will Aimish four rooms with patent 
fiimiture. 

Bucks.— Supt. Slottcr: The Quakertown 

schools held their anniversary and High School 

cnmroencement June 25th. Two boys and two 

Jlirls graduated, and received the customary 

^omas. The attendance and the attention 

Q& the part of the audience, gave evidence 

4at the people are thoroughly interested in the 

sdiools. The Doylestown schools also held 

d«ing exercises, which were creditable to both 

teachers and pupils. Bensalem schools held 

their annual reunion. The exercises included 

''cdtations, class-drills, singing, and addresses 

by Dr. Charles King, President of the Board, 

and Supt. W. W. Woodruff. Southampton 

held a similar meeting Tune 14th. The people 

of both districts manifested much interest in 

their schools. 

Crawford. — Supt. Sturdevant : Union town- 



ship is erecting a substantial school- house of 
brick, in place of the one destroyed by fire a 
few months ago. A number of teachers holding 
professional certificates have been preparing to 
enter the examination for permanent certificates. 
Cambridgeboro will take a long step forward in 
educational matters at the beginning of the fall 
term. A new department is to be added, a 
two- story addition having been made to the 
present building. Advanced students, intend- 
mg to become teachers, will receive, daily, 
valuable special training and practice in the 
primary rooms. 

Dauphin. — Supt. McNeal: Notwithstanding 
the fact that most of the country districts in this 
county have heretofore had only five months 
school, I hear very little dissatisfaction with the 
law increasing the minimum term to six months. 
The directors of Dauphin have increased the 
term in that place to eight months and raised 
the salary in the High School from $45 to $55 
per month. In Hummelstown the term has 
been increased from seven to eight months. 

Greene. — Supt. Herrington : A large number 
of the teachers of this county have lately 
attended the College and High Schools within 
our borders. The attendance at the "Five 
Weeks* Normal*' of Waynesburg College, dur- 
ing the last three years, has been from 70 to 
100. I am sorry to state that there is a tendency 
among many of our school directors to pay for 
six months* service what has hitherto been paid 
for five months. I fear the effect of this will be 
to cause more of our good and experienced 
teachers to leave the profession. 

Juniata.— Supt. Auman: Besides the usual 
press of office work at the close of the year, I 
visited the Soldiers* Orphan School at Mc- 
Alisterville, June ^oth, and can only say, what 
I have had occasion to say on previous visits, 
that progress was plainly visible on every hand. 
The conduct of the pupjls in the school-room 
and on the play-ground, and the prompt answers 
given by the pupils in the various branches 
taught, are evidences of success in the right 
direction. The teachers employed are live, 
energetic, and sincere in their work. Much 
credit is due to Prof. Sherwood for the able and 
efficient manner in which he has conducted the 
school. He is the right man in the right place. 

McKean. — Supt. Eckels : The Lafayette 
School Board passed a resolution requiring 
their teachers to pass examination in Natural 
Philosophy, Algebra, Civil Government, and 
Book- Keeping. 

Mercer.— Supt. McClecry : Two new houses 
are being built in West Salem, one in Shenango, 
one in Wolf Creek, and one is being repaired 
in Findley. Ten of the old houses in Pyma- 
tuning, and six in Tefferson. are being reseated 
with the Sidney (Ohio) patent furniture. A 
great many of our teachers have resigned, and 
all being able and competent their places will 
be difficult to fill. 

Monroe. — Supt. Dinsmore: The citizens in 
the western section of our county propose to 
erect a building and open an Academy or Col- 
legiate Institute. A meeting was held at Sciota, 
Hamilton township, June 28, to consider the 



8o 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



matter. The meeting was addressed by the 
County Superintendent, followed by Geo. W. 
Dornbach, of Schuylkill county. They want to 
raise $5000 to begin with ; $3500 has, I believe, 
already been subscribed. 

Montour. — Supt. Ream : Three new school- 
houses are to be erected this season — one in the 
borough of Danville, to cost $11,000. 

Somerset. — Supt. Weller : I wrote an article 
for the county papers, setting forth the intent of 
new school legislation, and indicating the 
changes that would be made necessary m the 
school work of our county. The standard of 
teachers' qualifications has been raised about 
25 per cent. All under sixteen years of age and 
all who cannot make an average of 2 on each 
of the ten branches, are rejected. Our teachers 
are working hard to keep pace with the ad- 
vancing steps. 

Union. — Supt. Johnson : During the month, 
four young ladies of the Kelly township schools 
were examined by the County Superintendent, 
and awarded diplomas. The directors of White 
Deer township have decided to pay teachers 
according to grade of certificate and ability to 
teach. On account of the increase of the State 
appropriation, the Lewisburg Board has ex- 
tended the school term from eight to nine 
months. 

Venango. — Supt. Lord: Sugar Creek town- 
ship has adopted the continuous term system, 
and her schools will commence, on August 1 5th, 
an eight months* session. Cherry Tree has but 
^ three of her thirteen schools in operation this 
summer, and expects to have a continuous term 
of seven months in the entire district next year. 
New buildings are now in course of erection in 
five districts of the county, and all are to be 
first-class in construction, light and ventilation. 
Only one district in this county reports the min- 
imum term of five months, and that was caused 
by making the change from the one- term to the 
two- term system last year. The new laws re- 
garding Teachers* Institutes and length of term 
give universal satisfaction here. 

Altoona. — Supt. Keith : The contract for the 
erection of a school-house containing ten rooms 
has been awarded. This building will be lo- 
cated in the 8th ward, and will be ready for 
occupancy August, 1888. 

CORRY. — Supt. Colgrove : Our schools closed 
June 17th. A class of twenty -two graduated 
from the High School. The Board has pur- 
chased a set of fine wall maps for each school 
building. Our experiment with the " no recess** 
plan has been very satisfactory. 

Nanticoke. — Supt. Miller: A normal post- 
graduate course has been established and an 
additional assistant teacher employed in the 
High School. There were twenty-two candi- 
dates for teachers* certificates, seven of whom 
were rejected. 

NoRRiSTOWN. — Supt, Gotwals: The schools 
closed June 28th, with commencement exer- 
cises in Music Hall, which was crowded to its 
utmost capacity by friends and patrons of the 
school. These annual exercises have become 
of such interest as to make it difficult to procure 
a room large enough to accommodate all who 



wish to see and hear. The class numbered 
thirty — ten boys and twenty girls. The exer- 
cises were highly praised by all who had an 
opportunity to witness them. Theyear*s work 
closed in a satisfactory manner. The teachers 
have done good work and are justly entitled to 
their vacation. 

Shamokin. — Supt. Harpel: The teachers* 
annual examination has been held. Twenty- 
two applicants presented themselves, seven- 
teen of whom were granted provisionad certifi- 
cates, and five, professional certificates. The 
general improvement in the teachers* manu- 
scripts and the average grade of certificates in- 
dicate that our teachers are endeavoring to 
aualify themselves better for their profession, 
[uite a number of directors, teachers, and citi- 
zens were present to witness the exercises. 

Tamaqua. — Supt. Ditchburn: Our School 
Board met on the 17th inst., employed teachers 
for the next term, and increased the salaries all 
around 10 per cent. The schools have closed 
for a two months* vacation. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Eclectic German Fifth Reader. Far American 
Schools. By IV, B. IVeick &* C. Grebner, 
New York : Van Antwerp, Bragg &* Co. i2Pto. 
pp. J/-?. Introduction price, y2 cents. 
Several months ago we noticed the four preceding 
volumes of this excellent series. The present vol' 
ume is worthy of them, and is really a book of voy 
superior merit. Unlike most readers, English is 
well as German, which are a compilation of miscel- 
laneous scraps of natural history, popular science, 
history, poetry, etc., this volume proceeds on the 
correct principle that reading is a purely literary ex- 
ercise, and concerned first and last with literature. 
Its selections and exercises are therefore almost ex- 
clusively specimens of the writings of the masters of 
German literature, the Grimms, Lesstng, Goethe, 
Schiller, KOmer, Herder, Hebel, Tieck, Uhland, 
Kttckert, Wieland, Geibel, and in fact there is 
scarcely a prominent German author who is not rep- 
resented. The arrangement, too, is excellent. A 
summary sketch of the history of the literature of a 
period is usually followed by a brief biographical 
notice of the leading authors — ^in many cases their 
portraits are also given ; then follow the specimens of 
their writings. At the end of the volume are exer- 
cises, with rules, etc., for composition and translation. 
The book in every respect is an excellent one, and 
might well serve as a model for many English readers 
we have seen. 

Patterson's Advanced Grammar and Elements 

OF Rhetoric By C. Patterson. New York: 

Sheldon &* Co. 12 mo., pp. jgg. 
Practical Rhetoric and Composition. By A. 

N. Ranb. Philadelphia : Raub &• Co. i2mo», 

pp. j2to. Price, $1.20. 

Mr. Patterson's work is the second volume of his 
*' Language Series," and is therefore a connected 
sequel rather than an independent volume. It is in- 
tended as an advanced and exhaustive treatise on the 
essentials of English grammar. Part I. is an induc- 
tive presentation of the p>arts of speech, and phrases, 
and clauses, and serves as introductory to Part II., in 
which the parts of speech are more fully discussed, 



i887.] 



BOOK NOTICES. 



8i 



and Part III., which is deYoted to the analysis of 
sentences. Part IV. is given to Rhetoric, and is fol- 
lowed by an Appendix on Punctuation, Capital Let- 
ten, Letter- Writing, etc. 

Dr. Raub's book aims at practicalness in teaching 

sod applying the principles and theory. It might 

therefore be regarded as complementary to Mr. Pat- 

tenoo's. The definition of the object of teaching 

ihetoric is excellent. " First, that of securing to the 

tedcot ease, grace, fluency, and correctness of com- 

|xsilkA; and secondly, that of enabling him to dis- 

cen, appreciate, and enjoy the beauties of thought 

and knguage that may be gleaned from literary 

fields." With the aim of fulfilling these objects kept 

dearly in view, the author has succeeded in produc- 

iag a helpful work on this difficult subject. 

WiNTwoRTH & Hill's Exercise Manuals, No. I. 

Arithmetic. Boston: Ginn &* Co. /2mo.,pfi. aSj. 

A book such as this has its uses. It is simply a 
coDinlation of exaunples, problems, exercises, care- 
fully made, and arranged under the respective heads 
of Integral Numbers, Decimals, Common Fractions, 
Common Measures, Percentage, Proportion, Mensu- 
lation, followed by a collection of Miscellaneous Ex- 
ercises. Sensibly used, the book will be found help- 
fa] or suggestive to teachers. 
Sheldon's Elements of Algebra. JVew York: 

SJUldon 6* Co. tsmo.tPp, j6j. 

The chief difference of this book from other ele- 
mentary algebras lies in the clear manner in which it 
beings out the analogy between the processes of arith- 
metic and those of algebra by means of numerical 
iOostrations. It also omits many of the usual demon- 
strations as beyond the comprehension of the begin- 
ner, and in their stead gives an increased number of 
exercises and examples for practice. A more ad- 
vanced Part Second is soon to be published. The 
present work is a good elementary text-book. 

Gilman's Historical Readers. By Arthur 
Cilman. Boston : Interstate Publishing Co. No. 
/. Th€ Discovery and Exploration of America. 
i2mo., pp. 128. Price^ j6 cents. No. II. The 
Coloniaation of America. Pp. /60. Price^ 48 
cents. No. III. The Making of the American 
Aation. Pp. jg2. Price, 60 cents. 
Why such books as these are put upon the market 
as ** Readers" we fail tO understand. They are sim- 
ply *' Histories," -and good enough not to be ashamed 
of themselves as such. They form, in fact, very ex- 
cellent introductions and incentives to the fuller study 
of American history ; as such they give causes and 
resnks rather than details, though by no means in a 
dry and uninteresting style, but quite the contrary. 
The volumes are graded so that No. I in subject, Ian- 
Suge and arrangement is well fitted for the youngest 
^rs and girls ; No. II being somewhat fuller and 
kis simple in language, for children a little more ad- 
duced ; and No. Ill for still more advanced pupils, 
^^considerably fuller as to matter and more diffi- 
cult u to words and style. It b a very well written, 
*^ eqnally well printed and bound, series of intro- 
•J'ctoi, histories. 

Historical Sketch of the Jews, Since the De: 
itruction of Jerusalem. By Rev. Bemhard Pick, 
^'em York : Jno. B. Alden. Pp. 46. is ets. 
The ancient history of the Tews is very much bet- 
ter known by the general public than the more mod- 
em. Id this little volume Dr. Pick gives the latter, 
10 1 clear, concise, accurate and interesting manner. 
It is a book that will be welcomed by many, and its 
nerely nominal price makes it accessible to nearly 
everybody. 



The House I Live In. An Elemtntary Physiology 
for Children in the Public Schools. New York : 
Van Antwerp, Bragg &* Co. i2mo., pp. gd. Price 
JO cents. 

Another addition to the list of Phvsiologies *' with 
special reference to the nature of alcoholic drinks," 
etc., which have appeared within the last few years. 
It must be said, however, that this attractively writ- 
ten, printed and bound little volume is in some re- 
spects better than a good many of its predecessors 
and companions. One of its excellencies is its brev- 
ity. It does not try to make medical students of oar 
primary scholars. 

Little Flower -People. By Gertrude E. Hale. 

Boston : Ginn &* Co. J2mo., pp. 8^* Illustrated. 

Botany more than any other science has had flie 
advantage of being popularized and made attractive 
by the graceful pens and pencils of some of our most 
gifted lady writers. Such has been done in this 
dainty little volume, which is a collection of half a 
dozen chapters by a flower-lover, as scientifically cor- 
rect as she is poetically fanciful, in flowers, ferns, 
grasses, rushes, and all the beauties and wonders of 
the vegetable world that lie nearest to us, and can be 
seen and studied by any one with loving eyes and an 
interested mind. . It is a book that will especially de- 
light the girls. 

Twilight Thoughts. Stories for Children and 
Child-Lovers. By Mary S. Claude, Boston: 
Ginn dr* Co. t2mo.,pp. 104, 
Edited by Mary L. Avery and introduced in a 
preface by Matthew Arnold, this book would attcact 
notice even though it were far less worthy than it is. 
Yet such is its own intrinsic merit and excellence that 
it could very well have dispensed with such aids to 
notice and favor. It is a collection of fanciful little 
essays, prose poems, fables, parables, and simple de- 
scriptions of the lovely sights and objects in nature, 
and breathes the spirit of one gifted above the ordi- 
nary to be an interpreter of nature to man. Its deep 
insight now reminds us of Wordsworth himself, its <• 
charming simplicity next intimates a spiritual kinship 
with Andersen. Altogether it is a veiv delightful 
little book, full of wisdom and truth, and is full of 
literary grace and beauty. 

Alden's Manifold Cyclopedia of Knowledge 
AND Language. Illustrated. Vol. /, A to 
America. New York : fohn B. Alden. Crown 
%uo.,pp. 6jo, 

The publication of this combined cyclopedia and 
dictionary is announced as the most important work 
upon which Mr. Alden has yet ventured. It is to be 
based upon Chambers* Cyclopedia and Stormonth's 
English Dictionary, with, however, such recasting, 
additions, emendations, etc., as will make the work 
of special worth and usefulness to Americans, and of 
considerably fuller proportions than both Chambers 
and Stormonth combined. Mr. Alden promises to 
make this the fullest and most complete work of the 
kind in the market. It is to be completed in not less 
than 30 volumes, to be issued at the rate of one ' 
every month or two. The first volume is as welt 
made a book as any one would wish. Its size makes, 
it much more convenient for reference than if it. 
were the usual large octavo. The paper is good*, 
type a clear brevier, and binding either in cloth or 
half-morocco and marbled edges. The cloth edition 
is offered at the marvellous pnce of $7. So for the 30 
volumes for all who subscribe before August, and 
slight advances every month afterwards. It is the 
cheapest work of the kind ever offered, and we shall 
probably refer to it again. 



82 



PENAS \L VANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[August, 



In Scotland.— a correspondent of the Edinburg 
Review makes a plea for good singing, as follows: If 
the visit to this country of certain Americans interested 
in the introduction and improvement of church music, 
were to have no other result, it would still do great good 
by directing attention to that which should be an inte- 
gral and important part of the service, the only part of 
worship in many of our churches in which the people 
take an audible share. As the old woman excused 



herself for hearing Dr. Chalmers reading a disconne 
by saying, "Ay, but it was fell readin' that," so we may 
say of this, it's "fell" tinging. Mr. Sankey has a 
magnificent voice— clear, sweet and melodious; and 
his feeling of the truth and beauty and solemnity of what 
he is singing communicates an indescribable psithosand 
tenderness to his utterance. I'hen he has learned 
what is so carefully attended to in some American 
schools and so little regarded here, distinct utterance 



BONNIE CHARLIE. 



FiNLST Duim. W. B. Haul mrr. 



wna^ i ' i * 



1. Bon - nie Char - lie's 

2. Ye trust - ed in your 




DOW 

Hie 



8. Eug - liah bribes were W 



a - wa; Safe - ly owre the friend - ly 
land men, They trust - ed you, dear Char 
in yaiuy Tho' puir and puir - er we maun 



mam: 
Uef 



be; 




Mon - y a heart will break in twa. Should he ne'er oome back a - ^ata 

They kent your hid - ing in the glen, Death or ez - ile brar - ing. 

811 - ler can - na buy the neart That beats aye for thine and thee 





Bet-ter lo'ed je can-na 

t T f ' C r. I r g 



no oome back 



a - gain? 



n 



rr^ 



r [ I rirr i p^ 



We watched thee in the gloaming hour, 
We watched thee in the morning gray, 

Tho' thirty thousand pounds they gi'e. 
Oh* there's nane that wad betray. — Cho, 



Sweet's the laverock's note and lang, 
Lilting wildly up the glen; 

But ave to me he sings a sang, 
Will ye no come back again? — C^. 



Any prejudice against "singing the gospel" fades 
away under the spell of his magic voice. Why should 
there be any prejudice? For generations most of the 
Highland ministers^and some of the Lowland min- 
isters, as well — have sung the gospel, sung their ser- 
mons, ay, sung their prayers also. The difference is 
that they sing very badly and he sings very well. 
He accompanies himself on the organ, it is true, and 
some of us who belong to the old school can't swallow 



the kist of whistles yet But then the American organ 
"is only a little one." When a deputation from the 
session waited on Ralph Erskine to remonstrate with 
him on the enormity of fiddling, he gave them a tune 
on the violoncello, and they were so charmed thatth^ 
returned to their constituents with the report that it 
was all right — ** it wasna' ony wee sinful fiddle" that 
their minister was thus in the habit of operating upon, 
but a grand instrument, full of grave, tweet melody. 



i887.] 



PUBLISHERS' DEPARTMENT. 



83 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

re New Volume (36tb) of The School Journal 
begins with July No. We take pleasure in ac- 
knowledging the following orders for subscription, 
many of which are from old subscribers who have 
long been on our mailing list. Wiih prompt renewal 
Vu Journal can be mailed regularly with each 
inon£ly issu^, which is always more satisfactory to 
the subscriber. The more general the circulation of 
Ih Jtmrnal the better for the schools everywhere. 
We lisll always try to make it woith more than its 
oorttothe reader, and of especial value to Teachers 
lad to School Officers. Can the average Board of 
Scbool Directors better expend Seven Dollars in the 
interest of their Schools than by ordering The School 
lutmalXxi each of its Members for one year? The 
am of the State assumes that it cannot ; and the ex- 
perience of the most progressive School Boards has 
for many years approved the wisdom of this law. 

/Awf.— Butler DistHct, A. A. Wiennan, Secretary; Hun- 
tngdoB, J. W. Wierman; Latimore, Geo. L. Deaillorff; 
Reading. AttguMut Deatrich. 

i4/i^4M|r.— Bethel, T. M. Walker; Braddock twp., A. C. 
Coulter; CoraopoBt. W. B. Dillon; Elixabeth Iwp., R. S. 
Stewart; Indiana, W. J. Robinson; Lincoln, Alex. Calhoun; 
McKecsport, Jno. W. Stewart ; Plum. C. Kane; Richland, D. 
D McKelry: Scott. E. P. Holland. 

i(nKf#rMr.— Kiskiminetaa, H. C. KnappeDb«rger ; Madi- 
m, Henry H. KeUer ; Parley R. G. Parks. 

A«airr.— Bridgewater, J. C. Woodruff. 

Birkt.—'Son\i Heidelberg, R. M. Gruber; Long Swamp. 
Jaaes F. Werts; Peon. Jno. K. Balthaser. 

^iloir.— Logan, J. W. Smiley; North Woodbury, H. D. 
KeastDger. 

BrmJ/frd.—Axjhxm, W. H. Benjamin; Orwell, H. H. At- 
wod; Wyalusing, T. C. Lee. 

JacAf.— Bristol Boro.,ByramC. Foster; Hilltown, Samoel 
H. Moyer; New Hope, J. P. Smith: Plumstead, Harvey 
Gayman. 

^aZ/rr.— Buffalo, S. S. Fleming. 

CMt^fia,— Cambria Twp., G. J. Jones. MillviUa, Enoch 
Jaoies. 

Csr^.— Banks, Hugh Ferry; Kidder, A. P. Carter; Le- 
hisktoD. F. P. Lents. 

Cm/rr — BcUelbnte, Wm. B. Rankin; Collefe, Theo. S. 
arist;Haines. T. H.Wyle. 

Ob«l#r.— Bradford East, Chas. S. Carter; Coatesrille 
Boro., Dr. H. E. Williams; North Coventry. Wm. Smith; 
Kevlin, Mrs. A. C Stone; Spring City, W. J. Wagoner; East 
VinceDt, C. W. Brown. 

OanM.— East Brady, R. Robinson; Elk, T. W. Upde- 
piff. 

CZMf^^/A/.— Greenwood, G. W. Dickey ; Lawrence, Peter 
Gearhart; Morris, C. E. Belcher; Woodward, Thos. Beynon. 

amUm.—KmaOTi, J. A. Leitiell, 

C»/mcMs.— Oreenwood, I. K. Titman ; Pine, Ezra Eves. 

Crawford. — McadviUe, D. D. Leberman ; Saegertown, G. 
V. Rhodes; Sparta, E. A. Elston; Summit, N. W. Read. 

CatMiirr£ti«tf.— Carlisle, C. P. Humrich ; Hampden, David 
piett: South Middleton, Chas. £, WoU, Monroe, J. M. 
Nieslcy: NewviUe, D. S. McCoy; Penn, F. G. Williamson; 
£-PcniHboro, J. P. Wilbar; Shippensbuiv Twp., John I. Cox. 

0ns^m.— Hali&x Twp., Hiram Yeaeer; Middletown^ W. 
\- ReitseU: Lower Paxton. David Smeltser ; Steeltoa, C. A. 
mfing: Swatara. J. U. Walter; Lower Swatara, S. B. 
SbCber: Lykens, W. S. Young. 

Mtttvrr.— North Chester, David Aaron; South Chester, 
J. J. Ucwes ; Upper Darby, Geo. E. Burnley ; Ridley, T. F. 
Kmfcr: Upland, Lewis J. Smith, 

^ £rir..E<rtnboro, J. J. McWiliiams ; MiU Creek, R. H. Ar- 

^: North East Twp., F. A. MaUick; Springfield, H. G. 

'**^: Erie City, Thomas O'Dea. 

Ar(if..|eingsiey, H. A. Zuendel; Tionesu Twp., Geo. B. 
ArannMtf. 

Ar«aAfi«. — ^Montgomery, Henry B. Angle, 
^«A«-Wdls, jTr. Foster. 
£r«rar._Gilmore, T. M. Hennen. 

^vWArM^M.^Huntingdon. Geo. W. Sanderson. 

Ai^^MM.— Banks, C. D. Smith; Cherry Hill. J. W. How. 
onh; S. Mahoning, Wm. Morrow ; White, Joseph Griffith. 

Ttfftvton, — Warsaw, Lewis Evans. 

Lmchaiwanna. — Ransom, Thomas Johnston. 

X««awi«r.— West Cocalico, John E. Gehman ; Columbia, 
L W. May; East Donegal, Jas. F. Johnstin; West Donegal, 
^Bon Hoover; Drumore.J. C Helm; East Eari, I. H. 
Haodworit ; West Earl, Ruay Frankhouser ; Ephrata, Jacob 
Gorns; East Hempfield. H. W. GraybiU; West Hempfield, J. 
u Reitsell; East Lampeter, T. F. Landis; West Lampeter, 
Hejrai if. Herr; Leacock, M. Buckwalter; Mount Joy, C. 
u dj'^ric; Paradise, D. B. Esbenshade; Pequea. A. B. Shank ; 



Z^^iMM.— South Annville. Frederick Yake ; Jackson, Frank 
Stoudt; Mill Creek. H. L. Illig. 

ZtfA^A.— Catasauqua, David Davis; White Hall, F. G. 
Bemd. 




M. Fague. 

MeKean.—^xiAiatA twp., Wm. Lockhart ; La Fayette, E. W. 
Pen6eld. 

^rrrrr.— Delaware, Geo. W. Magee ; Lackawannock, J. 
W. Hope; Salem, W. A. McLean. 

MtJ^tM—Vnlon. David H. Zook. 

Montgomery. — ^Jenkintown, Mary L. Thompson; Lower 
Providence, Isaac Z. Reiner ; Trappe, P. Williard. 
' Montour.— X)vci\\\^, J. R. Phillips. 

HorthAmpton.—h^tXit E. W. Fenstermaker ; South Easton, 
John F. Vivian ; Hanover, Geo. O. Kleppinger. 

Ar0rM«MrA<rr/a«Ki/.— Chillisquaqua, R. M. Cummings; Coal, 
Samuel Clayberger; Mt. Carmel. James H. Smith ; Snamokin, 
John* J. W. Schwartz ; Turbot, Wm. A. Reed. 

/Vrr^.— J unbu. Tames Stephens; Penn, Wm. A. Holland. 

Pike.—OmKOt^ John Marsch. 

P(0f/<r.— Abbott, Dr. Chas. Heine; West Branch. Geo. W. 
Fowler. 

Schuylkill.— GWoct^on, M. A. Leary: Minersville, D. A. 
Jones; Pine Grove Twp., Edward Hummel; Port Carbon, 
Jacob H. Retter; Rahn, Bernard Boyle; Reilly, Patrick Ly- 
ons ; Shenandoah, S. W. Yost ; Tremont Twp, tames O'Nell ; 
Union, H. D. Renuchler; Pottsville, Geo. W.Kennedy. 

Siwj'i/rr.— Spring, Geo. Lambert; Washington, Henry Brown. 

5aw7w/Aa«iM.-%ibson, Jno. S. Bennett; Herrick, S. O. 
Churchill ; Harford. Lee Tiffany. 

Sullwan.—Voxt A. B. Kilmer; Laporte Twp., Wm. J. Low. 

7>V"-Charleslon. W. D. Jones ; Duncan. James Pollock ; 
Elk, f. H. Hubers: Richmond, V. R. Pratt; Tioga Twp.. C. 
L. Thomas ; Covington twp., Jas. T. Cushing. 

Unton.—EAit Buffalo. Geo. H. Wagner; Gregg, John Gal- 
loway; Lewisbui^, John P. Miller; Limestone, John F. 
Miller. 

y^nango. — Clinton, Wm. Ashton. 

W^rr/n.— Cherry Grove, T. Ewing; Farmiagton, R. E. 
Miller. 

Wa*hingtou.—^%l Finley, A. K. Craig. 

IVarne. — Damascus. G. A. Kes&Ier. 

Westmoreland —A\\tg\i^Tij , R. Miller; Derry Twp., Wm. 
M. Feivuson; Franklin, J. F. Hoey ; Latrobe, E. S. Womcr; 
Salem Twp., W. W. Marts. 

IV'vomine.—CWnioxk, J. G. Copwell. 

York.—Wtai, E. Arnold; Glen Rock. L. W. Shafer; New 
Freedom, John Sechrist; Peach Bottom, Wm. I. Bamett; 
Stcwartstown, Allen I. Frey; Lower Windsor, Jacob Leithiser; 
Wrighuville, J. P. Levergood. 

Also, from County Superintendents J. H. Werner, W. A. 




G. W. Kerr, T. W. Arird. and from D. R. Owens, B. F. 



Shaub, W. L. Thacher. Sarah L Carter, J. F. Sickel. W. H. 
Samuel. N. O. Wil^lm, Nora Crawford, Jno. R. Groves, W. 
B. Miller, Geo. W. Twitmyer, J. D. L. Counsil, and others. 



♦^ 



Strukmg, ». H. Long; Strasbiuf Twp., B. F. Musselman; 
*-«»««««*. lienry H. Kurti, 



FROM CHICAGO TO SAN FRANCISCO. 



The distance via the Short Line is 3,35s miles, and the time 
consumed in making the journey is about four days. The Chi- 
cago, MiLWAUKBB ft St. Paul Railway Company, in addi- 
tion to having its own direct lines from Chicago to Milwaukee 
and St. Paul, also owns and operates the Short Line (487 miles) 
between Chicago and Council Bluffs and Omaha, connecting at 
the Union Pacific Railway transfer station in Council Bluffs 
with the great system of roads running to the Pacific Coast. 

The Chicago, Council Bluffs and Omaha Short Line of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Hallway passes through 
some of the best manufacturing towns of Northern Illinois, 
crosses the Mississippi River at Savanna, and traverses the best 
portion of the agricultural State of Iowa. 

In going from Chicago, about 600 feet above the sea level, one 
goes right up over the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains at 
a height of 8.000 feet, and down to San Francisco, less than 
1,000 feet. By this route through Northern Illinois and Cen- 
tral Iowa, the traveler passes Da Moines, Omaha. Cheyenne, 
Denver. Great Salt Lake. Carson City, and Sacramento. 
Everything in the way of checking baggage, providing berths 
in Pullman sleeping cars, dining on trains, and other accommo- 
dations, is looked after with the most scrupulous care, the aim 
being first and always to secure the comfort of the passengers. 
Tourists and others going from all parts of the East to San 
Francisco, the Sandwich Islands, Australia, New Zealand, 
China and Japan, would do well to consider the Chicago, 
Council Bluffs and Omaha Short Line, concerning which they 
may obtain minute information by addressing A. V. H. Car- 
penter, General Passenger Agent, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Maps and time schedules can be obuined. free of cost, from 
any ticket agent in America, or of John R.lPott, Traveling 
Passeqger Agent, Williamsport, Pa. 



A, H, ANDREWS & CO., School General Furnishere, 686 Broadway, New York. 

Manubctuitn otitic CckbnUd 

"Pafagon" & "New Triumph" Dovetailed Sdiool-Desl, 

TKE BEST IS THE WTORLD. 

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Andrews' Globes, Tel- ^^^Hw^^nHf /\ ji* ma 

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DnstleM CrajoBs, and Q^^r HI 1^^^ Wi/v 



AjaTtTtEVrS- AM'A.TOmXCA.X. CIX.A.RTS, 



Excel >11 other? in Complttentss, Acruracy, DistinclHiis, and Arlislie Colering, acknowledged to be iht b«H 

b]r tbe leading educators of the world. Drawn, engraved and primed bjr the wcll-luiowD Litbograplien, 

Messrs. W. & A. ML. Johnston, of Edinburgh. I>-} 

8END FOR SPECIAL CIBCULAB, FREE. 

A. H. Andrews & Co., Broadway, New YorK. 

PENMANSHIP IS A; ART. PRACTICE MAKES PEBPECT. | 

-^PRACTICAL-^^COPY-BOOKS.-^- 

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Complete Conrse— Six NnmberB, .... Per Dosen, 96 mat*- 

Shorter Course— Fi»e Nambers, .... " 78 " 

Zdberal Discount to I>ealer8 and School Boards, 

THE PBACTICAX. S£IIIES THS FBACTICAL SEfilES 

OIVEfl DOK8 HOT 

All the letters in every book. Burden and confuse the pupU-s mina 

f. , jr ^- *"n elaborated " Pnnciples' aM 

From two to five times more unintelligible *• ElemenU." 

systematic practice than Reurd the progress of the pupil ijytjii- 

■^ * , ing up a whole term leaching tum 

any other senes. • few isouted letters. 



Extensively used in N ew York City, Philadelphia, and all parts of the Country . 
am- SEND FOK OATALOOUB. 

POSTER & COATES, Publishers, 

PHILADELPHIA, NEW YORK, BOSTON, CHICAGO. 



THE 



SCHOOL TOTONAL 




SEPTEMBER, i887 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



THE thirty-third annual session* of the 
State Teachers' Association of Pennsyl- 
tioia met in the opera house at Clearfield, 
on Tuesday, July 7, 1887, at 10 o'clock, a. 
«i.,and was opened with prayer by Rev. R. 
A. McKiNLEV, of the Presbyterian church. 

The first address of welcome was made by 
Coaiity Supt, Matt Savage, as follows : 

Ladiei and GeHtUmen of tkt Pettna. State 
tiacktrt' Atsociatioit : It is with no ordinary 
lUlidcnce that I attempt to pronounce to you 
Mtds of welcome in behalf of our teachers, 
ditcctors and friends of education. All of us 
bre observed that certain stereotyped expres- 
Mu are found incorporated in every address 
ffKlcome, and so often have they been heard 
^ the alder members of the Association that 
Imbdess they have become seemingly trite, 
*iA, 1 may say, entirely fonnal. Considering, 
tiowcTO', that ihis assembly comprises the rep- 
tsenutive school men of our great Stale— and 
probably those of other States — men, whose 
"•» »ie interwoven with the development of 
^ public school system, and from whose 

Sptings have emanated most of the needed 
uion of the past thirty years, your pres- 
'"tt here b regarded with evident satisfaction 
"^pileful appreciation. 
J' B eminently titling that the Association 
"wW meet in Clearfield, since it will be re- 
"■'"iWed by all, and attested by members 
J»«ni,ihai while the Free School System was 
"""png from its formative period, the guber- 
"Xorial chair wastaonored by a Clearfield states- 
"^M, one who, with Stevens and Burrowes, was 
""''DS to sacrifice personal and political pros- 
[*™ for the establishment and perpetuation of 
■hwhas since grown to be the crowning system 
gljw ceoturies. Governor Bigler attended and 



• Repotted by J. D. Pyolt, Lancaster, Pa. 



addressed the convention which organiied the 
first State Teachers' Association, and on divers 
occasions during the term of his oHice addressed 
meetings of an educational character, extending 
words of encouragement and giving assurance 
of his personal aid and influence. Having 
occupied the highest position in the gift of die 
State, and havin ^at m the councils of the na- 
tion, his influen • was a power, felt near and 
far, and so high an estimate did he place upon 
the office of School Director that, after having 
served in these ligh places, and having after- 
wards been elecfd a School Director of this 
borough, he remarked to Dr. Wickersham that 
he then was serving in the most responsible po- 
sition to which he had ever been elected. The 
people of our State, and especially of Clearfield 
county, looked up to him in this matter, as in 
all others of a puolic character, while he lived, 
and revere his memory now that he has gone. 
A splendid monument marks his resting-place 
on yonder hillside, but his deeds will live long 
after the marble shaft shall have crumbled to 
dust. His name and his fame have been writ- 
ten in living letters upon the pages of history 
and in the hearts of his countrymen. Again 
we say that it is meet that you should assemble 
here, since his advice and example early led us 
to the support of the " system," and as the years 
have come and gone, we have endeavored to 
be found worthy the bestowal of some mack of 
your approbation. 

With unerring tread our county has been 
marching forward to win a place in the forefroat 
among the counties of the State. Tliis is as true 
of the advancement in school affairs as it is of 
its material progress. It might not be amiss to 
remark that for more than half a century the 
axe of the woodman has been clearing off eur 
dense forests of timber until at present the as- 

g;ct of the county is almost entirely changed. 
y Ibis process a thousand landscapes have 



86 



PEA NSYL VAN/A SCHOOL JObRNAL. 



[Sepx., 



been made beautiful by waving grain fields and 
thrifty orchards, while farming and grazing take 
no mean place among our industries. While it 
is true that during this period lumbering has 
been the chief resource, recent developments 
have discovered to us vast beds of coal and ore 
which have been peeping out at our people all 
these years, and yet they have scarcely realized 
that such '* acres of diamonds '* have thus long 
been winking at them. Of late years railroads 
have been finding and winding their way into 
almost every section of our county, and our 
hills are being honey-combed for their priceless 
treasures. This latter industry is destined to 
eclipse the lumber business, and will soon make 
us one of the richest and most populous coun- 
ties in the state. 

The growing importance of our diversified 
industrial interests and business progress may 
be indicated by the statement that an increase 
of three dozen schools but half accommodated 
the increase in population. It is, indeed, g^ati* 
fying to state, too, that while our county has be- 
come the hunting-ground of the speculator and 
railroad magnate, the school officers, in point 
of duty done, have kept pace with the mani- 
fest progress in other things. Allow me to say, 
further, that your welcome is all the more hearty 
since it is known that the growth of this organi- 
zation is so closely allied with the growth and 
history of the free school system. It is a fact 
that there has been no other force so potent in 
giving inspiration and character to the claims 
and nghts for new advantages in methods and 
legislation. The leaders of this body have been 
watched with critic eye and followed with loyal 
firmness by the rank and file in the profession, 
and by the friends of the system among the 
people. Thus favorable public sentiment has 
oeen created from time to time in favor of better 
laws ; and it is worthy of note that the deliber- 
ations of the Association have been sanctioned 
by the representatives of the people in legislative 
assembly, and the ideas advanced here have 
been crystallized in enactments for the better- 
ment of the schools and in the interest of the 
teachers. Possibly no feature of the meeting 
has contributed so much to the accomplishment 
of the objects attained as the social feature, 
because it has cemented the Association-goers 
in bonds of fraternal unity and has divined the 
prediction that the gradual culture of kind inter- 
course must bring it finally to perfection. May 
we not, therefore, invite the largest freedom of 
discussion and the fullest measure of social 
privilege ? 

There are occasions which remam in our 
minds like fixed stars in the heavens, and, I 
dare say, this pleasant occasion, with its mean- 
ing and dignity, will remain as unfading in the 
memories of our people as is the lustre of gems 
that deck the canopy above us, and when this 
occasion shall be viewed by us through the dim 
vista of future years, may we look back to it 
with the same pride and enthusiasm with which 
we have looked forward to it during the past year. 

We again bid you a hearty welcome. 

The welcome on the part of the citizens 



of the town of Clearfield was given by Thc>s. 
H. Murray, esq., in the following able 
and interesting address : 

Teachers of Pennsylvania : The people of 
this place welcome you to their town and 
county. They are pleased to regard you as the 
representatives of a system of public instruc- 
tion, which, starting but half a century ag^o 
under circumstances which were not favorable, 
has grown with our growth and strengthened 
with our strength until it has reached out and 
linked to itself every heart and every home in 
our great State. We are honored by the fact 
that you have selected this as the place of your 
present annual assemblage. 

Allow me to suggest that there are reasons 
why we ought to appreciate this, your coming. 
In material development and in actual ancl pro- 
spective wealth our county is already in the 
front rank. In men, too, we are not behind 
other places, and this is a product of no ordi- 
nary value.. It was the one thing which Dio- 
genes said he was not able to find amid all the 
glittering art and monumental grandeur of old 
Athens, and is that without which, in all the 
ages since, wealth has been able to rise bnt 
little above the lower level from which it is dug. 
This place, however, has been the very home 
of distinguished men. From here they have 
gone out to fill the highest places in the State 
and nation — and the list is by no means ex- 
hausted ! 

But in no other direction have we made more 
rapid progress than in the encouragement we 
have given to free school education. During 
the first quarter of a century under the free 
school system, so little progress had been made 
in this county that the County Superintendent 
of 1859 reported to the State department that 
there were but three school buildings fit for the 
purpose. During the last quarter of a century 
so much progress has been made that the Su- 
perintendent last year reported about 200 school 
buildings well suited for the purpose, and only 
" one log school house left to remind us of pio- 
neer work.** He also reported a larger percent- 
age of our people as attending the Teachers* 
County Institute from day to day than was 
reported from any other county in the common- 
wealth. This growth has been largely due to 
the fact that the men from our midst who have 
had most to do in moulding and directing^ pub- 
lic sentiment have been, as has been already 
stated, both in public place and in private 
station, staunch supporters and defenders of the 
system which you represent. Two of our citizens 
have given enduring value to a portion of their 
wealth by erecting temples of learning and 
dedicating them to the common schools and the 
common children of this county. I refer to the 
" Leonard school building'* here, and the " Fi^- - 
ton school building ** in Curwensville. 

These are some of the things which indicate 
that we are in a measure qualified to appreciate 
the honor conferred by your presence. These 
men, and others who aided and encouraged 
their work, caught a little of the spirit of Thad- 
deus Stevens himself, when, in the great battle 



1887.1 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



87 



for free schools which he waged over fifty years 
ago in the Legislature of Pennsylvania, he ex- 
claimed : " If I owned the whole mountain of 
Ophir, I would scatter its yellow dirt upon the 
human intellect, until, if there be one fertilizing 
property in it, every young idea would shoot 
forth with overshadowing luxuriance." That 
was a fitting sentiment with which to begin an 
illustrious career, which was rounded out and 
crowned by that other sentiment akin to it, 
irhich he directed to be inscribed over his ashes 
in a humble cemetery in Lancaster city, as ex- 
planatory of why he had selected that as his 
last resting-place. That inscription reads thus : 
" I rest in this secluded spot not because of any 
natural preference for solitude, but because I 
find other cemeteries limited by charter rules as 
to race, and I desire to vindicate in my death 
what I have advo<fated during a long life: 
Equality of all men before their Creator. 

I say the two sentiments were akin to each 
other, for, after all, the chief glory of the Com- 
mon School System is in the fact that it is a 
cmmon system. This gives it a breadth of 
base which is the surest protection to the grand 
superstructure which rises higher with each ad- 
ranee the people make toward a broader free- 
dom and a better civilization. From this fact 
have come many practical results of untold 
value. Only a little over fifty years ago, the 
children of the poor could find no school in all 
the State where they ** could acquire common 
education without recording themselves paupers 
and being recognized and treated as such by 
their fellows.** Not only is the old system gone, 
but the illiberal and unchristian spirit fostered 
by it, if not entirely repressed, is become so un- 
popular that it cannot long survive. 

Another result of this condition is that it meets 
^ most important requirement of education 
itself, in that the scholar gtows up side by side 
with all classes and conditions of his fellows. 
For the well-educated man is always and every- 
where a man who has somehow become familiar 
vith his fellow-men of all sorts and kinds by 
personal contact. He must have touched them 
opon all sides, and have learned the measure 
of their joys and sorrows, their sunshine and 
shadows. Otherwise he will be out of sympathy 
^th them, and just in so far as he is out of 
sympathy with them will he be incapable of 
*ding them by his powers, or of aiding iiimself 
by their powers. 

Our colleges are very slow to learn this ereat 

?^cal lesson. This is not true of all of them, 

b* it is true of some. It is often a matter of 

"^fprise why the young man who has spent 

sevend years in college is so wholly unfitted for 

Poetical usefulness, that sometimes the measure 

of his unfitness seems to be spanned by the 

number of years so spent. But when it is re- 

njonbcred that, during all these years, he has 

associated for the naost part with but one class, 

f^ that his language and even his dress have 

been classified, and that in all points instead of 

getting nearer to, he has been getting farther 

**»y from, the ordinary every-day people 

among whom he must live, if he lives to any 

account, and with whom he must do business. 



if he does anv business, the result is not strange, 
but quite logical and natural. 

Another result of this condition is that as the 
system advances, the tendency is to make the 
education which it furnishes more and more 
practical. Not only are the branches taught 
those which are of avail in the practical affairs 
of life, but the civilization which such a system 
fosters carries out its benefits to the lives of all 
the people, and lifts them up to a higher plane 
of usefulness and enjoyment, and, bringing them 
closer together, unites them in the bonds of a 
common brotherhood. 

The purpose and scope of legislation as af- 
fecting this system should be threefold : 

1 . State aid to widen and deepen all its ad- 
vantages, so that its best and highest results 
may come within the reach of the poorest and 
lowliest. 

2. Provision for special training in all the 
departments of skilled labor, so Uiat our own 
shops may find in our schools " workmen that 
need not be ashamed." 

3. Enlarged facilities for study of those social 
and economic questions which are now so crowd- 
ing themselves upon public attention that they 
must soon be met and grappled with, so that 
when the struggle comes we will have that 
wider intelligence which will enable us to break 
loose from the barriers of prejudice and " ac- 
quit ourselves like men." 

With such enlarged advantages, what may we 
not hope for the future of our State ? An intel- 
ligence so broad and a civilization so advanced 
that every man may leave to his children an 
inheritance better than all the coal and iron of 
our mountains — ^the example of a well>spent life 
and the opportunity for a liberal education. 

The next addrsss was by ex-U. S. Senator 
William A. Wallace, as follows : 

Perhaps this business of welcome may be 
overdone, but since 1 have been chosen to speak 
as a representative of the community in which 
1 live, a few words may be added. 

We welcome you not only as individuals, but 
as the representatives of a great formative 
power of public opinion. The locality you have 
chosen for your assemblage is appropriate — its 
position central, and its elevation giving breadth 
of view. From the mountain-tops surrounding 
you the waters run to both the Mississippi and 
Susquehanna — ^so should the influence of such 
a meeting broaden out in all directions. Here 
among the mountains you will find ideas broad 
and deep — reaching beyond the limits of county 
and State to the nation and the world ; but to- 
day and here we are to consider the future of 
our own Commonwealth — how we shall excel in 
the intelligence of our people and maintain 
front rank in the sisterhood of States that are to 
govern the free people of a continent. As the 
representatives of one of the great formative 
powers of this mighty future, I repeat, we wel- 
come you to-day. 

This Association has been a power in the 
past years of its history. Its influence has been 
felt in the legislation of the State ; it has created 
that public sentiment whose reflex action culmi- 



88 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept.^ 



nated at Harrisburg. The power it mav exert 
in the future can scarcely oe estimated. Yet 
there are some who say this and similar organi- 
zations have completed their work, in bringing 
the common school system to its present con- 
dition. This is a short-sighted view. There 
never was a time when your work was more 
needed as framers of that public opinion which 
crystallizes into laws and institutions, and shapes 
the character of the future citizens of the State. 
There are two thoughts that I may be par- 
doned for presenting to you at this time : 

1. The burdens and benefits of our educa- 
tional system should be equal in all sections of 
the Commonwealth. The State does not con- 
sist of territory, nor of wealth, but of her people ; 
and all her people are entitled to enjoy eoual 
benefits, as well as to bear eoual burdens. But 
what are the facts? Official reports for 1885 
show that the county of Potter, in order to keep 
open her schools for 5 ff^ months, paid a tax of 
12^^ mills; while Chester countv, with 8y{^ 
months* school, paid only 1^^^ mills. The one 
community is comparatively poor and sparsel v 
settled, the other rich and densely populatea. 
It is plain, then, that the burden is not equally 
distriouted, and justice is not done. And the 
irregularity will not be reached by legislation 
untu you have done vour part to create such a 
public opinion as will demand for every child 
the same right to school privileges, norm and 
south, east and west, all over the Common- 
wealth. Till this is secured, your work will not 
be done. 

2. Such organizations as this should be mak- 
ing a public sentiment that would be brought to 
bear upon the Legislature, demanding a Consti- 
tutionsd amendment providing that no man, 
after five years from its adoption, shall be per- 
mitted to exercise the right of suffrage unless he 
can read and write. Leaving all who are now 
voters in possession of the right, it would place 
a strong mcentive before every boy of sixteen 
to qualify himself, at least thus far, for citizen- 
ship when he became of age. This requirement 
would give the coming generations a moral ad- 
vantage that cannot be secured in any other 
way — ^for education is morals. The very agita- 
tion of such a question would carry with it the 
power of a great thought. Besides, looking to 
the future ot our country, some such provision 
is a necessity. As our population increases, our 
intelligence must increase in proportion ; for it 
is a larger contract to govern fifty millions than 
five, and unless the needed intelligence is se- 
cured, ruin and destruction must follow. Is 
intelligence increasing in the necessary propor- 
tion ? Surely not. Even here in the mountain- 
tops we are overrun with an element of popu- 
lation whose ignorance is a dead weight on our 
higher moral and social development, and a 
perpetual menace to the future of our institu- 
tions. And it is not here alone, but everywhere. 
You may read in a Senate committee report 
upon this subject that out of eighteen millions 
of school population, seven and a half millions 
do not even know the English alphabet. In 
view of such existing conditions, have educa- 
tional organizations completed their work ? 



Certainly not until the needed remedy is ap- 
plied. 

Governments are made for men, not men for 
governments. If man is intelligent and cd- 
tured, so will his government be of a high typer 
if he be low and base, so will be his govern- 
ment. Let us then dig down into the man, 
cultivate him, brine him to the highest develop- 
ment, and we shall have the basis for the hign- 
est type ef government. How shall we do this ?' 
I beUeve, by milder methods than compulsory 
education. Education alone is not liberty— 
Prussia claims the front rank in education, yet 
has a despotic government. Liberty is not 
education merely, but rather the outmwth of 
education — high intellectual and moraldevelop- 
ment, expressed in law and life. If our Com- 
monwealth shall secure to her people such de- 
velopment, she will hold in the future a position 
infinitely greater than she has yet attained, and 
will exert a mighty influence for good. On this 
line is the suggestion of Horace Scudder, diat 
we teach our children to read the American 
classics, that thev may early learn lessons of 
patriotism from the America that has been, for 
the good of that which is and is yet to be. That 
we may make progress in this direction, is the 
aspiration of the people among whom I dwells 
as I doubt not it is yours. When it is realized, 
as we trust it will be, we shall have a country 
every section of which will be moving toward 
the position which was the boast of New Eng- 
land at the time of the Revolution — that there 
was no citizen within her borders who could not 
read and write. Give us that, and the great 
Republic is on the road to perpetuity. Grounded 
in the intelligence of her people, her future wiD 
be assured, and nothing shall ever shake the 
mighty foundations of her establishment. 

The response to the addresses of welcome 
was made by Dr. E. O. Lvte, principal of 
Millersville Normal School, as follows : 

Mr. Chairman and Ladies and Gentlemen: 
As a member of the Executive Committee, it is 
my duty and privilege to reply to the cordial 
and eloquent addresses of welcome to which 
we have just listened with so much pleasure. 
In the name and on behalf of the Pennsylvania 
State Teachers* Association, I thank each of 
you, gentlemen, for the hearty welcome ex- 
tended to us to-day. On behalf of the teachers 
assembled here from the borders of New York 
and Maryland, from the banks of the Ohio and 
the Delaware, I thank you most sincerely for 
the earnest words with which you have greeted 
us in this, our first meeting in your beautiful 
town. * 

The cordial invitation given us a year ago at 
AUentown to come to Clearfield, led us to ex- 
pect that you would be ready to receive us when 
we came, and the news that reached us froio 
time to time of the preparations that were mak- 
ing by your active local coinmittees, assured «s 
that we did wisely in selecting this charming 
place for our meeting this year ; and the fij*'. 
words we hear from you are words of such good 
cheer that you have made us feel at hom^ 
among you in our first session. 



988;.] 



SANTA CLARA 'couriTV 

STA TE TEACHERS' ASSOCIA TION, ^ ^ '^ K H S ] J 



We have reason to congratulate ourselves, 
members of the Association, in the fact that 
since our last meeting, Pennsylvania has taken 
a long step in advance of the position she for- 
merly held in respect to schools. One month 
has been added to the school term of the State, 
and half a million dollars to the appropriation 
to schools. And I believe that no small share 
of this great victory is due to the action of 'this 
Assodation at its previous meeting^, and par- 
ticttlaily at its last meeting, when it resolved to 
memoudize the Legislature to increase the min- 
imom length of the school term to six months. 
Our programme this year will bear favorable 
comparison with those of former years. Ques- 
tkns bearing upon the county superintendency 
aod county mstitutes will be brought before the 
Association for discussion ; the common schools 
and the branches taught in them will receive 
special attention ; while examinations, teachers' 
onions, and other live educational topics, are 
on the programme for consideration. We trust 
that this meeting will not be less fruitful in its 
lesnlts than its predecessors, and that not only 
this hospitable community will obtain some 
slight return for their courtesy and generosity to 
OS, but that the schools of the great State whose 
servants we are, will receive a new impetus on- 
ward, and that we shall go down from Clear- 
ed with clearer ideas of our duty and greater 
enthusiasm for our work. 

A wise custom requires that the response to 
the addresses of welcome be very bnef ; so I 
shall close, again thanking you, gendemen, for 
your words of welcome, encouragement, and 
sound advice, and expressing the hope that our 
QKcting here will be one of the most profitable 
and pleasant in the history of the Association. 

After making arrangements for the enroll- 
<nent of members the Association adjourned 
to 1:30 p. m. 



TUESDAY AFTERNOON. 



A 



T the opening of the afternoon session, 
Prof. George C. Young, of Kutztown 
Normal School, led the singing of " Amer- 
ica,** and ably conducted the music of this 
«)d the following sessions. 

Prof. B. C. YouNGBiAN, of the Executive 
Committee, occupied the chair, and intro- 
^Qoed President James M. Coughlin, who 
^vered the following Inaugural Address 
opoB the 

X^UTION OP COMMON SCHOOL TRAINING TO 
UBOR, AND LABOR A VALUABLE MEANS 
OF EDUCATION. 

FeUow Members of the State Teachers* AssO' 
ciatUm — LadUs ana Gentlemen : I am called 
apon this afternoon, according to a long estab- 
^ed custom, to make a few remarks under 
the title of an inaugural address. I have se- 
lected as the theme of this address, " The Re- 
Btton of Common School Training to Labor, 
and Labor a Valuable Means of Education." 



The labor question i^ tfi^'prablem of the day. 
It is not only a question of importance with* us, 
it is the problem of all civilized nations. The 
usual course in all questions relating to the peo- 
ple is to seek relief through legislative enact- 
ment, but this question bears so close a relation 
to the personal rights and privileges of the indi- 
vidual that it is very difficult to adjust it by direct 
legislation. Laws should be passed, and are 
passed, to restrain the powerful and the selfish. 
Beyond this the laboring man does not ask, he 
ought not to ask, relief from the State. The 
laws and customs regulating the social systems 
of a civilized and enlightened people should be 
such as to secure to each individual those nat- 
ural and universal rights that will enable him to 
reach the highest possibility of his being. With 
these rights and privileges secured to him, and 
proper preparation upon his own part, there is 
no complamt 

Man in the fullness of his capabilities is not 
a dependent creature. With proper training 
and fair opportunity he is self-supporting, and 
adds yearly to the vast accumulations of the 
State. From the earliest period of recorded 
time he has sought to be free. . The whole his- 
tory of the world is a record of his efforts to 
free himself from bondage of one sort or an- 
other. Nature owned him as her slave, and, 
through successive steps along the pathway of 
science he moved, until nature yielded to 
thought and became his willing servant. Again 
he seeks to escape from the slavery of tyran- 
nical rulers and unjust laws, and for centuries 
he struggled against ereat odds, where the 
hands of the strong forged shackles for the 
weak. 

To the wilds of this continent liberty and 
freedom invite him, and here has grown up a 
g^eat and powerful nation. Free fix)m the influ- 
ence of tne centralized governments of the 
world, a government gprew out of the people. 
Formulated and established by the granaest 
men of modem history, it took root in the com- 
mon mind, and has been maintained and cher- 
ished by the blood of her bravest sons. We 
celebrated her hundred and eleventh anniver- 
sary yesterday. We grew eloquent over her 
greatness, her glory, her power. We conse- 
crated anew the memory of her fallen brave. 
We renewed our obligation to support a gov- 
ernment " by the people, of the people, for the 
people." 

Yet in this land of good crovemment, in this 
land of opportunity, in this land of equal rights 
and common privileges, a cry has gone forth 
from the mass of laboring men that they cannot 
earn a fair living, that they cannot maintain 
dieir families, that they cannot pass the line of 
competency or even partial independence. 
They have been associated with the great indus- 
tries of our land until they have become de- 
pendent upon those industries, and largely 
subject to those who control them. To relieve 
the masses from this condition of servitude is 
the problem of the hour. 

While I do not feel competent to inquire into 
the full and complete cause of these complaints, 
the more I think upon the subject the more 



90 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Sept., 



firmly I believe relief must come mainly 
through education. 

I do not regard it as the duty of this body of 
educators assembled to inquire into the details 
of the present labor difficulties, or to suggest 
plans to settle special differences between 
laborer and employer. I do believe, however, 
that it is our duty to inquire into the nature and 
study the principles of all great questions relat- 
ing to the people, and to inquire earnestly to 
what extent our educational systems tend to 
create or correct these difficulties. 

The more independent a man is the more 
useful he is both to himself and to those who 
may employ him. The better we educate him 
the more independent he becomes ; . the less 
likely he is to associate himself with those who 
seek to carry their point by force instead of ar- 
gument. He commands the respect of those 
who employ him ; he does not demand it. The 
independent man is the self-helpful man. If 
he cannot make a living working for others he 
will work for himself. Conscious of the skill 
of his hand and the power of his mind to direct 
it, with faith in his own manhood, he goes forth 
into the world to labor, to conquer, and to win. 

These complaints should not come from the 
farmer who tills his own soil, nor from the smith 
who works his own forge, nor from the mechanic 
who runs his own shop, nor from the merchant 
behind his own counter, nor from the profes- 
sional man who places his skill in the market 
of the world. These are all independent 
workers. They work for themselves, and al- 
though they may not earn as much even as 
many of those who are employed in mines and 
factories, they are contented. They acquire a 
substantial education in the line of their daily 
labor that deepens and broadens into character 
with their years of toil. 

The complaints come from the laborers asso- 
ciated with our great industries, firom the people 
of our densely-populated cities and industrial 
centres who depend upon their daily earnings for 
a livelihood. They represent a great class who 
have grown up dependent upon certain indus- 
tries, with diminishing power to adjust them- 
selves to other lines of employment, and often 
with little inclination to do so. 

Many of these people start to work with very 
little school trainmg. They are trained to do 
some special work in the industry to which they 
belong. There is no education in the work they 
do, having to do the same thing day after day. 
It is readily observed by the thoughtful that such 
a course must necessarily make the individual 
very soon dependent upon this special work, and 
make him incapable of adjusting himself to 
other lines of work. The instruction in our 
schools should be of such special nature, when- 
ever demanded, as to relieve this condition in so- 
ciety. The schools must do more for those 
persons who get no education out of their work. 

There is no real progress, educationally or 
otherwise, that does not reach the lowest condi- 
tions of men and better that condition. There 
is no real prosperity among nations, no matter 
how much increase of material wealth may be 
shown by the census, that does not elevate the 



lowest stratum of society. It is a question of 
very little importance how A or B may become 
rich, or that a certain corporation may start an 
industry that will yield large profits to those 
whose money is invested ; but it is a question of 
importance to the whole country that the labor- 
ing man shall have an opportunity to earn an 
honest living, that labor shall be so rewarded as 
to permit the laborer, through industry and 
economy, to secure himself a home, provide his 
family with the comforts of life; educate his 
children, and lay up something for old age. It 
is directly in the line of our life-work, as edu- 
cators, to make of the common laborer a more in- 
dependent man, to help him to measure up to 
the full possibility of his being, to place him in 
full and complete possession of himself through 
manual and intellectual training. Education 
that is worthy the name will aid him to over- 
come circumstances, will make him master of 
circumstances. 

The times in which we live demand more of 
the individual than any time in the past, and 
education must mean more, it must be more, 
than it has been in the past. It must be prac- 
tical, as well as disciphnary. It must fit him 
for his life-work through the means employed 
in the ordinary work of life. In the past, eidu- 
cation through the schools was largely intellec- 
tual training. The moral and physical training 
were left mainly with the home and the work- 
shop. The schools of the future must measure 
up to the full object of education. Intellectual 
training must not be neglected, while phyacal 
and moral training must receive greater atten- 
tion. The training children receive at home is 
by no means so important a factor in education 
as it was when almost everything needed in the 
home was made in the home. To-day, especi- 
ally in towns and thickly-populated districts, 
everything needed in the household comes 
ready-made and prepared. Our children arc 
growing up entirely ignorant of how to do many 
of the commonest things about the house, and 
are dependent upon others where they should 
be independent and self- helpful. 

In the days of our grandfathers a little edu- 
cation through books was sufficient to make 
headway in the business affairs of their times. 
Their social circumstances and surroundings 
differed from ours. From the simple and easy 
condition of their times we have come almost 
suddenly into the complex and varied condi- 
tions of our own. We have advanced so rap- 
idly in material things that we have been unable 
to prepare ourselves to meet the demands made 
upon us by this material progress. We live io 
the most remarkable age of the world's history. 
Other periods have been marked with sufficient 
distinctness to leave their impression upon pass- 
ing time, and to a certain degree influence the 
destiny of a nation, but the present age reach«* 
higher, penetrates deeper, and extends farther 
than the sum of past ages. He who truly liv^ 
in this time and age, who feels the pulsation oi 
the active world around him, who appreciates 
the marvelous growth of scientific knowledge, 
who is familiar with the means employed to 
multiply man -power in business and labor, who 



I887.J 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



91 



has reflected on the wonderful triumphs in the 
mechanical arts and engineering skill, niust 
conclude that the ordinary life of man has been 
increased in time, in opportunity, and in use- 
fulness a hundred-fold. The decades of the 
last hundred years have been equal, each to 
each, to a century of preceding history. 

With this marvelous increase of material 
wealth there comes also increased responsibility. 
The training that was sufficient for the father 
vill not do for his child. Careful training is 
absolutely necessary in order to secure success 
and independence of the individual and pros- 
perity to the whole people. Special preparation 
'^ demanded for every business and pursuit ; 
oot special preparation for some particular 
kind of work, but special preparation and train- 
ing that will enable the individual to adapt him- 
seuto general work. Physical strength and 
industrious habits have won in the past, are 
I important factors of success now, but these qual- 
ities alone are no longer sufficient. If our chil- 
dren are to succeed in these days of active 
competition they must have a fair education to 
begin with, must be students and thinkers. 
The fanner must think as well as work, or his 
market will be supplied by a distant State. The 
mechanic must keep up with the times, he must 
study and think, or a neighboring town will 
place at the door of his customers a better ar- 
tide than he can produce. The professional 
man must be a living man, he must understand 
his own profession, and know a great deal about 
the world around him, or be lost sight of in this 
active and progressive age. 

These conditions are true when considered 
with reference to those who work for themselves 
and are to a considerable degree independent, 
but when considered with reference to those who 
work for others, it is doubly true. The man 
who labors with his hands, at the commonest 
kind of work, increases his efficiency through 
ordinary school training, makes himself a more 
desirable worker, and improves his opportunity 
to secure employment. 

I speak of this labor value of education not 
because I think the intelligent people whom I 
address doubt its labor value, but because I 
think the mass of people, in whose behalf I 
speak to-day, do not fully appreciate the advan- 
^ of education as a preparation for the com- 
monest pursuits of life. It is too generally 
itgarded as a preparation for some genteel 
employment or profession, and of no specific 
^efil to him who is employed at ordinary 
^ual labor. This limited scope given to ed- 
^>^on must be driven out of the common mind, 
^people must be led to see that the advan- 
ce of education is in the line of their own 
employment. 

In every department of service the value of 
common school training as a preparation for 
work is more and more generally recognized. 
It is too evident to need argument or illustration 
f^t the person who is employed to do service 
in your household shall be a person who has 
teceivcd careful training. The language she 
?s« in conversation with your children, the 
intelligence expressed in her dress and manners. 



the judgment exercised in the preparation of 
food, the attention given to theuiygiene of your 
home, these are all qualities thai^ enhance the 
value of domestic service, and secure to the 
possessor certain employment am^ superior 
compensation. 

I made quite extended inquiry with rel^ence 
to the employment of girls to do housework, 
and found employers unanimous as to the value 
of school training as a preparation to do such 
work. They adapt themselves readily to new 
ways of doing work, are easily directed, and 
likely to think for themselves. My inquiry 
among those who employ large numbers of men 
was answered favorably to those who have re- 
ceived some school training. Those who have 
been carefully trained in school require less 
close supervision, employ more intelligence in 
the way they do their work, are more prompt to 
act in case of emergency, less difficult to settle 
with, more careful in the distribution of their 
earnings, and less likely to be of intemperate 
habits, than those who have received no such 
training. 

Our parents were educated to a considerable 
extent through labor : they were, in fact, largely 
educated through labor.. They were obliged to 
know a great deal more about work than we 
do, because nearly all the common industries 
were distributed among the people. A trade 
was a part of a bo^'s education, and the girls 
were thoroughly tramed in all household duties. 
Each home was self-supporting. I do not wish 
to return to the primitive conditions that sur- 
rounded our ancestors, to the hardships they 
endured, to the difficulties they overcanie, but 
I do regret sincerely the loss of a single iota of 
that independence of character that grew up 
under those conditions. What they learned 
through labor, supplying their own wants, and 
what we have lost through the centralization of 
the common industries, must largely be supplied 
by industrial training in connection with our 
schools. 

I would use labor as a nieans of education, 
not merely to prepare the learner to do special 
kinds of work, but to discover to him what he 
is capable of doing for himself; to make him 
conscious of the forces that lie within his own 
being, that 1 might make him a capable co- 
worker with his employer and not a dependent 
servant. 

I ask the members of this Association to study 
carefully this problem of the hour, to pledge 
themselves to labor for the relief of the masses 
through more thoroughly practical education, 
to endorse the idea of education through labor, 
and to favor the establishment of an industrial 
department in connection with every system of 
graded schools in city, town, and village, where 
children may leari> the use of tools and be ed- 
ucated in all the common industries of the coun- 
try, and where they may learn what the hand 
can execute, as well as what the mind can do. 

The wealth of the nation is in the producing 

power of the people ; her strength in their love 

of home, and her character in their full and 

I complete education. The schools of the land 

' must maintain this nation's character and per- 



92 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Skpt., 



• 

petuate her institutions. They must teach re- 
spect for labor, industrious habits, economy and 
temperance, and through these lead the indi- 
dividual to responsible manhood and the mas- 
tery of circumstances. 

Prof. James H. Hamilton, of Osceola, 
read the following paper''' in answer to the 
question, 

SHOULD SUPERINTENDENTS HAVE COMMIS- 
SIONED ASSISTANTS? 

The question of supervision is one vital to 
the maintenance of our schools. No school 
system can produce the best results of which 
it is capable without the most thorough inspec- 
tion and supervision, any more than can a tree 
yield the most luscious fruit in the ^eatest 
abundance without the most careful cultivation. 

That the public schools of Pennsylvania do not 
and cannot at present receive the supervision 
needed by them will be at once evident to every 
one who calls to mind the fact that the number 
of schools in the State averages more than three 
hundred to each county, or, exclusive of Phila- 



delphia, about 280, while the time during which 
the superintendent's visits must be made— the 
time the schools are actually open — is Uss ikon 
seven months. No superintendent can in this 
time visit so many schools, each as often as he 
should, stay as long as he ought, perform actual 
supervision, and attend to the other duties of 
his office. In our rural districts, schools are 
seldom visited oftener than once a year, while 
the report of the State Superintendent shows 
that last year there were in the State 1326 which 
were not visited at all. With so many schools 
to visit, the time spent in each must necessarily 
be so short that it can give but little satisfaction 
to the superintendent, or benefit to the school 
In the country districts our observation has been 
that the average number oi visits made by su- 
perintendents IS four per day-^not from choice, 
out from necessity. And we have known su- 
perintendents who, in thickly settled districts, 
where the school houses were situated near 
each other, were accustomed to make no less 
than six visits. 

In a visit of one or two hours it is impossible 
for a superintendent to judge either of the 



* It will be of interest in this connection to know 
that the Department of Public Instruction presented 
the following bill (House bill No. 115, session of 
1887), and urged its passage at the late session of the 
Legislature. It passed the House of Representa- 
tives, but for some reason was not reported in the 
Senate. It will come in time, for it is in this direc- 
tion of closer supervision that progress must now be 
made. — Ed. Journal. 

" An Act to provide for the better Supervision of 
the Common Schools : 

" Sec. I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania in General Assembly met, and it is hereby en- 
acted by the authority of the same, That the School 
Directors or Controllers of any school district having 
within their jurisdiction not less than ten schools, or 
of two or more adjoining districts in the same county 
having in all not exceeding fifty schools, may, at such 
time and place as shall be agreed upon by a majority 
of the several boards for the purpose named, select 
by a viva voce vote of a majority of the whole num- 
ber of the Directors of the single district or of the 
districts combined, as the case may be, one person as 
District Superintendent for a term of three years, to 
date from the first Monday in June of the current 
school year in which he was elected. 

" Sec. 2. The affirmative votes of a majority of the 
whole number of Directors in the district or districts 
forming the division shall be necessary to elect, and 
the person elected must be at the time of election an 
inhabitant and citizen of the county, and shall have 
the same qualifications as are now required by law for 
a County Superintendent. 

'* Sec. 3. A call for a meeting of the Directors or 
Controllers to elect a District Superintendent as 
aforesaid shall be in writing, si|^ned in the case of a 
single district by the president and secretary of the 
board, and by each president and secretary of the 
several boards when two or more districts unite to 
form a dividon, and all the members of the several 
boards included shall be given due notice of the time, 
place, and object of the meeting, which shall be held 
in the month of June, after the organization of the 
several boards for the ensuing year. 



"Sec. 4. The salary to be paid shall be determined 
by a majority of the Directors or Controllers present 
at the convention electing the District Superintendent, 
and shall not be less than the highest salary paid to 
any teacher employed by any board within the divi- 
sion for the preceding school term, and shall be paid, 
if in a single district, in the same manner is the 
teachers' salaries employed therein, and in the case 
of combined districts the compensation when fixed 
by the convention shall be based on the number of 
schools within the territory over which the boards 
have jurisdiction, and paid proportionately out of the 
district funds of the several districts according to the 
number of schools in each district forming thediviaon. 

" Sec 5. The person duly elected shall within ten 
days thereafter be officially notified in writing by the 
officers of the convention of his appointment, and of 
the salary agreed upon, and upon his acceptance of 
the appointment, no district shall be permitted to 
withdraw from the division formed by the several 
boards then in office until the expiration of the offi- 
cial term of the person elected. 

"Sec 6. The office of District Superintendent pro- 
vided for by this act shall be subordinate to that of 
County Superintendent, but it shall be the duty of the 
person elected as aforesaid to visit and thoroughly 
inspect the several schools and school buildings of 
his district, and report each month during the annoal 
school term to the board or boards of directors, and 
he shall make such recommendations relating to 
matters within the jurisdiction of the directors as may 
in his judgment be for the welfare of the schools, 
He shall report also to the County Superintendent 
upon such matters of supervision and statistics as the 
several boards may require. It shall be his duty also 
to assist the County Superintendent in the examina- 
tion of teachers within the district, and perfortii such 
other official duties as shall be required by the Directors. 

" Sec 7. A District Superintendent may be !^ 
moved from office by a majority vote in favor of dis- 
missal, of the whole number of Directors in his dis- 
trict, but only on complaint duly made and proven 
after a full and impartial investigation and hearing 
on chargles of official negligence, incompetency or 
immorality.'' 



iSS;.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



93 



teacher's power to teach or of the condition of 
the school; much less can he exercise such 
control or guidance as may he needed. All 
work needs supervision ; this is especially true 
when the several parts are performed by differ- 
ent persons. It is acknowledged and put into 
practice by every successful manufactory and 
bnsiness house. It is doubly important, and is 
much more needed in our schools where, as yet, 
the larger part of the labor is unkilled. Now, 
put the question this .way: All will admit that 
teadiing is the most important business known 
to man. What manufactory-— especially if it is 
just passing through the transition period from 
onskilled to skilled labor — ^what manufactory, 
ooder Uiese circumstances, could exist for a sin- 
gle year if the workmen were visited but once 
in that time by their superintendents? The 
statement of the question leaves but one an- 
swer, and we believe that there is no need for 
I fisther aapiment; that every one will admit 
that our schools need the best supervision. We 
believe, too, that it will be as generally acknowl- 
edged diat at present they do not receive this. 
It will then necessarily follow ^at there should 
be an additional force of inspectors. The only 

3aestion remaining is, Shall the superinten- 
ents be co-ordinate school officers in the same 
county, or shall some be subordinate to others. 

It is essential that every successful system of 
education be directed by one responsible head, 
who shall be held accountable for its general 
workings and results, and who shall have suffi- 
cient power to enforce his decisions. Otherwise 
there would be conflicts of authority which 
could not but interfere with the work of the 
schools. But it would seem that geographical 
boundaries, particularly county lines, are the 
best to define and separate districts of super? 
fision. We would therefore declare the affirm- 
ative of the question which heads our paper 
—Superintendents should have commissioned 
assistants ; and we would emphasize the point 
that the County Superintenaent must be the 
^er of education in his county, and the in- 
spectors be under his control, and subject to 
urn. 

The county should be divided into districts, 

DO one of which should be so large but that 

each school in it may be visited at least once 

cvh month by the inspector, who should visit 

each school thus regularly, report to the Board 

^ Directors in whose charge it is, the condition 

^ the house, grounds, furniture, apparatus, and 

•hatevcr tise may need improvement; he 

^^KMld also carefully note the work done by the 

^eicher in charge, the government and general 

co&dition of the school, the grading and course 

^ study, the number of pupils in school, and 

^Dumber of children of school age who do 

^ attend, the average attendance, and what- 

^cr else the good of the schools may require. 

ne should keep a correct record of his inspec- 

^, and report it regularly to the county su- 

P^tendent, die essential features to be trans- 

nitted by him to the State Department of 

™lic Instruction. 

^t is not the purpose of this paper to discuss 
«c nature or value of supervision, nor to define 



the inspector's powers, or point out his duties. 
Nevertheless, as the subject of our paper, when 
fully stated, may be said to be almost axiomatic, 
it must have been the intention of those who 
assigrned it as a topic of discussion, to call forth 
thought on some of the indirect issues involved 
in it. And further, as the plan of having sub- 
ordinate inspectors has not yet been tned in 
Pennsylvania, we believe it to be germane to 
our subject, and advantageous to us as a body 
of educators, to look briefly at what other 
changes can profitably be made in our super- 
vision in connection with the one in the inspec- 
torial force, so that better results may be ob- 
tained from our schools. 

We hesitate about presenting our views iipon 
this subject, and certainly do not presume to set 
up our opinions independently, but express 
them rather with the hope of arousing deeper 
thought in others, and securing a more general 
discussion and presentation of the views of 
those whose opinions on the subject will have 
far greater weight than ours can have. 

At present it is often difficult, perhaps even 
impossible, for a Superintendent to get a teacher 
to carry out his designs as the good of the 
schools demands. Schools may languish — and 
often do— because the superintendent has not 
sufficient power to enforce his decisions. This 
is especially true in graded schools where the 
workings 'of the schools come more directly 
under his control. If the Superintendent is to 
be held responsible for the results of the school 
work, he must have power to enforce obedience 
to his just demands, a power which shall equal 
his responsibility. It is manifestly unjust to 
hold him responsible for the general working 
of a system whose control is almost wholly in 
the hands of others. The success of a school 
depends to a great extent upon the kind and 
quality of its teachers, yet in this State the su- 
perintendent has almost no voice in their selec- 
tion, although he may be held accountable for 
their success. Is this reasonable ? Is it just ? 
He should be held strictly accountable for the 
workings of the schools, and should be expected 
to secure efficient instructors in them ; conse- 
({uently he should be given a voice in the selec- 
tion of teachers. 

And, too, it seems reasonable to suppose that 
the superintendent who has made a study of 
his business, who has studied the wants and 
needs of the schools in his charge, and the 
qualifications and methods of the teachers with 
whom these schools must be supplied, is better 
fitted to make a wise choice of teachers than is 
the director who in most cases has not studied 
the business at all. The inspector who watches 
carefully the condition of the schools, the 
courses of study in them, the methods of in- 
struction used by their teachers, the professional 
zeal and knowledge of those teachers, is best 
fitted to make the necessary appointments and 
changes in the teaching force. To deny this is 
to deny his fitness and qualifications for the po- 
sition which he holds. The great success of 
Colonel Parker at Quincy was largely due to 
the fact that the tenure of his teachers* posi- 
tions depended upon the will of th^ Colonel 



94 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Sept., 



himself. Thus, when he saw that a teacher 
was not properly carrying out the work of the 
school, the power of removal was in his own 
hands, as was also the power to select and ap- 
point such teachers as he knew to be best fitted 
and qualified for the special work at hand. 

It may be objected that there are those who 
fear that Supermtendents might in some cases 
misuse this power and make appointments from 
motives of friendship, rather than a desire to 
benefit the schools. We answer this by asking 
in return, Is favoritism or nepotism more likely 
to be practiced by superintendents than by 
boards of directors ? One superintendent, or 
half a dozen inspectors have not so many 
friends to satisfy as have the scores of directors 
in each county. A decision in the School Laws, 
edition of 1885, in speaking of directors in rela- 
tion to this matter, says: "Family, political, or 
church influence .... have often been the 
bane of the exercise of the office in this its 
highest function.*' 

We believe, also, that it would be well to give 
the superintendent and his assistants a voice in 
the selection and adoption of text-books. Here, 
too, we hold that the professional teacher is the 
one best fitted to make a choice which shall be 
advantageous to our schools. The adoption of 
textbooks is next in importance to the selection 
of teachers. And as the carpenter and the 
blacksmith use tools of their own selection, so 
those directly connected with the internal work- 
ing and control of our schools should have the 
privilege of adopting the tools which they are 
to use. It seems to us that they are the proper 
persons to make this selection. Our boards of 
education are seldom qualified to select books, 
as but few of them are composed of men who 
have made a specialty of professional work, or 
are acquainted with the essential features nec- 
essary to a first-class text-book. We are not 
speaking to the disparagement of our directors, 
for they are not chosen on account of any spe- 
cial fitness in this direction, but on account of 
their business skill and sagacity. 

We would hope also to see the subject of 
grades, courses of study, etc., placed more in 
the hands of the superintendents and inspectors. 
Time will not permit any argument in favor of 
such a change. It will be sufficient for us all to 
turn our attention to these things and each make 
a personal study of them. If we have suc- 
ceeded in awakening in anyone thought on the 
subject, if we have said anything that will 
cause any one to devise some method or plan 
by which our system of public schools may be 
improved, the instruction m them more efficient, 
and the inspection in them more thorough, we 
shall be more than repaid for our effort. 

We ask for closer supervision ; we ask to 
have the force of inspectors so increased as to 
give this ; we ask that the power of the superin- 
tendent be increased — and if necessary his re- 
sponsibility. But in the matter of detail we 
cannot trust our judgment. We cannot venture 
to say whether the superintendent and his in- 
spectors should form a boai^ of control for the 
whole county and have in their hands the whole 
question of selection and removal of teachers. 



adoption of text-books, approval of courses of 
study, and arrangement of grades, or whether 
the superintendent and his assistant in each in- 
spectorate should, together with the board of 
directors of that district, form a body sharing 
jointly these powers. These points we must 
leave to older neads than ours. 

Supt. Chas. Lose, of Lycoming, thought 
there could be no two opinions as to the 
necessity of closer supervision than is possi- 
ble for the County Superintendent to give. 
Numberless details require frequent atten- 
tion. The matter of health precautions is 
one — there may be children who should be 
sent home to avoid contagion ; he knew of 
one case where a pupil was observed by the 
visiting officer to be ill, and sent home, and 
in three days after, died of malignant scarlet 
fever. Other cases were given of idiotic 
children being sent to school, and those 
who were deaf and dumb — thus imposing 
burdens upon the teacher which should be 
prevented. How is the Superintendent to 
do it, without competent and authorized as- 
sistants? Then, there are school houses out 
of repair and unfit for use ; and schools in 
which the law is not observed as to the in- 
struction given. He knew of a county 
where in 50 schools no geography or history 
was taught, in 25 grammar was hardly 
touched, and in perhaps half of the whole 
number physiology was not introduced^ yet, 
as the county was large, the Superintendent 
did not get into most of these schools till to- 
wards the end of the term, when it was too 
late to remedy the trouble. If it were pos- 
sible to have every school visited early in 
the term, these inefficient or careless teachers 
could be made to do better or quit the busi- 
ness. Authorized assistants, one to each 
forty schools, would increase the efficiency 
of the schools 100 per cent, the first year. 
In our large counties, the Superintendent 
knows and can know almost nothing about 
his schools, under present conditions — even 
if he is traveling all the time, and so seldom 
at home that his own children are not ac- 

• 

quainted with him ! In his own county, it 
was 70 miles from his home to the farthest 
school house ; and when he could spend but 
an hour or two in a school, what could he 
learn of the teaching, except in very bad 
cases? It is time that closer supervision 
should be provided ; and these assistant su- 
perintendents should be paid out of the 
general State appropriation, as in many 
counties the tax is already too heavy. 

Prof. D. R. Augsburg, of Kutztown Nor- 
mal School, answered the question,* 

HOW SHOULD DRAWING BE TAUGHT ? 

Many people, and some teachers, seem to 



i887.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



95 



think that drawing is a sort of recreation or 
amusement, with but little practical bearing or 
results; and it is these who oftenest ask the 
question which has been placed on the pro- 
gramme. But there are others who see its great 
utility, yet cannot decide between the numerous 
methods and systems offered them, and so get 
litde done. Now the truth is that not only the 
eye of the child, but that of the teacher, does 
not lightly see even the commonest objects 
withont special training. As arithmetic lies at 
the basis of mathematics, and grammar of lan- 
guage, so drawing underlies all the useful arts 
that depend upon the training of hand and eye. 
We answer, therefore, that drawing should be 
taoght just as you teach any other fundamental 
branch. Give it a fair share of time and atten- 
tion, and, aside from its direct value, you will 
reapproht from it in the culture of the percep- 
tive faculties, which will tell upon the whole 
work of the school. The child should begin to 
draw on the first day of his school life, and keep 
it up right along. The benefit to penmanship 
alone would be worth the time given to it. 

You will have no trouble in arousing or keep- 
ing up an interest in this work if you give the 
fitUe ones pictures to make ; they will enjoy the 
work, and surprise you with the results. Give 
them models upon the board, and let them 
copy; some of them will make better pictures 
than the average teacher, of objects familiar to 
them. We see things imperfecdy, from disuse 
and misuse of the visual power for generations 
behind us ; we can only overcome this heredity 
by other generations of proper, training; and it 
b your business to be making a begmning in 
that direction now. 

Give them for instance a human face to copy, 
and show them how to vary its expression by 
slight changes of the lines ; let them copy from 
pictures ; draw for them from objects — ^a chair, 
a table, an insect, a leaf— anything that comes 
to hand and is within their knowledge ; show 
them from their own work how they have only 
seen the object in part, and not in its true rela- 
tions, and how they may correct and improve 
their picture ; you will often find that you are 
learning, as well as teaching them to observe 
dosely. 

As to the various methods, it is not well to 
confine yourself to any one. Of course draw- 
ing from pictures is not a complete method, 
though it nas its advantages, which should be 
^sed ; we must come at last to drawing from the 
<^hject. and may as well begin it early. There 
ve many seemingly difficult objects that be- 
come easy to draw by little hints in the way of 
<Knhne forms ; all these must be familiar to the 
teacher — for in drawing as in everything else, 
success depends upon the teacher's thorough 
nnderstandmg of what he is about. You should 
Gwy along copying and drawing from the ob- 
ject together — each will supply what the other 
l2u:ks, and so approximate a complete method. 

The speaker illustrated his points by draw- 
ings upon the blackboard — faces, insects in 
various stages, and finally a railroad station, 
showing himself very ready with the crayon. 



Prof. W. H. Samuel, of Philadelphia, 
was surprised to see the human face pre- 
sented as a test-drawing for beginners. He 
would not start with any such difficult and 
complex object, but with some common 
form bounded by straight lines — then pass 
to the ordinary simple forms in nature — the 
outline of a flower — then the outlines of ar- 
tificial objects, as houses, etc. We can find 
models in the many publications containing 
pictures. In drawing from the object, he 
would not take a box, but a cylinder, and 
so teach the circle and ellipses by changing 
the position of the object. He had been 
helped by a little book, the Elements of 
Drawing, by Ruskin, which he recommended 
to all teachers. 

Dr. R. K. BuEHRLE could see no good 
reason for entirely discarding measurements 
in primary work in drawing. We invert 
the recognized principle, and proceed from 
the difficult to the easy, when we require the 
children to work entirely by the eye — for 
the skilled draughtsman has his instruments 
and uses them. How are we to defend our 
course on this point, in consonance with the 
received principle of pedagogics? We vio- 
late the same principle by beginning with a 
picture of the face. We should begin, as 
the last speaker said, with lines, and simple 
figures. He asked Prof. Augsburg if there 
was any objection to the use of rulers and 
measurements. 

Prof. Augsburg said he would not let 
beginners know that there were such things 
as straight or curved lines. As to using 
rulers, if they begin that way they will have 
to use them all their lives. He would begin 
by making the pupil depend on himself — 
the hand will soon learn dexterity. You 
want the lesson to be a pleasure, not all 
hard work. 

Prof Eckels said you could use helps and 
work with straight lines, and not lose the 
pleasure or make it hard work. He had 
once seen a simple lesson given with a rect- 
angle, dividing the sides and connecting the 
points — all straight lines — and producing a 
handsome figure. He took home the idea 
to his pupils, and tried it both ways, some- 
times with measurements, sometimes with- 
out, and they had a good time — in fact, they 
kept the teacher busy examining the results 
or their straight line work. He would not 
give complex objects to beginners. 

Supt. Weiss — Did the gentleman never 
get past the straight lines? 

Prof. Eckels — Oh, yes; but I had every- 
thing to learn. I learned after a while to 
draw things so that they could be recognized 



96 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept., 



when I wrote the name under the drawing, 
but long before that the pupib could draw 
objects so that they did not need the names 
under them. 

The discussion closed here. 

Supt. H. S. Jones, who was on the pro- 
gramme for Thursday morning, requested 
that he be allowed to read his paper to-day, 
as he was expected at the meeting of the 
National Council of Education at Chicago, 
and could not be present on Thursday. His 
request was granted, and he read the follow- 
ing answer to the question, 

WHAT IS THE OBJECT OF EXAMINATIONS IN 
GRADED SCHOOLS? 

There is a voice like one crying in the wilder- 
ness preaching, "Away with examinations, away 
with them !" Thus it has always been, and al- 
ways will be — good things will be handled 
badly. There is far too much in the spirit of 
the times that demands free divorce from every- 
thing that is a source of trouble, as being the 
shortest, easiest way toward reform. Wise ad- 
justment and skillful adaptation are kept in the 
background. 

Examinations having done so much toward 
bringing order out of chaos, so much toward 
introducing purpose in our schools, it is no won- 
der that in many instances the school has been 
turned into a concern whose object was exami- 
nation. The pupil labors in a sort of mental 
sweat to pass the examination. The teacher 
struggles and agonizes to have his class pass 
the examination. Parents and friends join in 
the general worry, and, through their interest in 
education, make gadling burdens heavier. 

Within twenty years surgery has made won- 
derful advances, not by throwing aside the use 
of the knife, but by modifications that bring it 
•closer to nature as a help, not as an indepen- 
dent power. So it seems best to regard the ex- 
amination as far too valuable a feature in our 
-schools to be condemned and thrust aside, be- 
cause here and there it has been developed into 
a burdensome abuse. 

Strong, cultured minds, rich in observation 
and power of critical discrimination, not en- 
gagea in educational work, have expressed 
themselves as seeing tendencies and results in 
public school systems that are far from being 
truly educative. Sometimes the criticisms are 
pronounced in mild form, but often they are so 
positive as not easily to be misunderstood, and 
take the shape of charges. Some of the most 
emphatic are: "The system magnifies the im- 
portance of the routine operations of the 
school ; " "It mistakes means for ends ; *' "It 
is absorbed in non-essentials;** "It insists too 
rigidly upon the uniformity in methods and re- 
sults; *' " It treats pupils en masse, and ignores 
individuality.*' The educator has no higher 
duty than that which directs him to scan, meas- 
ure, and wei^h the tendencies of the system he 
is administering ; and he should have an open 
ear to all cries, whether disparaging or encour- 



aging, and should rejoice in the helpful obser- 
vations and candid criticisms of non-experts. 

In order that the object of examinations in 
graded schools may be properly reached, a few 
thoughts will be offered concerning (i) The 
Function of the Public Schools; (2] Grading or 
Classification; (3) Special Uses of the Exami- 
nations, and (4) Some Suggestions. 

1. TAe Function of the Public School, 
It is not the purpose of the public school to 

serve as a human sifdng-machine, by which a 
certain kind of brain can be discovered and re- 
tained. The common school is an institution 
that is to receive and hold as long as possible 
children differing more or less widely in race, 
heredity, surroundings, strength, health, and 
the faculty of learning. The school of the peo- 
ple should be organized and managed no more 
for the talented and the evenly-bahinced of fair 
ability in many directions, than for the weak, 
the crippled, and those whose brains possess 
considerable vigor, but are unmistakably lop- 
sided. 

2. Classification, 

The day is not far distant when classification, 
even in large schools, was hardly known. In- 
dividual study and individual instruction held ' 
sway. The classification that existed was of the 
most elastic type; a pupil joined a class or not, 
according to his liking; or drifted in and oat; 
to-day, a member — to-morrow, absent, absorbed 
in some independent work that held him pris- 
oner. This "go as you please'* style of school, 
this total lack of system, in which the teacher 
guided and ruled so little and so loosely, is in 
marked contrast with the "model school" of J 
later days, strong in systematic details, and in 1 
that close classification which does not allow a 
pupil to move, unless " under orders.*' 

The old-time school, with next to no orpmi- 
zation, may be put down as a miserable failure 
— a factory of wasted efforts ; but, nevertheless, 
it produced educational fruit of which we have 
no just reason to be ashamed. The older we 
grow the more easy we find it to respect methods 
and notions that once we stood ready to con- 
demn or to laugh at. 

The classification of a school is the placing 
of its pupils in sections or grades in accord with 
the course of study, based on the capacity of 
the pupils to do fairly the work of the grade to 
which they are assigned. 

Classification in the management of schools 
possesses the valuable merit of economy. It 
sprang from the constantly recurring problem 
in industrial pursuits — how to make labor as 
productive as possible. In gaining an elemen- 
tary knowledge of conventional tacts, such as 
signs — ^written and spoken — word-forms, arbi- 
trary tables, dates, processes, second-hand 
knowledge, etc., a large number of pupils can 
be instructed by a single teacher, quite as well, 
if not better, as one or a very few. As the sott 
of learning referred to must necessarily con- 
sume a large part of the time devoted to the 
education of the young, classification, if used 
judiciously, is unquestionably economical. 

Classification may be said to be close or edU' 
fational. 



18870 



STATE TEACHEkS" ASSOCIATION. 



97 



Gose classification is military in spirit ; it links 
pupil to pupil by an inelastic chain, and "keep- 
ing step '* IS the chief business when the com- 
mand, "Forward, march,'* is given. Its aim is 
fusion and uniformity. It tempts the weaker 
teacher to the worship of such technicalities as 
are easily worked up into " splendid class reci- 
tations." It places in the back-ground true 
teaching, and brings to the forefront chatty class- 
Vectuiing. 

Tlie instruction given takes one of two forms : 

it adapts itself to the weak minority so as to 

hold the class together in funereal step, or it 

takes pride in "double-quick** thoroughness 

and burdensome exactions that can be borne 

only by the few. The first is best illustrated in 

the workings of the Board Schools of England, 

where size of salary depends considerably on 

the number of pupils passed by the inspector. 

It is not an uncommon sight in that country to 

see a lai^e majority of a class like overflowing 

pitchers at a fountain, while the teacher is 

struggling to adapt his instruction to the smsdl 

mental throats of the laggards. 

The latter is shown in strong light in a recent 
report of a metropolitan schoolof 1 141 students, 
which dwindled down to 717 in five months, 
and to 652 at the end of the school year — a 
shrinkage of over 57 per cent. Ten hundred 
and forty-eight knocked at the door for admis- 
sion, and 40 per cent, were rejected; and jude- 
log from the past, the 60 per cent.'admitted will, 
in a few short months, be cut down 50 per cent. 
Such management distinguishes the "survival 
of the fittest." Material that will not fuse to the 
exact form desired, is rejected as slag. In the 
report, the Board of Education are congratu- 
lated on the "general prosperity ** of the school. 
It is proper to observe that close classification, 
in its best and worst forms, is hardly an evolu- 
tion of the public school system. It is an at- 
tractive exotic, largely modified by different 
educational climates, originally imported from 
those higher and pecularly distinctive institu- 
tions whose function is to act on the homoge- 
BCfNis few and not on the heterogeneous many. 
Educational classification aims at the progress 
of the individual. It makes the class an eco- 
nomic convenience, rather than a necessity. 
When the pupil steps out of the broad domain 
I of the conventional, to that which calls for ex- 
I perience and thought, it not only allows, but it 
compek him to "break ranks." It makes no 
speaal effort to clothe each member in educa- 
tional uniform. Class standing is an incident 
^not a standard or measure of the progress 
0^ or the good received. It demands that 
^teacher shall study the child before settling 
on methods and lessons — not the typical child, 
^ the child sitting in his school-room. 

The proper classification of pupils should re- 
ccire the most careful attention of the supervi- 
Mry force, and should never be left to the inex- 
perienced, or to those who have difficulty in 
estimating mental faculty. The size of a class 
^ the number of classes to a teacher depend 
pn material and location. A large class possess- 
ing many points of similarity is not so neavy a 
strain upon the teacher as a small one that has 



but few or next to none. Board rules that fix 
the minimum number of pupils to be assigned 
to a teacher are unpedagogical. This matter 
should be left entirely in the hands of those who* 
know the children best. 

Close classification finds an ally in mechanical 
methods, and where such methods prevail, it 
perfects the mechanism, to have all the pupils in 
the room in the same class. Under exceptional 
circumstances, this would be allowable; but with 
the average run of schools and pupils, two 
classes, at least, should be given to a teacher, 
and in case of the school of suburban make-up, 
the number may be increased to four, rather 
than have young children walk themselves 
weary, and into a dislike for education, by a 
daily struggle to reach a central school. miles 
away. 

The examination of pupils should be subor- 
dinate to education, serving merely as a factor 
in the operations of instruction. The idea that 
examination is education should have no- 
place in the minds of pupils or teachers. Iff 
otherwise, the teacher and those in his care will 
concentrate their ener^es upon gaining results 
that can be readily estimated by examinations^ 
There is a radical difference between studying 
a subject for examination and studying it for 
possession. 

Where examination is supreme in a school;, 
the atmosphere is one of narrow criticism in- 
stead of enthusiastic learning. " Probable 
questions,*' like tormenting ghosts, haunt pupil 
and teacher, night and day, driving: them with, 
the cruel whip of per cents., into the kingdoms 
of nervous restlessness and worry. 

The kind of classification in force has much, 
to do with the character of the examination. 
Close, narrow classification moves in company 
with a corresponding examination. Educationad 
classification is satisfied with educational examv 
ination. 

The " no examination ** advocates ask, " Why 
use an appliance that can easily be made mis- 
chievous?*' The answer is, that the value of 
an instrument is not lowered in the least by the 
fact that, unless skillfully handled, it may do 
harm. 

It is conceded that where the life and strength 
of a school are given to preparing for examina- 
tions, the tendency of the examination is to- 
crush out spontaneity in pupil and teacher, and 
although examination is of service as a criterion, 
its truer and higher function is to stimulate. 

Examinations should be (a) written, (b) oral,, 
and (c^ objective. Since writing has entered so • 
extensively into school exercises, examinations 
have largely taken the written form. When 
the written examination cyclone struck Boston, 
over forty years ago, and the numbers of 
wounded and killed were presented in compli- 
cated per cent, tables, for the inspection of the 
public, Horace Mann, in discussing the morti- 
fying results, grew eloquent in praise of what he 
termed the "novel mode,** and "the new 
method.'* To him, it seemed to meet every 
want, real and imaginarv. In fact it seemed ta« 
him "a new education.* 

Without question, in some essential points, . 



98 



P^AAS VL VANIA SCHOOL fOVRNAL, 



[Sept. 



the written method stands pre-eminent ; but it 
does not compass the whole circle of require- 
ments. Vocal expression has a place in our 
schools, and only by oral tests can it be seen 
what readiness classes have in describing, re- 
producing, and conversing. Besides, the s]>oken 
word is a better test of assimilation than the 
written word. An English authority, speaking 
of. the viva voce method, says, '* Nothing so 
much defeats cram." 

But the oral with the written method is only 
made completely effective by the addition of the 
objective. Since words and things have been 
joined in educational wedlock, in the teaching 
of the sciences, and sweet mother Nature visits 
occasionally the primary school, with the cheer- 
ing promise that she will soon be around to 
stay, objects in examination must soon take an 
honored seat. 

3. special Uses of ike Examinaiion, 
Properly conducted, examinations serve ( i ) 

to stimulate the pupil to independent, thoughtful 
action ; (2) as approximative tests of class 
progress ; (3) to bring to the front defects and 
oversights in the instruction; (4] to test excep- 
tionally strong pupils recommended for inai- 
vidual promotion; (5) to determine whether a 
class, or most of it, are prepared or not for the 
work of the next higher g^ade; (6) to ascertain 
the fitness of a class to graduate from a course 
of study calling for a diploma. 

As to who should take part in the several ex- 
aminations outlined, the second is in the pro- 
vince of the class instructor. Nothing is better 
for a school and its teacher than to have the 
pupils occasionalljr take an educational stroll, 
without being led, mspired, or directed. Young 
people delight in showing their individual, un- 
aided power. 

The third should be under the control of the 
principal, or the supervisory force — the object 
being to correct the pedagogical vision of the 
the teacher. 

The fourth, which concerns individual promo- 
tions, may be conducted by the principal and 
teacher of the grade to which the pupil is recom- 
mended for promotion, under supervisory direc- 
tion. 

The fifth, which relates to class promotions, 
should be in the hands 6f the principal, under 
proper supervision, the class teacher co-operat- 
ing. 

The sixth, which takes in the highest depart- 
ment of a system of schools, should be con- 
trolled by the teachers of the department, 
assisted, as far as practicable, by the superin- 
tendent. No outside, scholarly non -expert 
should be allowed to have a meddling hand in 
the business. 

4. Suggestions, 

A word as to questions and time. 

To question well is a fine art, and whether 
the questions are oral or written, they should 
have the foundation of preparation, and be so 
framed as to make the chief purpose of the ex- 
amination to assist in education. They should 
be liberal in extent, shading from the very easy 
to the difficult, giving full opportunity to the 
several degrees of talent in the class. Occa- 



sionally it is well to have each pupil construct 
his own questions, or choose his own topics, 
thus bringing to the surface what the learner 
considers his most ready and exact knowledge. 
The time should not be so limited as to cause a 
feeling of hurry. Some good minds when 
pressed for time become paralyzed ; and if the 
time is short, "the single-spurt people,** those 
who have no disposition to revise and polish, 
outrank their betters. 

" Standing in examination " should never be | 
used as a lever of disparagement. The child 
at the foot of the class may be the most deserv- 
ing as a learner^ though rankine low in power 
to receive and give back. Noming known to 
man is more sensitive than the human brain, 
and as the examination deals with impres- 
sible immaturity, everything depressing, excit- 
ing, or startling, should be barred out. It 
should be entered into by all concerned as 
pleasantly and as sympathetically as any 
other school duty that is the source of happiness 
and mental growth. 

REVISION OF CONSTITUTION. 

Dr. E. O. Lyte, of Millersville Normal 
School, reported from the Committee on 
Revision of the Constitution, having em- 
bodied in a new Constitution all the stand- 
ing resolutions of the Association under 
their proper headings. The text of the Con- 
stitution is given later, when finally acted on. 

After some discussion, Dr. Lyte proposed 
that the draft of Constitution be again re- 
ferred to the committee with instructions to 
amend in one or two sections to which ob- 
jection was made — especially a provision for 
leaving the selection of the place of meeting 
to the Executive Committee instead of vot- 
ing upon it in open Convention, as had 
been the practice for a number of years; 
also one abolishing the salary of the Ticket 
Agent, which was postponed until the ar- 
rival of the present officer, who was on his 
way here from Philadelphia. These amend- 
ments was made by general consent, and 
the further consideration of the Constitu- 
tion was postponed for the present. 

Association adjourned to 8 p. m. 



TUESDAY EVENING. 



SINGING by the Association opened the 
exercises of the evening session, after 
which the President introduced Dr. T. C. 
Mendenhall, of Terre Haute, Indiana, who 
delivered a most interesting and instructive 
lecture on 

the earth. 

The earth has been for certainly two thousand 

years, is now, and will be for all future time, the 

fruitful subject of investigation by man. It is 

studied from many standpoints, beginning witn 



i«87.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



99 



the oldest of the sciences, geometry (earth-meas- 
uring), and all that man really knows has been 
acquired by the study of the earth and what it 
contains, especially of the life that exists upon 
its surface. That knowledge would afford ma- 
terial for thousands of lectures ; but to-night we 
shall consider the earth as a things as it might 
appear if we were ourselves residents of some 
other body, and shall present a few of the dis- 
coveries that have been made with respect to 
the nature of the planet. 

We may begin by asserting that the earth is 
roood— this fact having been authoritatively 
passed upon by an English court and jury, and 
tnally decided. One Hampden havmg de- 
dared that the earth is flat, and a reward 
being offered for demonstration establishing its 
rotundity, the matter was taken up, many ex- 
periments made, the reward claimed, and finally 
the question came into court as stated. Of 
course we must not attempt to go behind the 
decision of a court, and will assume that the 
rotundity is demonstrated. It is no new dis- 
covery, as there has never been a time in re- 
corded history when there were not many 
thoughtful men who held that the earth is a 
round body. 

To us who stand upon its surface, the rough- 
ness of the outside is remarkable ; the whole 
body seems corrugated, seamed, wrinkled — and 
yet when the highest of the mountains, the 
deepest oceans, are compared with the diameter 
of the body, it is comparatively a smooth globe. 
Proportionately represented upon a 6-inch globe, 
the Himalaya mountains would be but an msig- 
nificant wrinkle. By-the-way, there would be a 
great advantage in making our school globes 
S-inch or i6-inch, so as to have one inch or two 
inches for each looo miles of diameter — and 
then banish the flat maps, and use the well- 
made globes instead. Even with the 8-inch 
globe the mountains would be like grains of 
dost. From this we get some idea of the earth's 
aie. 

The shape of the earth is a question of com- t 
paratively recent study. Is it a sphere ? New- 
ton had a suspicion, on theoretical grounds 
^one, since no measurement had then been 
made, that the equatorial diameter was greater. 
It was clear that if the earth was ever a liquid, or 
^uid, or plastic mass, its rapid revolution would 
swell it out at the equator, and it would become 
^0 oblate spheroid — hence the Newtonian hy- 
pothesis. The geographies tell us how the di- 
meters were finally measured, but it is evident 
^ their writers know very little about it. Of 
^«»rsc, if the form differed materially from a 
'P^, measurement of a degree of a great 
<^ near the equator, and another near the 
pole, would show the variation ; but this is a del* 
'catc and difHcult operation — so much so that 
pertain French astronomers, jealous of Newton's 
^e, attempted the measurement, and thought 
«cy had found the shape to be that of a prolate 
^heroid — lemon or spindle-shaped. Later a 
Swiss astronomer found that on going to an is- 
land in the Atlantic near the equator, his clock 
fan slower, though he was sure there had been 
no interference with the pendulum. The New- 



tonians oftered this explanation : Increase of the 
force of gravity increases the rapidity of the 
pendulum's motion, and vice versa; the loss of 
time by this clock shows the force of gravity to 
be less at the equator, hence the distance from 
the centre of gravity is greater, the equatorial 
diameter longer, and the body an oblate sphe- 
roid. Then the French Academy determined 
to settle the question ; one party was dispatched 
to Peru, another to Lapland, and while the lat- 
ter eompleted its work and reamed in two 
years, the former divided into two, measured 
two degrees, and was absent ten years. Re- 
turning, the results were compared, and the 
Newtonian hypothesis was confirmed, and the 
earth declared to be an oblate spheroid. The 
investigations of the past 50 years, however, 
indicate that the form is more irregular than 
had been supposed, conforming to no geomet- 
rical figure ; so it is now correct to speak of its 
shape as that of 2Lgeoid — which means a figure 
shaped " like the earth," so the term is suffici- 
ently exact. 

The nature of the body — whether a solid 
mass, or liquid with a thin crust or shell — is a 
difficult problem. We know that we are in- 
debted to the sun for all our supply of working 
power; that we are indebted to the varying 
temperature for all that makes earth habitable; 
that the enormous energy exerted by the sun 
upon a given area far exceeds that of all the 
horse-power that could be crowded upon it — yet 
all this power affects but a few feet, at most 20 
or 30 feet, beneath the surface. The geologist 
has studied the strata in position down to a few 
thousand feet; in places where great convul- 
sions have tilted them up, we can tell how it 
was perhaps some miles below ; but after all 
very little is known about the interior. Many 
very able teachers have held that we live upon 
a mere shell, enclosing a molten mass of liquid ; 
but the latest drift of opinion is in the other di-- 
rection. It is true that the heat increases as we 
go down, at the rate of 1° Fahr. for every 50 
feet, or more than 100° to the mile ; there is no 
reason to deny that this increase continues in- 
definitely, and if so, at 10 miles' depth it would 
be over 1000® ; so we should soon reach figures 
that would melt all known substances at the 
surface. 

But would they melt at such depths, under 
such enormous pressures ? We do not know. We 
do know that pressure has much to do with the 
melting of some substances : ice at zero may be 
melted by pressure ; with other bodies the rule 
may be reversed. We cannot yet say what may 
be the behavior of matter under such condi- 
tions, hence it is not proven that the centre is a 
molten mass. Having thus settled that the 
molten mass was not a necessary inference, the 
astronomers and geologists gave considerable 
study to the motion and behavior of solid bodies 
and those containing liquid. One striking illus- 
tration is by two eggs of equal size and weight, 
one boiled hard, the other not; suspend them 
and set them rotating — the liquid one loses its 
motion, the solid one keeps on ; spin them on 
their sides, the result is the same. [Experiment 
shown.] The deduction from this and similar 



lOO 



PE^r}/SYlVAMlA SdffOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept., 



experiments, by those most competent to make 
it, IS in favor of a rigid interior — not necessarily 
solid — ^it may be honey-combed with pockets, 
empty, or containing fluid matter. This theory 
does not increase the difficulty of explaining 
earthquakes and volcanic phenomena. The 
earth is still cooling and shrinking — unequal 
contraction produces irregularity of pressure, 
and quantities of matter may become fluid in 
consequence, and escape by the craters; the 
settling of the surface making the earth- 
quake. While it is not claimed that this explan- 
ation is entirely satisfactory, it is not incon- 
sistent with any of the demonstrated facts. 

How much matter does the earth contain ? — 
what is its mass? The determination ot this 
was most important to the astronomers, because 
by it they could measure the mass of the other 
heavenly bodies. If the earth were a homoge- 
neous body, the problem would be purely math- 
ematical, when we had the volume and density ; 
but the density increases as we approach the 
centre, according to an unknown law ; so it be- 
comes very difficult. The only way is to com- 
pare the attraction of the earth with that of 
known masses. A plumb-bob points nearly to 
the centre of the earth— exactly at the equator 
and the poles, very nearly here ; the line ex- 
tended downward at this point would miss the 
centre by about eleven miles. Suspend plumb- 
bobs on either side a mountain, and test the 
variation of direction, was one suggestion; but 
the difference was so slight that it could scarcely 
be measured. A pendulum was carried doM^n 
2000 feet into a coal mine, and its vibration 
noted, taking into account the density of the 
earth around the shaft: the result was un- 
satisfactory. A pendulum was suspended be- 
tween balls of lead, and their attraction ob- 
served; but the variation was too small for 
calculation. The feebleness of this attraction 
may be conceived from the fact that if two balls 
of lead 6 feet in diameter be suspended as close 
together as possible without touching, a single 
fibre of spider-web around each will keep them 
apart. 

With forces so very delicate, the extreme care 
necessary to be observed may be imagined. 
Nevertheless, the problem has been solved ; and 
if any one of you is anxious to have the figures, 
here they are: 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 
tons is the weight of the earth. 

One of the means of determining the attrac- 
tion of gravity is measuring the vibration of the 
same pendulum at sea-level and at the summit 
of a mountain of known height, and comparing 
the mass of the mountain with the mass of the 
earth. We know by calculation how fast it 
should move, and by observation how fast it 
actually moves. There are few mountains 
which are adapted by situation and surround- 
ings to such an experiment, and among these 
the best is in Japan, and is named Fujinoyama, 
12,500 feet in height, symmetrical in form, and 
rising from a plain. There I had the privilege 
of making the experiment, a description of 
which may be interesting. 

We began the ascent in the early morning 
with five young men who were pupils in the 



government institution ; and having some very 
strong natives to carry our instruments, one of 
which weighed 160 pounds. As it is impos»ble 
to ascend on horseback, the difficulty and labor 
are by no means light. It is a holy mountain, 
and we found numerous pilgrims — ^tne leader of 
each company tinkling his little signal bell and 
all moving to a monotonous chant, on their 
way to and from /the shrine on the summit. 
Their garments had once been white, but were 
now marked by travel and stamped with curious 
characters in attestation of their visits to other 
sacred places. When almost worn out by steady 
climbing, we found it well to adopt one of their 
plans — to take 100 steps at a time, then rest be- 
fore the next 100— ancl late at night we reached 
the summit. 

As usual in all human affairs, we had leflone 
thing out of our account, which might have been 
fatal to our attempt — we found a wind blowing 
so violently that observations were quite impos- 
sible. A tent held down by blocks of lava piled 
upon its edges was nearly carried away. We 
felt that our severe labor was wasted, that there 
would be no outcome to it all. Just then we 
came upon the little shrine — a hut, solid and 
substantial, built of lava blocks, and roofed 
over ; here was the place, the only place, where 
our work was possible ; but within were all the 
paraphernalia of Buddhism, under care of the 
attendant priest. Consulting our companions 
on the possibility of obtaining leave to use the 
building, they were politely, but just as posi- 
tively agreed that it was impossible — that it 
would be " desecration." We, however, made 
the request of the priest, who at once declined; 
it was repeated in another form, and again de- 
clined. 

Then we laid before him the nature of the 
question, explained its great importance, the 
adaptation of this locality, and the impossibility 
of doing our work elsewhere on the summit 
He listened, became interested, hesitated, and 
finally yielded. We entered the shrine; the 
symbols and paraphernalia were removed 
into a corner, and in their place were set up the 
chronograph, the battery and the pendulum— 
the latter occupying the niche of the image wor- 
shipped by the pilgrims. Outside, the night was- 
clear, the peak was an island in a sea of clouds; 
within, the symbols of one of eaith*s oldest re- 
ligions were giving place to the most modem' 
appliances of science; altogether, it was a strange 
and impressive experience. When all was 
ready, a very few minutes* test detected a dif- 
ference in the vibration from that at sea-level— 
the experiment was successful ; it was continued 
to completion, while the pilgrims prayed at the 
door and tossed in their coins, which were gath- 
ered up and handed over to the priest. We left 
him with regret, for it was an nonor to know 
such a broad-minded, liberal, generous man as 
our friend, Mr. Ki-nosh-i-ta. 

At the close of the lecture, Miss Maggie 
DoTTS, of East Greenville, Chester countyi 
sang two pieces, which were well received 
by the audience, after which the Association* 
adjourned to 9 a. m. 



188;.] 



STATE TEACE^mS' ASSOCIATION. 



lOI 



WEDNESDAY MORNING. 



The session was opened by Rev. R. A. 
McKiNLEY, who read from the Scriptures 
and offered prayer. 

The Association sang "Flow Gently, 
Sweet Afton." 

NOMINATION OF OFFICERS. 

Sapt. D. M. Wolfs said he wished to 
place in Bomination for the Presidency one 
who had been a member of the Association 
for 20 years, and who had always taken an 
active part in its proceedings, serving ac- 
ceptably upon its Executive Committee and 
present at almost every meeting ; one who 
had been prominent in the educational work 
of the State, and an efficient superintendent 
in several of its cities — Supt. R. K. 
fiuEHRLB, of Lancaster city. 

Prof. Philips, of West Chester, seconded 
the nomination. It was one most fitting to 
be made, whether regarded from the side of 
merit or qualificatiom. Scarcely any mem- 
lu" present had been so constant in attend- 
ance or more faithful in service. 

Supt. Phillips, of Scran ton, nominated 
one of the live young superintendents of the 
State— Mr. Matt Savage, of Clearfield 
county. 

Dr. HoRKE had hoped that the nomina- 
tion of Dr. Buehrle would be unanimous. 
He thought it was the sentiment of the 
active membership of the Association that 
the older and widely-known members 
ihould be chosen to the Presidency. 

Further nominations were made as fol- 
lows: 

For Vice Presidents — Geo. A. Spindler, 
Washington; Elizabeth Lloyd, Bucks; W. 
H. Samuel, Philadelphia; Jno. A. Robb, 
Lock Haven. 

For Secretary-^, P. McCaskey, Lan- 
caster. 
For Treasurer — D. S. Keck, Berks. 
For Ticket Agent—]. F. Sickel, A. R. 
Home. 

For Executive Committee — G. W. Weiss, 
Geo. M. Philips, D. J. Waller, G. W. Phil- 
%, N. S. Davis. 

for Enrolling Committee — N. J. Bieber, 
A.W. Potter, A. G. C. Smith, W. S. Mon- 
roe, M. F. Brumbaugh, W. W. Dietrich, 
]' M. Hoffman, Miss Clara Barrett. 

committee on election. 

The following committee was appointed 
to conduct the election of officers: E. I. 
Wolfe, R. M. McNeal, Frank Hutton, Miss 
Sadie Gallagher and A. J. Davis. 

The Association directed that their unan- 



imous ballot be cast by Mr. J. D. Pyott 
foVfth'^.ogicers where there is no contest. 

• • PUU?E OF MEETING. 

Choice of tlleyace ofL-next year's meet- 
ing being in order, tbe &)llowing places 
were named: Scranton', -I£iijt£iiQS^p, Mauch 
Chunk, Indiana, Huntingd6n;\C}iavtauqua. 

After a lengthy discussion and nQm^rou$ 
motions, it was finally agreed to call*f(Sr 
votes in favor of each place, and select by 
another ballot from the highest three. 
These three were Scranton, 95 ; Hunting- 
don, 57; Chautauqua, 48. Scranton was 
then chosen by a vote of 118 to 68. 

Prof. John T. Daniel, of Allegheny, 
read the following paper on 

COUNTY INSTITUTES. 

"Are not County Institutes a failure?*' is a 
question asked by very many. The time has 
come when it ought to be answered. 

Patrick was asked whether be knew young 

Jones. He promptly replied, " Yes, sir, I know 
lim." " Well, if he tells you a thing, can you 
believe what he says?" was the next inquiry. 
"It's tiiis way," said Pat, "whin he spakes the 
truth ye can belave ivery word he tells ye, but 
whin he lies, I'd advise ye not to put any confi- 
dence in him at all." So it is with County Insti- 
tutes. When they are properly manned and 
properly managed, when they work toward 
right ends, and when their members are intelli- 
gent, intent on the acquisition of knowledge, 
quick to receive instruction, and systematic in 
holding it, they are among the very best of ed- 
ucational agencies in present use; but when 
they are supplied with mstructors of only fifth- 
rate talent, when they are subjected to a slip- 
shop management, when they are merely to 
meet the requirements of the law, when they 
are conducted with a view to the attainment of 
wrong ends, or when their members are incapa- 
ble listeners, or ienorant and indifferent, they 
are a failure, and had better be discontinuea. 
As respects their organization and manage- 
ment, teachers' institutes are of three kinds. 
Each of these has been made successful in ex- 
ceptional cases. 

One is the equivalent of a short term normal 
school. The length of the session in such in- 
stitutes has usually been from two to four 
weeks. This kind has regularly-formed classes, 
a course of study, a teacher for each branch, 
and a conductor. A fee heavy enough to meet 
incidental expenses and tuition expenses is re- 
quired as a condition t)f membership. Such an 
organization might be called a Normal Institute. 
There is another kind, less expensive, in which 
the greater part of the instruction is furnished 
by leading members of the body of teachers 
present, with lectures contributed by education- 
ists, not educators, men in sympathy with the 
work in hand and ready to give of their best, 
where all are contributing tlieir time and thought 
for the general good. Such assemblages of 
teachers might appropriately be called Conven- 



102 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept.^ 



don Institutes. This kind is good when w«U 
managed and well located. On acavinV i¥ ^tsi' 
inexpensiveness, it is generally jn^W'.p^ptirar 
than the Normal Institute, vh^i^'iiitEtndal help 
can not be had fronv^the ^tSUei *• Like the Nor- 
mal Institute, it has in, it a*sdr{ of potential en- 
ergy, but the.cdn^tio^ for the development of 
its force, arc'^eXQ^^y^conspicuous by their ab- 
sence. :*•. : '• 

*. ^*^ilf Kind is that conducted on the plan of 
tBe well-known annual gatherings of teachers 
in *the several counties of Pennsylvania. This 
is perhaps the only kind practicable in our State 
under the general law for institutes as it now 
exists. The session lasts virtually four days. 
In the best of these four-day institutes, the m- 
struction is furnished by foreign talent of a very 
high order. ' Two or three lecturers are put on 
the programme for daily work. They are men 
of inter-state reputation in their respective de- 
partments. Their business is to inculcate right 
views of education, to implant in the minds of 
teachers a pride in their profession, to awaken a 
love of professional study, to lead those who 
teach to know something of the general laws of 
mind, something as to the appetences of the 
mind in the diflferent stages of its development, 
something of the general principles of educa- 
tion as evolved from a knowledge of the laws 
of mental growth and development. 

Were all institute attendants ready for in- 
struction of this kind, one of these four-day, or 
if you please, Elementsd Institutes, would be of 
greater value than either of the others. Unfor- 
tunately, this essential condition is generally 
wanting. 

There has been an apparent conflict between 
the different kinds of institutes above mentioned, 
as to which was the fittest to survive. I think 
they should all survive, for under favorable cir- 
cumstances each in its own place and for its 
special purposes is the fittest. 

The student of development usually sees 
marks of failure all along the various hnes of 
of his investigation. In regard to institutes, the 
evidences of failure have been abundant. 
Neither the Normal Institute, the Convention 
Institute, nor the Elemental, has as yet reached 
perfection, nor has any one of them advanced 
so far toward perfection that it could not be 
readily distanced by the others under circum- 
stances in any degree favorable to their devel- 
opment. 

I do not believe, with the author of the Art 
of School Management, that "the annual county 
institute has served its purpose,** and that " its 
days are numbered,'* though I do think that it 
has been a ^ilure in some important respects. 
The trouble with it, as with the Normal Institute 
and the Teachers* Convention, has been the ab- 
sence, in most cases, of the conditions essential 
to success. 

But let us relegate from this discussion, for the 
present, the Convention Institute. More crudi- 
ties and weaknesses could be charged against 
it than against either of the others, yet it is the 
charter member of the trio. Had teachers 
never indicated in their conventions their desire 
for professional instruction, and, incidentally, 



'*\&t\x great need of it, institute workers would 
never have offered to serve them for a hundred 
dollars a week and expenses, and lecturers 
would not have been employed by them at as 
much per evening. If conventions of teachers ' 
had not been held for the purpose of securing 
needed legislation, State aid would never have 
been granted in any form for the furtherance of 
the more modem institute enterprises. 

In all professions and employments, conven- 
tions are essential agencies for the attainment 
of special objects; but they serve only in emer- 
gencies and they die out, either actually or 
virtually, as soon as they have served the spe- 
cial purposes for which they were called. They 
can not be kept up for the furtherance of the 
every-day interests of any profession, yet noth- 
ing can keep them down, wnen popular thought 
on any particular subject is at a white heat. 

I have said that the la^inual county institute is 
a failure, and yet I think it ought to be kept up— 
not the failure, but the insHtute. Let us review 
briefly the purposes to be s^ved by it. Then 
let us point out the failure that has attached to 
it and find out if possible the\sources of this 
failure. The purposes to be servb^ by the an- 
nual institute are such as these : 

To make teachers systematic in everything 
they do. 

To lead them to adapt instruction to the ca* 
pacities and wants of their pupils. 

To instruct them in the philosophy underly- 
ing ail methods of school management and in- 
struction. 

To lead them to study pvofoundly the child 
mind. 

To fill them with love for their work — ^with 

Suenchless love for the immortal souls whose 
estinies, in a large degree, they shape. 
In short, as the sum of all, to effect an inspi- 
ration for the noblest of all employments. 

That most of the efforts made for the attain* 
ment of these purposes have resulted in failure^ 
few will deny. Some of the causes of this fail- 
ure are constant in their action, while others are 
only occasional. To effect an inspiration of the 
average teacher by means of a four days' course 
of lectures is an impossibility; not, usually, be- 
cause of any lack ot excellence in the matter of 
the lectures or in their delivery, but chiefly by 
reason of the unreadiness of the teacher to 
grasp and hold instruction presented in the lec- 
ture form. Not one- fifth of the teachers called 
together to listen to institute lectures are pre- 
pared to receive any appreciable benefit from, 
what they hear. Their education has not car- 
ried them past the point where drill is necessary 
to insure meir retention of the knowledge pre- 
sented, and drill is utterly impracticable in an 
institute lasting but four days. It is exceed- 
ingly hard to interest with lectures the average 
teacher in any teachers' institute. In this case 
you can not speak of the lectures as if their de- 
livery was an illustration of the pouring-in pro- 
cess. There is no pouring in about it. It 
rather constitutes a sort of educational shower, 
and a shower may fall for an hour on a duck's 
back and the duck will not be saturated by it. 
In the county institute lecture course, every at- 



i887.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



to-Ss 



tendant gets his share of the ducking, and all, 
or at least nearly all, come out about the same 
at the end of the week. To test the staying 

Suality of such instruction, put on examination 
lose who have been lectured to,, and see how 
much thought from the lecture- course remains 
in their minds. Then make a book of it and 
send it to Mark Twain to be reviewed. But we 
may only guess at the result of such a test, for 
none would volunteer to submit to it, and no law 
exists requiring it to be made. 

In this verv circumstance we find cause for 
tdditional failure. When the matter of the lec- 
ture is never made the basis of any sort of test, 
ve may fairly expect it to be forgotten, except 
by the very few who have been taught how to 
listen to a lecture and how to appreciate at its 
leal worth what they hear. 

These causes of failure are constant. Then 
there are other causes not constant but frequent. 
Mention has been made of the average teach- 
er's lack of preparation for listening to lectures. 
Some things tend to cause a continuance of this 
lack. Often the County Superintendent will 
grant certificates to poorly educated applicants. 
Often the vrages of teachers are cut aown by 
short-sighted Controllers to such a niggardly 
%ure £hat men and women of education are 
dnven out of the business, and others compar- 
atively ignorant come into it. Often politicians 
exercise such a baleful influence over school 
officers that to become teachers it would seem 
necessary that young people should study and 
practice politics rather than give their minds to 
the investigation of the principles of teaching. 
Often young people get into the schools throu^ 
sympathy or through the help of influential 
friends, at an age so very early as to make it 
ridicnlous to expect of them that they should 
become interested in lectures. Talk of inspiring 
such with an enthusiasm for their work ! You 
could inspire them with an enthusiasm for a 
sleighing partv more readily. 

The Normal Institute is thouc:ht by some to 
be the one that shall survive all others. Yet, 
uitil quite recently, it has been one of the 
^rorst of all the failures. It has had an exist- 
ence in neighborhoods whose enterprise has not 
been sufficient for the maintenance of a respect- 
able academy. It has, perhaps, been taught 
by some next friend of the Superintendent, and 
^ been distinguished for Uie length of its roll 
wd the amount of its entrance fees rather than 
for the quality of the work done by its faculty, 
^ regularity of the attendance of its members, 
^ the benefit rendered by it to the cause of 
pibhc school education. 

^ Years ago anybody might teach a subscription 
*^odj wi&out a license, so now anybody may 
<^^ze a Normal Institute, whether qualified 
for such important work or not. In every State 
ve now have laws that discount the services of 
incompetents in the day school. We ought to 
be similarly protected against incompetent pro- 
fessors in our Normal Institutes. How different 
it would be if in them only first-class institute 
instructors and critic teachers were employed. 
This condition might be attained by making the 
Normal Institute a part of our public school 



system. This ought to be done in order to the* 
better instruction of the children. It must be* 
done, or most of the benefit that should follow 
from what I have called the Elemental Institute 
will continue to be wasted. 

In fact, the organization of all county teachers' 
institutes should be definitely fixed by legisla- 
tive enactment. Institute instructors should be 
hcensed by a State Board of Institute Regents,, 
and only such as this board would nominate 
should be employed to serve the State in their 
line of work. No lecturers, no matter how well 
they could read, should be paid from the State 
appropriation, unless furnished with a license 
from such board. 

The development of the Pennsylvania school 
system has been, in the main, a development 
in the right direction. Valuable reforms have 
been effected in it from time to time. These re- 
forms have sometimes caused temporary incon- 
venience. It is a general principle that all re- 
forms are the occasion of some inconveniences^ 
but these inconveniences in their turn are useful, 
for they show where further reforms are neces- 
sary. 

The County Superintendenc/ law and the 
County Institute law were at first in harmony 
with one another. Subsequently legislation was 
effected in the interest of the sometimes abused 
teacher, and permanent certificates came into 
existence. As the number of these increased, 
embarrassment began to overtake the Superin- 
tendents. Teachers in the institutes had elected 
their own permanent certificate committees^ 
These in turn gave certificates without exami- 
nation to those who had voted for them. The 
requirement remained as binding as ever upon 
the Superintendent that he should hold annual 
institutes, but the teachers with permanent cer- 
tificates did not "have to " attend. Next came 
an improvement of the law in regard to perma- 
nent certificates. Permanent certificate com- 
mittees must now examine applicants. Papers 
of appUcants must go to the State Department, 
and recommendations of the applicant, signed 
by the School Board, Superintendent, and Ex- 
amining Committee, must be approved by the 
State Superintendent in order to be vaUd. Thus 
district, county and State officials, from the low- 
est to the highest, share with the committee the 
responsibility of admitting to the xanks of the 
permanent class any and all that can be ad- 
mitted to it. 

Last comes the law granting pay to those at- 
tending the annual institute. Now every 
teacher is under as definite an obligation to at- 
tend the institute as he is to attend the daily 
sessions of his own school. If, on any account, 
he finds attendance for a day impracticable, he 
simply signs the pay blank for the usual 
amount, less the pay for that day. He does 
this manfully. He is neither lectured nor over- 
paid by his employers. His course is a straight 
forward one, and taking it, as he must under 
the law, he can look Uie whole world in the 
face. 

We have witnessed a gradual and constant 
advance towards steadiness and vigor in the 
county management. We have been going in 



I04 



FEANSYLVANJA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept., 



the right direction, and now that the annual 
(Elemental) institute has become really a part 
of the teacher's school work, its complement 
should be added. The complement of the an- 
nual institute is the Normal Institute. 

To establish this, legislation is needed. It 
will not do to say that we have had legislation 
enough. The laws of the State of Pennsylvania 
establishing State Normal Schools are the pride 
of Pennsylvania. But we shall alwavs^have in 
the service of the State a large body of non- 
professional teachers. The normal schools are 
for the training of professional teachers. In- 
stitutes are for the training of the non-profes- 
sional. There will always be teachers m our 
public schools who will teach but a term or two 
and then return to their former employments. 
There will always be another class who will 
make short work of teaching to get into some 
better paid business. 

This passing through the teaching employ- 
ment into other vocations is a good thing, even 
though the time spent in the school room 
should be limited to a single term of successful 
school work. It is good for the succeeding 
employment, and it is good for the schools that 
shall, at a later day, be patronized by those 
who were once teachers themselves, as many a 
regular teacher knows who has been the recip- 
ient of the sympathy and encouragement be- 
stowed upon him by retired members of the 
guild. The Normal Institute should be the 
annual militia muster of the citizen teacher. 
It should have facilities for measuring the pro- 
gress attained by volunteer companies and by 
mdividual students engaged in the pursuit of a 
common course of study, and required to take 
the same course of lectures and instruction. 

All may go to the annual institute and hear 
lectures of unrivaled excellence, but not all are 
benefited thereby. As an indispensable condi- 
tion of future progress in the line of institute 
work, let us ask tot free instruction of a kind 
that shall make our non-professional teachers 
capable listeners when lectures are in order, and 
brave applicants for the honors given to those 
who pass the tests that shall prove them to be 
capable listeners. A combination of the lecture 
privilege, the reading course, and the individual 
tests of applicants for rank, is the sine qua non. 

We have the lecture course in its application 
to the principles of teaching already. The an- 
nual (Elemental) institute furnishes this. There 
should be instruction methods and illustrative 
use of these with examinations on all. These 
should be furnished in the form of a Normal 
Institute to succeed the one we already have, 
or the one we now have should be so improved 
as to cause it to include those features of the 
Normal Institute herein shown to be urgently 
needed. 

Supt. B. £. James, of Susquehanna^ said 
that while there was much in the paper that 
h6 could heartily commend, he was not 
quite in sympathy with some of its positive 
suggestions. A Board of Regents with 
power to supervise our institutes, their in- 



struction and other arrangements, would not 
be welcome to our Pennsylvania educators. 
County sovereignty has worked well enough 
to be fairly satisfactory, and would be re- 
tained by the large majority. He felt like 
denying the statement that ''drill has be- 
come impossible in the county institute." 
Experience had taught him that it is not 
only practical, but a necessary feature, 
which should be continued. County insti- 
tutes should be divided into three classes, 
with different instruction for each, during 
the morning session ; this has been tried in 
several counties of the northern tier, and 
worked successfully. In the afternoon the 
conventional form comes in, and it will 
benefit by the morning class or section drill. 
Having wakened up the institute in the 
morning, give them the philosophy of edu- 
cation after dinner; they have got the de- 
tails, now show the underlying principles. 
Teachers are willing to work a reasonable 
time at institute, and the work must be made 
as helpful as possible. They are loyal to 
the institute; the county superintendents 
everywhere were agreeably surprised to find 
little or no falling off in attendance when 
the law made the teacher pay his own way. 
Every institute should have an organization 
of directors — you can thus convert opposi- 
tion into cooperation, by having one listen 
to the experience of another; they will 
learn more readily from each other than 
from teacher or superintendent. 

Supt. T. W. Bevan, of Catasauqua, said 
that institutes had received a good deal of 
both praise and criticism, and while they had 
done all that Dr. Higbee's report claimed, 
there was room for improvement. Many 
teachers come to institute with no purpose 
except to get new methods; these secure 
form without substance — copy methods in- 
stead of assimilating them — ^and, naturally 
failing in the application, abandon them as 
impracticable. Not every teacher is quali- 
fied to discriminate, or even knows his own 
needs : the division of institutes into grades 
is a recognition of this fact. Too much in- 
struction is given in many institutes; and 
the result is confusion. We need better 
men and women, more than better methods; 
we need to have the teachers acquainted 
with their own needs, adapt the instruction 
to their needs, and ensure reflection upon 
the matter after adjournment ; thus will wc 
reach the real end of all — better teachers, 
and consequently better schools. To this 
end he suggested districting the county, 
the teachers of each district to meet monthly 
or oftener, their chairmen to form an exec- 



1887.1 



STATE TEACHERS? ASSOCIATION, 



105 



ative committee to act with the superinten- 
dent in framing the institute programme, 
and to present the wants of their several 
districts at the meetings of the committee ; 
the work of each district to be reported at 
institute by one of its teachers, with the 
opinions of teachers upon the instruction 
given at the preceding institute, the books 
they hdve read since, and their judgment 
upon them. This would induce teachers to 
rod and think, and we should have an Tn- 
sdtute of the county teachers, for the county 
teachers, and largely by the county teachers. 
The present plan is like sowing seed and 
paying no attention to the crop. This 
wodd dignify the whole profession; and 
while it would give the superintendent more 
professional labor, it would make him a 
leader in thought-development, and his suc- 
cess would no longer be measured by num- 
ber and length of visits. County reading 
circles would then be more practical, and 
an increasing demand would find a supply 
of first-class mstitute instructors. 

Prof. J. Elliot Ross said the paper had at 
least the merit of being positive. It is pos- 
sible to sit for hours in institute, hearing 
the professors talk, without having one's at- 
tention arrested and impressions produced 
that will work out results; but the hearer is 
probably in fault by coming unprepared to 
receive. The mind, like the photographer's 
plate, must be made sensitive by previous 
preparation. Still, one can hardly help 
getting something from the man or woman 
of large mind and broad view; and if the 
teacher adopts a method recommended by 
high authority, and tries faithfully to work 
by it, he will build up something for him- 
self. The county institute should meet the 
need of inspiration in its general exercises ; 
the giving of normal instruction is a sepa- 
rate matter, but the morning drill session of 
Snpt. James may be useful. 

The discussion closed here. 

Prof. D. J. Waller, of filoomsburg Nor- 
mal School, read a paper on the 

USOURCES AND INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

The resources of Penn's forest have had a 

^nation for men ever since Mahlon Stacy 

Aore than two hundred years ago ( 1680) wrote : 

"It is a country that produceth all things for the 

support and furtherance of man in a plentiful 

i&anner. I have seen orchards laden with 

fruit to admiration: their very limbs torn to 

pieces with weight, most delicious to the taste 

vid lovely to behold. I have seen an apple 

tree from a pippin kernel yield a barrel of 

corious cider, and peaches in such plenty that 

some people took their carts a peach-gathering ; 



I could not but smile at the conceit of it ; they 
are very delicious fruit, and hang almost like 
our onions that are tied on ropes. I have seen 
and know this summer forty bushels of bold 
wheat of one bushel sown. From May till Mich- 
aelmas, great store of very good wild fruits, as 
strawberries, cranberries, and hurtleberries, 
which are like our billberries in England, only 
far sweeter; the cranberries, much like cherries 
for color and bigness, which may be kept till 
fruit comes again ; an excellent sauce is made 
of them for venison, turkeys and other great 
fowl, and they are better to make tarts of than 
either gooseberries or cherries ; we have them 
brought to our house by the Indians in great 
plenty. My brother Robert had as many cher- 
ries this year as would have loaded several 
carts. As for venison and fowls we have great 
plenty ; we have brought home to our countries 
oy the Indians seven or eight fat bucks in a 
day. We went into the river to catch herrings 
after the Indian fashion. We could have filled 
a three-bushel sack of as good lar^e herrings 
as I ever saw. And as to beef and pork, here 
is great plenty of it, and good sheep. The com- 
mon grass of this country feeds beef very fat. 
Indeed, the country, take it as a wilderness, is a 
brave country." 

Lying in the belt of latitude that includes 
Madrid, Rome and Constantinople, centres of 
European history through the ages, and that in- 
cludes Pekin, the political centre of the most 
populous empire in the world, and being at the 
same time the keystone of the arch of Adantic 
States, with one extremity resting upon the 
great lakes, and her vessels upon the tributaries 
of the Mississippi, a focus also of the railroads 
of the United States, Pennsylvania must count 
herposition as not the least of her resources. 

Tne surface, covered originally with one vast 
forest of hemlock, pine, beech, and oak, re- 
vealed to Penn many of the resources that 
enriched his colonists and their successors. 
While the supply of timber that seemed in an 
early day inexhaustible, has been reduced to an 
area of a few thousand acres on the top of the 
Alleghenies, the fertility of the soil southeast of 
the Blue Ridge remains, and together with that 
in a few valleys in the interior, such as the 
Nittany, has constituted one of the great re- 
sources, and given agriculture a prominent 
place among our industries. The value of the 
farms was put in 1880 at nearly $1,000,000,000 
(1975,000,000). Not only the tertility, but also 
the adaptability of both soil and climate to a 
great variety of farm products is an element of 
resource. Our rank is first in rye, second in 
potatoes and buckwheat, and third in tobacco, 
while wheat, corn and oats are the main reli- 
ance of the farmers, and a fair return is ob- 
tained in the cultivation of any of the crops 
found to be staple either east or west of us. 
This variety gives the Pennsylvania farmer 
assurance of at least a living each year. 

The great ridges of the Appalachian system 
traversing the State northeast and southwest, 
made transportation on navigable streams im- 
possible, but gave abundance of water power 
that must have suggested great manufactturing 



io6 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept., 



possibilities to the early settlers. The grain 
was thus sround near the field where it grew, 
and the logs were sawed where they were 
felled, and raw material was transported only 
short distances, but the introduction of steam 
has diminished this relative advantage. Though 
in the employment of motive power we still 
stand first in the Union, using fifteen per cent, 
of all, the water power has become one of the 
minor resources. 

To Penn and his immediate successors these 
constituted the resources of his domain, except- 
ing the limestone and iron ore, which were de- 
veloped early to some extent, but were not 
counted among the great sources of wealth 
until other minerals were utilized. 

Of the resources beneath the surface it is to 
be borne in mind that we can at best only esti- 
mate them, for the "bellv of a rock is very 
dark;** yet we can consider these as to area, 
production, and capital invested. 

The geological range of iron ore is greater 
here than in any other State, and in the census 
year Pennsylvania stood first as a producer, the 
value of its output being ^yi millions. The 
amount and value of the deposit have not been 
determined. Only a few months ago the ore of 
Centre county was found to be of surprising 
thickness. The largest deposit of nickel in the 
Union is found within our borders, yielding in 
1880 $149,000; and of glass sand also, yielding 
in the same year $115,000. In production of 
cement the State stands second. 

Any statement of the resources of Pennsyl- 
vania that would assume to-day to be exhaustive 
would merit a guarded reception. We have 
seen the estimate of the resources (in 1680) two 
hundred years ago. Less than sixty years ago 
a young man urged upon a lawyer of the Wyo- 
tnmg Valley, afterward president judge of the 
courts of Lancaster, the purchase of a farm. 
The lawyer objected to the price. ** But,*' said 
the youUi, "there is coal on it.'* "Coal,** re- 
plied the other, "what is coal? Td not give a 
dollar more for a farm with coal on it." That 
farm has risen in the meantime from $45 to 
over 1 1, 000 per acre,, and anthracite coal, 
within the same period, has come to be reck- 
oned among the greatest of our resources. The 
area of anthracite in this State is put at 475 
square miles, and the greatest total thickness at 
113 feet, of which 80 reet are in workable beds. 
Estimating 1,000 tons per acre without the pil- 
lars, for each foot in thickness, we have 640,000 
tons per square mile, or a total of 304,000,000 
tons tor each foot in depth. In 1880 there were 
mined 28,600,000 tons, and the capital invested 
was $154,000,000. At this rate the product of 
ten years will equal about one foot in aepth, and 
estimating an average depth of thirty feet, the 
product of 300 years will exhaust the supply, 
we have a virtual monopoly of this mineral. 
While there is a little in Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, and a little in West Virginia, mining is 
so expensive, and the deposit is so small, Uiat 
these may be omitted entirely from all esti- 
mates. 

In the production of bituminous coal also 
Pennsylvania is first. As the southeast quarter 



is the richest agricultural region, so the south- 
west quarter is the richest bituminous region. 
Some idea of the deposit may be obtained fi'om 
the fact that 18,000,000 tons, nearly forty five 
per cent, of the product of the United States, 
were produced last year. The capital invested 
is $38,000,000. 

Thirty years ago it was thought we had litde 
more to learn of our resources of fuel, but the 
discovery of petroleum again revealed^ to us a 
source of wealth not before dreamed of. The 
extent of the deposit and duration of the supply 
are matters only of conjecture, but the product 
in one year was 23,000,000 barrels. 

Ten years ago our wealth of* fuel was found 
to extend even oeyond these supplies. Our re- 
sources of natural gas have enabled our manu- 
facturers to retain their supremacy in the mak- 
ing and working of iron, though Tennessee, 
Georgia, and Alabama had been looming up as 
dangerous competitors. 

Facilities for transportation must be consid- 
ered among our resources. While nature has 
not endowed us to any considerable extent with 
navigable streams, this State is second to Illi- 
nois only in miles of railroad, having 7,700; 
while in capital ($940,000,000), in gross ($100,- 
000,000] and in net earnings ($42,000,000) we 
are first, though that State has 18,000 miles. 

Rich as our great commonwealth is in all these 
material resources, her greatest wealth lies in 
her population. The Germans of the eastern 
section have made the words "Pennsylvania 
farmer" a synonym for thrift and agricultural 
skill. The Scotch-Irish of the western, and 
particularly the southwestern section, of fine 
physical development, remarkable for vigor of 
mtellect and the depth of their religious convic- 
tions ; and the Yankees of the northern, and 
particularly the northeastern section, noted in 
early times for their Puritanical views and prac- 
tices, and still of world-wide fame for enterprise 
and general intelligence — ^these have been the 
dominating elements in a population of 4,300,- 
000, one-finh of which is foreign. We furnished 
in the war of the Rebellion 366,000 men, nearly 
one-eighth of the population. At the same 
rate we are now able to put into the field an 
army of over half a million. In numbers, and 
in valuation of property, this population is sec- 
ond only to that of New York. 

Measuring public intelligence by the period- 
ical literature, we find, aside from the lar]ee 
support given to New York dailies and monm- 
lies, that we have published within our own 
limits five and a half millions of copies ; more 
than in any other State excepting New York. 
The total of papers and periomcals used there- 
fore probably exceeds that of any other State. 
If we measure public intelligence by the num- 
ber of children in the pubhc schools, this State 
stands second (989,000 in 1 886) . If we measure 
it by the numl)er of patents issued she stands 
second (2400). If we measure it by coll^ate 
statistics we find her second in value of coD^ 
real estate, third in proceeds of college endow- 
ments, and third in number of collegiate stu- 
dents. Measuring by the sum expended upon 
our public schools, she stands fourtn, expending 



,887.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



107 



19,800,000. We have to acknowledge 146,000, 
over 10 years old, that cannot read. 

But the numbers, property, and intelligence of 
our population are not the only characteristics 
that make this the most valuable of our re- 
sources. Their industry must be regarded, and 
this introduces the second division of the sub- 
ject assigned, 

Tm INDUSTRIES OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

One-third of our total population is set down 
\tj statisticians as engaged in what are called 
the occupations. When the children and those 
iromen not credited with an occupation are de- 
docted, it is seen that there can be few idlers. 

One-fifth of our labor is expended in agri- 
culture, and while our state is fourteenth in 
number of acres under cultivation, it is fourth in 
aggregate value of farms, and second only to 
New York in the value of machinery employed. 
The average size of farms is 93 acres, which is 
as much as can be well cultivated with one pair 
of horses, and indicates that farming is likely to 
he a prominent industry in this state for long 
years to come. But one other state has as many 
small farms, of from 3 to 10 acres. This also is 
strong testimony that the farmers are both skill- 
ful and thorough. This great conservative class 
represents in itself both the warring elements, 
capital and labor. The harmonizing influence 
exerted by it in the great tumult and strife can 
hardly be overestimated. 

One-eighth of the labor is consumed in the 
employment of trade and transportation upon 
our roads, canals, and rail-roads (180.000). 

Over one-third of the labor is expended in 
manufactures and mining (528,000, or thirty-six 
percent). Between 1870 and 1880 the produc- 
tion of iron and steel in this state increased 97 
per cent., and in the latter year we produced 5 1 
per cent, of the pig iron, 46 per cent, of the 
rolled iron, and ^6 per cent ot the steel ingots 
made in the whole United states. 1 1 5.000 hands 
were employed, $25,000,000 were paid in wages, 
and the vaue of the product was 145,000,000. 
Founderies and machine shops employed 24,000 
hands, paid in wages $10,000,000 and yielded a 
product of $35,000,000. 

In sawed lumber we rank next to Michigan 
only. There were employed 1 5,000 hands who 
received in wages nearly $3,000,000, and pro- 
duced lumber valued at $22,000,000. 

Of two hundred .manufacturing industries 
prominent in the United States, this State stands 
nRST in about one-seventh of the entire num- 
her,as follows : iron and steel, cutlery and edge 
^ools, iron pipe (two-thirds of all in United 

States), iron nuts and bolts, car and carriage 
^|s, saws, dentists' materials, drugs and 
uKiBicals, carpets (nearly one-half of all in the 
l/pited States), leather, dressed skins, glass, 
mixed textiles, cars, slate, capital invested in 
flouring, and tile, glue, wood pulp, paper bags, 
emery wheels, blacking, cork cutting, type found- 
ing, stereotyping and electrotyping, stencils and 
hrands, jewelry and instrument cases, watch 
cases, lightning rods and umbrellas. Seven 
of these industries produce each from $7,000,000 
to $41,000,000 annually. 



In about one^fiftk of the two hundred she 
stands Second : sawed and planed lumber, fur- 
niture, upholstering, carpentering, files (Rhode 
Island is first), woolen goods, clothing, shirts, 
brooms and brushes, bridge building, brass cast- 
ings, tin, copper and sheet-iron ware, hardware, 
lock and gunsmithing, models and patterns, sur- 
gical appliances, patent medicines, paints, lime, 
curried leather, confectionery, sugar, bread, 
butter and molasses, coffees and spices, paper, 
blank-books, ink, photographs, lithographs, 
looking-glasses, spectacles, black-smithing, 
wheel-wnqhting, washing machines, marble and 
stone work, tobacco, malt, and malt liquors. 
Nine of these produce annually from $7,000,000 
to $32,000,000 each. 

Nearly one-sixth of the laboring population 
are classified as "laborers" distinct from those 
already mentioned ; and about one-seventh of 
the labor is classified as professional. 

Summing up the resources of capital, there 
are in manufactures $474,000,000, producing 
$74,000,000; in coal mining, $192,000,000, pro- 
ducing $60,000,000: railroads, $940,000,000, pro- 
ducing (net) $42,000,000; and in farms, $975,- 
000,000. In the industries there are one-third 
of the whole, 4,300,000, divided as follows: 
agriculture, one-fifth ; manufacturing and min- 
ing, one-third; trade and transportation, one- 
eighth', other laborers, one-sixth; and profes- 
sionals, one-seventh. 

The resources of Pennsylvania in extent, in 
value, in utility^, in variety, are almost incred- 
ible. The variety of the industries is probably 
without parallel in this country. What have 
these facts to do with education ? 

1 . They show what education has done, Italy 
harvests as she did two thousand years ago. 
China, South America, and even our own south- 
em States, have vast undeveloped stores of 
underground wealth, awaiting the spread of in- 
telligence. To farm well on a small scale, to 
locate mineral deposits, to drill wells, to sink 
slopes and shafts, to devise and manage ma- 
chinery, require wide-spread intelligence. 

2. These resources and industries tend to con' 
dition the education of the State, It tends to 
be pre-eminently practical. The lower educa- 
tion will aim at the development of intelligence, 
but the higher is beset by the temptation to sac- 
rifice liberal culture to special training. 

3. A view of the resources and industries, and 
a comparison of these with the sum annually 
expended upon our public schools, suggests that 
a very large increase of this sum not only is 
possible, but also would prove from a business 
point of view a hij^hly profitable investment, 

A view of this kind also suggests to the enter- 
prising young man who has been reflecting 
upon Horace Greeley's advice, that where re- 
sources are so great and widely distributed, and 
industries are so wonderfully diversified, more 
inviting opportunities will present themselves 
than even in the great West. 

COMMITTEES. 

The chair appointed the following com- 
mittees : 

On Auditing Treasurer's Accounts — Geo- 



io8 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Smt.^ 



M. Philips, Elizabeth Lloyd and Vfin. 
Noetling. 

On Resolutions — G. H. Hugus, Miss Car- 
rie E. Altenderfer, Miss A. L. Crowe, Boyd 
Trescott, W. B. Gillet. 

Adjourned to 2 p. m. 



WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON. 



ON calling to order, announcements were 
made relative to proposed excursions, 
after which Prof. D. T. Rkiley, principal of 
Collegiate Institute, I^wistown, Pa., read the 
following paper in answer to the question, 

WHAT SHALL WE DRINK ? 

One commandment of our Saviour we are dis- 
regarding more and more — ^to take no thought 
for Uie morrow, what we shall eat or what we 
shall drink — is almost lost to sight while 
science and philanthropy are largely supple- 
menting Providence; and so far have these 
influential factors reached in their moral power 
alone that to fix the sobriquet of slavery is suf- 
ficient to destroy almost anything except sin. 
Malthus and his disciples, who found benefits 
to the human race in war, famine, pestilence 
and every destructive horror, slunk away from the 
fire opened upon them by the instinct of self- 
preservation, and were non-suited by the judg- 
ment of men whose fear demanded a cover from 
those arrows that fly in clouds and hit at a ven- 
ture. 

Within our times another brood of Malthu- 
sians has been hatched under the wings of 
science itself, and development with the survi- 
val of the fittest opens the way on which the inex- 
orable law of nature moves as it crushes out the 
weak and helpless and crowns those who have 
run its gauntlet; but again, love of man and 
love of seLT compel science to help in preserv- 
ing and perpetuating the physically, mentallv 
and morally weak. And so well have they al- 
ready succeeded, and so rapidly is the average 
of human life rising, that the tables of life rates 
have been broken m fifty years, and life insur- 
ance companies have been compelled to reduce 
their assessments ; and a most eminent EngHsh 
physiologrist asserts that with the knowledge now 
m view the average of human life might be 
raised above sixty instead of dallying among 
the thirties. What a prospect is there for our 
posterity ! When alcohol, tobacco, tea, coffee, 
opium, chloral and all other poisons shall be 
utterly wiped out with the besom of law, when 
cures shall be found for every disease, and 
health boards and common sense shall prevent 
disease and destroy its seeds, when sugar and 
saleratus shall ruin teeth and stomach no longer, 
when the eater of pie shall be imprisoned or 
hung, then may man hope to see again the atas 
remota of Horace and the millennium of the 
patriarchs. 

But looking through the vista of te 1 genera- 
tions, even at the present rate of increase, our 
country alone would contain forty times the I 



present population of the whole world; eadk 
person would have as his share, after dividing 
up land and water, the mountains, the deseits, 
and Alaska, a city lot 2 j feet by 100. Oh, hor 
old Maldius would laugh could he see that time! 
Man proposes, but God disposes. 

Of the intoxicating question of the day there is 
no need to speak. It is a settled question, a 
lost cause. The people are determined, if diey 
cannot slay, to bind this Minotaur with the 
strongest fetters the law can foige. One thin? it 
it is to be hoped will be attained, to wipe out what 
for a quarter of a century has been a reproach to 
our nation. To-day we are twitted with this, that 
had it not been for rum we could not have 
crushed the rebellion, kept up our credit and car- 
ried our debts ; and there is too much truth in the 
fling. The government increased the price of the 
material five-fold, and divided the profits with 
the saloon keepers. We plume ourselves on 
paying our debt and upon the reduction of taxes, 
out we have turned the bread and clothes of 
the poor into ill-gotten gain. Either annihilate 
the traffic or give them rum as cheap as possi- 
ble, and above aU let the government keep out 
of the business and drive the clearing house of 
the liquor sellers out of the National Capitol. 
Raw whiskey costs about 13 cents a gallon, the 
government duty is 90 cents. So the govern- 
ment, that is you and I, make 400 per cent, out 
of this article at its first production. 

Let us now turn to the more agreeable 
subject of tea and coffee. The method of 
obtaining a decoction of these two poisons 
is familiar to every one, and their universal 
use for so many generations has pointed the. 
law of heredity in the remarkable and uni-^ 
versal craving of the youngest child for them. 
The base in them is the same ; an alkaloid 
rich in nitrogen and apparendy assimilating 
rapidly with the nervous system. The same 
base is in the leaves which the South American 
Indians chew when they carry the heavy loads 
of silver ore upward and out of the deep mines 
of Peru. A great fight is being made in Eunope 
against their use, on account of the drinking 
habits of our neighbors on the other side of the 
ditch with which some of us may not be familiar. 
Not only are tea and coffee used at the three 
regular times of refreshment daily — our break- 
fast almost universally abroad being a cup of 
coflee — ^but at every social call you are offered 
a cup of either, and the amount thus consumed 
by the fair sex is almost incredible. Towajd the 
west and north tea is the favorite, but toward 
the east and south coffee is preferred, especially 
by the men ; and the caf6s, French named, have 
their constant quota drinking black coffee and 
smoking cigarettes, and whenever the weather 
permits crowding the sidewalks and invading 
the streets. 

The preparation of the Turkish coffee, whid 
I first saw among the Greeks who had lwne» 
its use from their conquerors, was a curiosity. 
It was handed to me in a small cup and sauc^ 
without a spoon. I drank a little of it and 
found it becoming thicker until it became of the 
consistency of paste and refused to pour. I 
found that it was the custom to drink it all ; that 



I887.J 



STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION, 



109 



the pasty mass was the grain ground to flour, and 
that you were expected to keep the contents of 
your cup sufficiently liquid to drink by a dex- 
terous twirling of your cup— a sleight of hand in 
which I never became proficient, and gener- 
ally left some of the mass in the bottom of my 
cup. There is no such thing as coffee grounds 
in Greece or Turkey. The coffee mill is most 
neaily like a brass syringe 12 or 15 inches lone 
aj\d2or 3 in diameter, with a crank in the end 
to tun the machinery which grinds this " new- 
process" coffee-flour. This drinking habit is 
DOtsobad in this country, but it is growing, and 
its worst forms have their votaries. My atten- 
tioD was called many years ago to the state- 
ment of a German scientist, most emphatically 
asseitiDg the evils of their use to the race, 
especially through women, saying among other 
things that |it was worse than whiskey; but 
ereiything is worse than whiskey — even ice- 
water. But the war upon them is fast be- 
coming more bitter and universal, and M^m 
has become an accepted term in the same Sense 
as alcoholism. 

A writer lately in the London Lancet^ a jour- 
nal which stands at the head of its class, de- 
scribes all the nervous troubles resultant from 
the use of tea and coffee, and opens a Pandora 
box of evils without leaving hope. In a recent 
ntnnber of the same joumsd were published the 
results of investigations as to which retarded the 
digestion roost, tea or coffee; and the answer 
vas, tea. So after dinner better coffee than tea, 
ud better still, nothing than coffee. Hot 
vater in them causes the aid in digestion which 
b claimed for their use, and this is also con- 
demned as a stimulant by physicians, as are 
alcohol and spices. 

These poisons are the more dangerous and 
injurious oecause they are so univereal, especi- 
ally among women ; and so insidious, striking 
at the nervous system of man, but so gradually 
and so occultlv that they are like the teredo, 
which will riddle the hulk of a ship seeming fair 
to die eye, even until there is not a sound plank 
in the frame. We were brought up in the idea 
^ they were good for grown people, but not 
for child^n ; that what was sauce for Uie goose 
and gander was not for the gosling ; but saence 
teQs us that we are all being involved in one 
*ay or another in these inroads upon the vigor 
of mankind. Women, beware ! You are tak- 
ing nun away from men, and it senres them 
^ as they abused their liberty; but they have 
WTcvenge by taking tea and coffee away from 
'lL N^vcr mind — you will have fresher and 
^<ancr complexions, and the children will not 
^ sent to oed so often without their suppers. 
Tothii^ that the cup that " cheers but not ine- 
^''i^" should come to this ! Austria is be- 
^^ by coffee, and coffee has helped the fall 
« the abolitionist Turk. 

. Tremendous is the increase of the consump- 
*w> of tea and coffee among us. We grudge 
^ tea to the teetotalers, for they won the right 
to one vice; but we think of the increasing myr- 
^ of hafd- working women, who perdiurnally 
**cp the tea-stew hot to drive the nerves to work, 
or to supply the want of proper food — and such 



in the past has been the source of the best sinew 
and nerve of the country. What will be the 
American of the future ? If alcohol is destroy- 
ing his will power, and theine is to destroy his 
nerve, what will he be ? 

Milk and water are the only two drinks which 
nature has provided. Milk is both food and 
drink, giving the formula of nature for the sup- 
port of young life, providing with unerring om- 
niscence for every demand of growth. It is not 
a poison. The fact that nature provides it, 
though not exactly without money and without 
price, yet provides it, is a better guarantee than 
all the certificates of analytical chemists and 
physiologists the world around. No better illus- 
tration of the mighty power of this compound 
of Nature's laboratory is there than when it is 
poured down the mouth of a flabby, c^elatinous 
calf as it staggers to the fountain of life. Think 
in two months how many pounds of bone, sinew, 
muscle and nervous fibre have been stored and 
assimilated ! It is almost like running molten 
metal into a mould. There may be a little 
shortage of phosphorus, but the calf does not 
need much Drains — the lack of brains makes 
a great many — ^the present advanced stage of 
the artificial and scientific nutrition and devel- 
opment of brains by the phosphatic treatment 
will remedy this defect, and science may ad- 
vance so far as to form brains to order, and tell 
us how many grains of phosphorus there are in 
the plays of Shakespeare. But there is nothing 
perfect in nature but its laws. 

And 1st. Physiologists doubt its perfect adapt- 
ability to adults. Nature did not intend it for 
this use. Indications of this are seen in a quite 
common distaste for it, and in the many ways it 
disagrees with different persons. Therefore ex- 
perience and inference will teach us to use it as 
a supplementary food. 

2d. There are positive dangers connected 
with its consumption. The cow is liable to dis- 
ease, acute ana chronic, detected and unde- 
tected. Here we are at the mercy of the milk- 
man. 

3d. As nature evidently intended that it 
should never be exposed to the air, so it is nat* 
urally the most delicate of liquids. One instance 
of this is in its character of rapidly absorbing 
germs from the atmosphere — ^many epidemics 
of scarlet 'fever having been caused by the milk 
coming from the house where the disease existed, 
though the persons infected had never entered 
the milk-room. Typhoid fever and cholera 
have been charged to it as absorbing poison left 
in the cans after rinsing with infected water, 
but this charge was open to suspicion of an 
early morning visit to an infected city pump. 

Water is the natural drink. Beasts seek it by 
instinct. Man receives it without teaching. It 
is the supplement of thirst. Nature's big reser- 
voir is the ocean whence it is piped into the air 
by heat, and as it falls from Nature's condenser, 
carrying with it carbonic acid, pure air, and am- 
monia, it is a perfect drink. While no food, it 
is our great necessity, and Nature's great alem- 
bic. It is above us, beneath us, and nine- 
tenths of ourselves. It is solidified in ice, crys- 
tallized in fruit, and giving its hancb to acid and 



no 



PENNSYL VANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[S; 



base, brings them together and twists out of them 
the most beautiful of Nature's ornaments. It is 
before food, with it, and after it. What would 
we do without water ? I do not know. Ask the 
Esquimaux. * 

I have said that water as it falls from heaven 
is a perfect drink ; and it is also the great solvent. 
In greater or less degree evei^thing pays it 
tribute. Gold only yields to the strongest acid, 
and then under great heat ; but the ocean is said 
to have more gold in solution than has ever 
been dug out of the earth by man. So water 
as it filters through the ground and oozes through 
the rocks takes with it as it passes a little of 
everything it finds. It fairly samples every 
chemical compound in its course. Springs 
have been found in all times which have been 
Nature's drug stores, and pharmaceutical sci- 
ence cannot but imitate them to-day. 

But medicine will not do for a steady drink, 
and here we are brought to face the hard ques- 
tion of hard water. In the parts of the country 
where the soil is sandy, from the cretaceous to 
the newest formations, the water is more or less 
soft. Hard water comes out of the rocks about 
us. as here, and Dame Nature as she dishes out 
the water serves us with a slice of the rock. It 
is the terror of the washerwoman, who fights the 
enemy with bi-carbonate of soda and boracic 
acid ; but we take it straight, and it hurts us more 
than it does our clothes. For children when 
giving up milk and turning their glue to bones 
It may be the better ; but for adults who have all 
the bone they want and have not, from age, the 
vigor to throw off foreign and unnecessary sub- 
stances, it hastens the brittleness of old bones, 
supplies the food and excitement of rheumatism; 
it fits us for and accelerates heart disease and 
Bright' s disease, wi^ their impish train, and 
makes us dream we are limestone caverns in 
which stalactites, like drooping vines, and 
stalagmites, like growing trees, are reaching 
toward each other. 

Hard water is an imperfection of nature, but 
contaminated water hard or soft is man's work 
and a far worse work ; for man can always beat 
nature and give her odds. It gives us typhoid 
fever and its relatives, dysentery with its con- 
nections ; it is a vehicle for cholera (Corea) and 
is held responsible for more perhaps than its 
share of acute diseases. It is made a suspected 
party in every case of trouble that may be 
traced to a germ. 

First, let us understand what we mean by 
contaminated water in what we are about to 
say. Water that is unclean to the eye or nose 
or tongue need deceive no one ; but water may 
be as clear as crystal, smell of nothing, and 
have the taste of the old oaken bucket, and yet 
be full of the most deadly poison. Again, be- 
cause one person or a hundred may have drunk 
from a well with no bad effect, is no more evi- 
dence that there is no poison in it than it would 
be to sav that because everyone who is exposed 
to smallpox or scarlet fever does not sicken 
with the disease, therefore there is no such 
thing as smallpox or scarlet fever. All this 
depends on the virulence or abundance of the 
poison and the power of resistance in the sub- 



ject. The germs of disease have so far never 
been detected with the strongest miscroscope, 
although the typhoid fever germs have been 
propagated from a subject. But there are two 
danger signals in water which can be uner- 
ringly detected by analysis. The one is free 
ammonia, which points to the pollution of the 
water from animal decay of some sort and is 
relied upon as a basis of the possibility 4 : 
typhoid germs. | 

To make the proposition plainer, typhdd ' 
fever is not caught by the lungs, but by the 
stomach. You can nurse a typhoid patient 
without danger, but you must be careful what 
you drink and what you eat on the premises. 
You understand what I mean, then, when I say 
that typhoid germs cannot be expected in 
water where there is no trace of animal decay ; 
or excretion. Whether the germs are in thcj 
ammonia atoms or not science saith not as yet 
So far authorities agree, if they ever do agree \ 
about anything, that typhoid fever is called a 
couAtry disease, a well disease. By the records, i 
cities which have water from approved sources I 
are almost entirely free from the plague, while ' 
those who depend upon wells help the country | 
people in swelling the numbers of the victims | 
of this fell disease. Dr. Burrill in The Micr^ ■ 
scope, Nov. 1886, endorses the statement that 
there are in the United States 25,000 deaths | 
from typhoid fever and 1,500,000 cases yearly. | 
Leaving out the value of the lives, the money 
cost must be somewhere in the neighborhood 
of $200,000,000, perhaps very much more. Yet 
it is almost wholly preventable. Surely it may I 
be put in the same category with rum, ice-wat^ 
tea and coffee. 1 

The other substance which may be detectedl 
in water is albuminoid ammonia, which results 
from the decomposition of vegetable matter/ 
and is productive of dysenterie diseases. Water \ 
which is full of dead grass or brush or leaves ■ 
should be avoided. 

This matter of the quality of drinking water 
I would press especially upon teachers. They 
should inform themselves upon the subject out 
of which I have struck but a few points. They 
should inform themselves upon the principles 
involved, in a manner that^snould enable them 
to use the principles practically. First comes 
the question of the drinking water for the school 
children, and secondly, the instruction of those 
within their reach as to the dangers to be 
avoided and the safeguards to be used. The 
methods of contamination are so varied that 
common sense with some scientific knowledge 
and study of cases is all that any but experts 
can expect. The dip and strike of rock strata 
any one can notice and calculate. I have seen 
a well on a farm polluted from a barnyard in a 
few hours after a rain although the bam was 159 
yards away and down hill. I traced once, vd 
as an amateur, but as the President of a bealdi 
board, an epidemic of twenty cases of typhmd 
to a well, and thence by going at right angles 
to the dip, found its cause. In limestone re^pons 
wells are always uncertain in their connections. 
In loose soils no certain time or distance can 
\ be given. Better avoid the appearance of evil. 



1887.] 



STATE TEACHERS? ASSOCIATION. 



Ill 



Filters should imperatively be used for all 
water. They will not take out typhoid and 
amilar germs but they will all other deleterious 
Batters. To buy them they are very dear, to 
nake them they are very cheap, and perhaps 
better. A common twenty-cent pail with holes 
iD the bottom then filled as deep or high as you 
wish with very fine gravel or $and and charcoal 
(animal preferred), a cover with holes let down 
two inches from the top, makes as good a filter 
as you can buy. Hang this on your pump and 
catch the water as it runs through.^ If boiled 
DO iailer is needed. 

What shall we drink? We say again, rain 
water properly stored in cisterns. Every cistern 
I dbooU have a filter of brick within it, in which 
I Ibe pomp shall stand. In addition it should be 
deansed at least twice a year, as bacteria rap- 
generate in still water. This is one way 
pursue that we may not be anxious about the 
iw. We may then have no apprehension 
fear about what we shall drink, but depend 
n the bounty of nature and a clean roof 
the ambrosia of this life. But if you will to 
k milk, then keep your own cow and be 
that she is in perfect health. Otherwise, 
Prof. Huxley, boil it always, and do with- 
yoor cream. 

Frof. Thos. H. Dinsmore, of the State 
»niial School at Emporia, Kansas, ad- 
tbe Association on 

PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PHYSIOLOGY. 

A teacher myself, I have always esteemed it 

and honor to address other teachers, 

I r^^d it as a specially high honor to be 

to address this Association. Although 

worker in a distant field, I am fortunate m 

the bearer of greetings from hosts of Penn- 

teachers who are ^ving to all grades 

institutions of learning m Kansas and the 

West, the benefit of the training received 

They remember their old home with 

afiection, and would be glad if they could 

with US here to-day. 

We are now to consider one of the most im- 

t of all subjects that could be brought be- 

a body of teachers— one of the most vital 

in our teaching. My own work includes 

ics. Chemistry and Physiology, and the ad- 

in this age is so wonderful that one 

hardly do more than mark the forward steps. 

to the common school teacher. Physiology 

hold the first place, firom its practical be^- 

ipon every hour of every day s work. The 

qC the body, the implanting of ideas that 

^udl easure intelligent care and protection of 

tbepfapacal health — these cannot, dare not be 

oveno|tel, else our work in mental develop- 

JDCSt is worse than wasted. Too many of us 

teachers have been neglectful in this matter for 

yean, and it is a hopeful sign that whole com- 

siimi^, great commonweahhs, are waking up 

to its importance, and requiring its introduction 

into then* schools of every grade, and givin^^ it 

a practical bearine upon the life of the pupil — 

iBaining him to cultivate good habits of life, and 

to shan those which are hurtful, and giving him 




a reason for both. Your own great State is one 
of those that have taken a stand upon the en- 
lightened side of this question ; you have been 
enjoined to make this subject a study, and to 
give instruction therein to every child. It may 
be useful, therefore, to compare views, that each 
of us may learn of the other. 

We teachers must begin by acquiring a thor- 
ough understanding of the subject, which can 
result only from careful study, close examina- 
tion, practical experiment and illustration. The 
charts and the manikin are useful helps, but 
you must be able to work without them, or you 
cannot work to advantage with them. To get 
real, accurate knowledge of the body, I recom- 
mend actual dissection. Do not be surprised ; 
our teachers are doing it, and profiting by it. 
Why not? If you wanted to study a watch, 
would you not have to take it apart? As we 
cannot always have a human heart or other de- 
sired organ, we must fall back upon the dog or 
some other animal. Is it any more indelicate 
for a young lady to use the heart of an animal 
for examination and demonstration, than to cook 
it for the table ? It is the true road to knowl- 
edge, and those who try it, find it fascinating 
work, and when they come to teach it, have en- 
thusiastic classes. And this knowledge is to the 
last degree practical. Any medical man will 
tell you, for instance, that the kidneys of ani- 
mals are as likely to be diseased as in man ; yet 
ignorance of this fact results in their very gene- 
xal use as food. If you have ever dissected 
them, you do not care to eat them afterwards. 
To be sure, a general adoption of this view 
would decrease the number of dogs; but in 
some communities this would not be regarded 
as an unmixed evil — perhaps even as a praise- 
worthy effort. The kind of work done oy this 
actual contact with things is very different firom 
the best results obtained from charts. 

Then we have the grandest opportunity for 
practical work in the direction of careful instruc- 
tion in Hygiene. I fear we are making thou- 
sands of nervous children in many of our schools, 
where they are shut up from 9 to 4 o'clock, in 
close rooms, without proper exercise. Every 
farmer knows that to treat a good colt in that 
way would ruiii him, yet he wonders that the 
children do not reach die stature and strength 
of their parents. Half a day in school — 9 o'clock 
to 12 — is long enough for any child under 10 
years of age. " But it will keep them back ! *' 
Well, let it keep them back ; so much the better 
for them and you. See what boys and eirls we 
" graduate,*' as we call it ! Why, our girls finish 
their education, and assume the responsibility 
of wifehood and motherhood before they have 
even attained their fuU growth! Would they 
not better be kept back? By every delay we 
can secure, we shall strengthen the minds and 
bodies of the coming generations. Again, the 
ventilation of our school houses is a very gene- 
ral failure. All of us know at least the crude 
methods of securing pure air — most of us know 
good and safe methods ; yet how many school* 
rooms are sealed during school hours from Sei>- 
tember to April ! We know our duty, but do it 
not. 



112 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sin; 



But your law requires the teaching of physi- 
ology and hygiene "with special reference to the 
effect of stimulants and narcotics." In Kansas 
we try to do it, and no doubt you do here ; but 
many of us are at a loss for effective methods, 
however willing we may be to do our duty. We 
will give a short time to illustrating the nature 
and presence of alcohol. To the eye it resem- 
bles water ; but it is readily known by its smell 
and by the readiness with which it burns and 
gives its characteristic flame. Show that it is a 
product of fermentation, givine example of the 
common veast ferment. So tar no apparatus 
is required ; but to show the presence oi alcohol 
in the intoxicating beverages requires distilla- 
tion ; and many think diat requires an expen- 
sive and complex apparatus. No such thmg ; 
a few cents* worth of^ glass tubing, a mucilage 
bottle, an old cartridge- shell, a wide-mouthed 
jar, a goblet to receive the product, are all that 
is needed. Fix the end of tne cartridge-shell on 
the top of the mucilage bottle, insert a wick, and 
you have your lamp— over it a piece of wire 
nettine supports the bottle containing your spec- 
imen beverage ; immerse in it one end of a tube 
passing out through the cork, and bent into a 
long loop to pass down into the jar (which is 
filial with cold water for a condenser), and out 
to the goblet. The lamp is lighted, the bever- 
age heated to the point of giving off the alco- 
hol, which is condensed in the tube, and drops 
from the free end into the goblet, where its na- 
ture is tested by smell and ignition. There is 
not 25 cents' worth of apparatus, all told; and 
there is no teacher who cannot work this simple 
experiment [Experiment shown.] Havmg 
thus shown the presence of alcohol m the com- 
mon beverages, go on to demonstrate its effect 
upon the vital organs ; you can show that it co- 
s^ulates albumen, and therefore retards diges- 
tion ; and unfortunately, in too many communi- 
ties its action upon the brain is only too fully 
demonstrated daily in the streets — ^we do not 
have so much of that now in Kansas. There is 
a still simpler experiment to prove the presence 
of alcohol in wine or whiskey, by taking a two- 
ounce bottle and holding it over the flame of a 
lamp, keeping it in motion to prevent the bottle 
** breaking untd it boils, when the alcohol rising 
may be caught in a sponge stopper and ignited; 
this experiment costs noming. 

Show the children water and alcohol side by 
side, and contrast their effects ; the one is God's 
water of life, that builds up the body, keeps it 
fresh and pure, cleanses it without and within ; 
the other is the water of death, the " fire-water " 
that burns up the body, the home, the farm — 
that causes a man to kill his best friend, and 
crush out the life he has sworn to cherish and 
defend. God only knows how much money, 
and blood, and tears this water of death had 
cost Kansas until the people rid themselves of 
it. I went there a high-license man ; I have 
become a Prohibitionist who insists on putting 
alcohol out of the way. The saloons are gone 
— the streets are 'quiet, and a lady or a child may 
go everywhere without a fear — life and property 
are safe, and wealth and population are increas- 
ing. The few who could not stand civilization 



have left us, but last year 250,000 people 
in to build the happiest homes on earth, 
rear their children out of sight of the saloon 
a noble manhood and womanhood. Come \ 
see us, friends, and you will come home 
solved to work for the same results in youri 
State. 

The discussion of the address was opei 
by Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, National Supei 
tenden of Scientific Temperance Instnictk 
of Hyde Park, Massachusetts, as follows: 

"Let us make man in our image after < 
likeness; and let them have dominion." He 
at the very outset of Revelation, we have 
Maker's plan for the individual. Of such is^ 
viduals was the race to be constituted, and 
dwell in God's own ideal state of liberty. Hj 
that plan has been marred, you know, 
tory, sacred and profane, tells us how 
lapsed into barbansm, and the power that 
longed to the individual passed into the hr 
of kin^s, who themselves were ruled by dc 
Here m our country we are striving to I 
man back toward God's ideal ; and loth cent 
thought trends in the direction of tne 
the individual. The very foundation of 
State rests upon the capacity of the indivi(i 
for measuring up to God s ideal ; and itdepf 
upon the success of our effort to restore 
ideal, whether the great Republic shall 
the test of time. It has been said that "< 
takes care of children, fools, and the Ui 
States; " but unless we can train the indivi<i 
citizen for true sovereignty, Heaven will 
suffer us to long remain. 

What are we doing, friends and teac 
to discharge this great responsibility ? We 1 
the church, the home the school— yet the 
of strone drink in a single year is seven 
dred millions of dollars, and God only knc 
what that means in physical, mental and 
degeneracy. From the watchmen on the 
comes the warning cry — " Close the salo( 
die ! " but the politician counts noses, and th^ 
ing those that are with the saloons are more u 
those that are with us, is either silent or acti^ 
against us. So the degradation of the indii 
ual goes on — and how long will the 
we call the State survive the disintegratioaj 
its units ? In the last analysis, the oppositior 
temperance agitation is founded in a < 
selfishness, based upon the money that is 
out of the drink. In some places the majt 
want drink, and oi course vote for it ; in otti 
many are undecided and stand neutral, whc 
impulses are good, but who have not been edfr 
cated on the question ; in a few, thank God, tne 
majority are against the saloon, and have dosw 
its doors, we trust forever. How shall we tf^ 
these undecided neutrals, and make theo' 
power for good ? , 

Teachers of Pennsylvania, in yourhandsjjo 
those of your colleagues throughout the ^^ 
the future destiny of this great Republic. 1^ 
time has come when this drink question »»"* 
be met by instruction in the public *»J^^ 
Afler generations of moral suasion ^H^. ^ 
enactment, it is yet unsolved, and drink stw 



hi 



mc 



saloon I 



«W7] 



STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION, 



"3 



loDs its waves of ruin over the land. In spite of 
He testimony of science that alcohol is a poison, 
^Kre are thousands, yes millions, who think 
I little of it is a good thing — not knowing orbe- 
Eering that little will create an appetite for more, 
nd unll end by making them slaves ; so they 
p) on drinking and voting to fasten the ctu^e 
gpon their neighbors as well as themselves. 
Our hope for the future is in teaching our chil- 
dren the nature of the drink — ^that it is a poison, 
and one whose tendency is to create an appetite 
for itsel£ We have not been idle in the matter ; 
infire^ears the Woman s Christian Temperance 
UoioQ has agitated this question, with the result 
dot laws have been passed in thirty-two States 
isd Territories providing for instruction in the 
fdKwls upon this subject — and your state 
il one of them. Your law requires that in 

Sery school shall be taught the elements of 
lysiology and Hy eiene, * * with special refer- 
'}fKce to the effects of stimulants and narcotics." 
ttid there be any difficulty in understanding 
langu^e ? You are to ^ve scientific tem- 
ce instnictibn — to drill mto the mind and 
and conscience of the child that these 
ulants are poisons, that it is their nature 
t a Uttle creates the appetite for more, and 
fore safety requires abstinence. It was a 
Japanese mind that stated it thus : " First 
man takes a drink ; then the drink takes a 
k; then the diink takes the man." TAat 
what we want taught to the children in the 
Is. under the provision that scientific tem- 
nee instruction shall be g^ven to every child 
every school, which is the only fair construc- 
of your Pennsylvania law. Teachers, what 
you doing about it ? I know you are using 
sorts of books, and teaching something from 
; but are you doing it " with special refer- 
' to the nature and effects of alcohol? 
if not, why not? Remember, it is to 
scientific instruction — not good)r-goody talk 
* anecdotes. We are not to fulminate against 
>hol and never mention the drinks that con- 
it; we must tell the children this poison is 
ned in whiskey, and wine, and beer, 
cider. In our battle with the brewies 
the Northwest,, they were quite willing we 
preach against drunkenness, but we 
Bst not make people afraid of the drink. They 
^ted us to teach that alcohol was produced 
b making bread as well as beer ; but thev did 
MHkeus to call attention to the fact that it 
I ¥^ off from die bread, and stays in the beer, 
i we can not hope to correct the drinking habit 
*^ hy furnishing an intelligent reason for 
**™ence. The experiments given here this af- 
tonooB are capital evidence. Show to a hundred 
j7^ that poison can be distilled from common 
dnnks,diow them the effects of that poison, and 
jwcty-nine of them will be converted — the hun- 
dredth would go wrong anyway, from natural 
tendency in the wrong direction. The profes- 
sor has given you an excellent practical demon- 
nation to take home to your schools. 
A word on the question of text-books. I mean 
•o disrespect to^oral instruction, nor do I under- 
jJlJue the moral lessons which every faithful 
•*^er will impress in coiuiection with this sub- 



ject as occasions offer ; but I think you will agree 
with me that but few teachers are so well pre- 
pared as to teach the subject without text-books. 
The books in the hands of pupils will secure reg- 
ular, systematic attention to tne study ; besides 
the great service rendered by the books taken 
home by the pupils, as missionaries in many 
a family. Then, although the law provides that 
physiology be taught as " a regular branch," it 
IS surprising how mgenious some people are in 
getting round it ; but the use of the book prevents 
this. The law of Congress definitely requires 
it to be taught "with text-books in the hands of 
pupils;" the miserable book-agents and con- 
temptible liquor-sellers did not succeed in hood- 
winking those level-headed men when once 
they had decided to help us. In Vermont, text- 
books are required wherever children cax) read, 
and oral instruction where they cannot ; this is 
important, since half the children never get fur- 
ther than the primary grade, and we must save 
them there if ever. Unless we soon close up 
the saloons, we shall never round out a second 
century as a self-governing people ; and if we 
are to close them soon, we must reach the chil- 
dren now. It has been charged that we who 
are pressing this question have a money interest 
in particular books : God knows that we have 
not a penny's worth — it is only a rehash of the 
slanders of the saloon people. If the books you 
have are unsatisfactory, flood the publishers 
with letters of criticism, and help us force them 
to revise their work, and gives us what we need. 
With them it is merely a question of saving ex- 
pense ; with us it is life or death. I know you 
are crowded with work, but we cannot afford 
to shut this out. Civilization must destroy the 
saloon, or the saloon will destroy civilization. So 
long as any believes a little alcohol is good, 
they will drink it, it will create the appetite, and 
the appetite will vote to keep open the saloon. 
Consumers of drink die early — tneir ranks must 
be recruited ; their money-earning capacity is 
earlier lost — ^more recruits are neeaed; the 
saloon is reaching out for your pupils. Can you 
afford to shut out this most important instruction ? 
As you love the flag that cost us so much — as 
you love that which it represents, the right of 
man to self-government, I implore you to make 
room for this work in every school. 

Perhaps few of us realize how large a factor 
in the salvation of the world are the teachers 
of America to-day. The good work is reaching 
out into Japan, Hawaii, and is already estab- 
lished in Great Britain, and'preparing to invade 
the Continent; but if we fail here, what will 
follow ? Once more I ask you, teachers. What 
are you doing, what will you do, to carry out 
God's plan for the salvation of the race ? If 
you do your duty, you will have the lasting 
gratitude of the motherhood of America and of 
the world, and above all, the blessing of that 
God whose service this is. If you have not 
heretofore done all you could, will you not re- 
solve to begin to-day ? 

" But suppose we fail ? " Well, if after all of 
us have done all we can, the majority should 
still go wrong, then we should have to conclude 
that man is not capable of that for which God's 



114 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept. 



word says He designed him. You and I can- 
not believe that ; so we have faith that it will 
not go wrong — ^that if we " train up the child in 
the way he should go, when he is old he will 
not depart from it.** Let us, then, all work to- 
gether, to save the children of to-day and the 
nation of to-morrow. 

Miss DoTTS read a selection, after which 
a short recess was taken, and upon calling 
to order, a motion was carried to take up 
the report of the Committee on Constitution 
and By-Laws, which was done, and the 
several articles and sections passed upon 
seriatim, resulting in the final adoption of 
the following 

CONSTITUTION AND BY LAWS. 

Preamble. — To elevate the profession of 
teaching and to promote the cause of educa- 
cation in Pennsylvania, we have organized an 
Association and hereby adopt the following 
Constitution and By-Laws. 

Constitution. 

Article I, — Name, 
This organization shall be known as the 
" Pennsylvania State Teachers* Association.** 

Article IL — Membership. 

Teachers, School Officers, and other friends 
of education, may become members of this 
Association on payment of one dollar, and may 
continue their membership by paying an annuad 
fee of one dollar ; and on the payment of ten 
dollars at one time they shall become Life 
members. 

Article IIL — Meetings, 

One stated meeting shall be held annually, 
beginning on such day as the Association or its 
Executive Committee may determine. Special 
meetings may be held at the option of the 
Association, or upon the call of the Executive 
Committee. 

Article IV,— Officers, 

Sec, I. The officers of this Association shall 
be a President, two Vice-Presidents (one lady 
and one gentleman), a Secretary, a Treasurer, 
and a Ticket Agent. 

Sec, 2'. The President and Vice-Presidents 
shall perform the duties usually devolving upon 
such officers. The President shall be ex-ofncio 
a member of the Executive Committee. He 
shall sign all orders on the Treasurer. 

Sec, 3. The Secretary shall keep minutes of 
all meetings of the Association, and read 
them when called for by the Association. He 
shall countersign all orders on the Treasurer. 
He shall have authority to employ a reporter 
to prepare the proceedings for publication in 
the Pennsylvania School journal. 

Sec, 4. The Treasurer shall receive and keep 
all funds belonging to the Association ; pay out 
the same only on orders signed by the President 
and Secretary, and endorsed by the Chairman 
of the Executive Committee, and report the 
condition of .the finances at each annual meet- 
ing of the Association. 

Sec, 5. The Ticket Agent shall secure railroad 
facilities for the Association, furnish information 



coi 



of the same to persons wishing to attend thf 
meetings, and issue certificates of membershi| 
upon application, accompanied by the memi 
ship fee. 

Article V, — Standing Committees, 

Sec, I. The Standing Committees of this 
sociation shall be an Executive Committee 
sisting of five members, exclusive of the Prt 
dent, and an Enrolling Committee consisting 1 
five members. 

Sec, 2. The Executive Committee shall 
age the general business of the Association, 
have sole charge of the same between sessaoi 
call regular and speciad meetings of the 
ciation, prepare programme of proceedings 
die annual meeting, and have the same pzut 
keep a record of all action of the commit 
and report the same at the annual session. 
shall meet for organization as soon after el< 
as practicable, and shall elect its own offi< 
The chairman shall endorse all orders on 
Treasurer, but no order shall be approved 
any bill which is not presented witnm 30 daj 
after the close of the session. 

Sec, 3. The Enrolling Committee shall 
the annual dues, and pay them to the Ti 
and shall prepare lists of the members of 
year, classifiea by counties, with their postoffi< 
addresses, and give the same to the Txi' 
Agent and Secretary for the use of the 
tion, and for publication in The School 

Article VI — Elections. 
The officers and Standing Committees of 
Association shall be elected by ballot at 
annual meeting, and shall enter upon tfa< 
duties at the close of the meeting at which 
are elected. The nominations shall be made 
least one session before the time for electioQl 
all the names of persons nominated for the 
spective offices shall be placed upon a prim 
slip under their proper headings, and memb 
voting will strike on all the names but one 
President, all but one lady and one gentlei 
for Vice Presidents, all but one for each of 
remaining offices, and all but five for eaci 
Standing Committee. Tickets containing mor^ 
than the proper number of names for any offi< 
shall not be counted for said office. The £lec« 
tion Committee shall keep the polls open on( 
entire session, and shall make a list of iw mei 
bers voting, and no vote shall be received 
less the member offering the same shall pi 
his or her card of membership. 

Article VII — Amendment, 
This Constitution and the following By-Laws 
may be altered or amended by a vote of two- 
thirds of the members present at any regular 
meeting, provided that notice of such proposed 
alteration be given in writing on the first oay of 
the meeting, and action on the same be taken 
on a subsequent day. 

By-Laws. 
I . An Auditing Committee, consisting of three 
persons, shall be appointed by the President on 
the first day of each annual meeting. It shall 
be the duty of this committee to audit the Treas- 
urer's account, and report the condition of the 
Treasury to the Association during the meeting. 



uai 



I«87.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



"5 



2. An Election Committee, consisting of five 
nembeirs, shall be appointed by the President. 
It shall be the duty of this committee to conduct 
Reelection for which it is appointed in the man- 
aer prescribed in Article VI. of this Constitution. 

3. TTie Executive Committee shall have 
power to appoint Local Committees, whose duty 
n shall be to make the necessary local arrange- 
ments for the meetings of the Association. 

4. The Secretary shall be paid ten dollars, 
and Uie Ticket Agent twenty dollars annually 
for their services. 

5. The President's inaugural address shall be 
deHrotxl on the first day of the annual meet- 



6. Any person reading a paper or delivering 
an address, which is afterward the subject of 
discussion before the Association, shall have the 
opportunity to close such discussion. 

7. All papers and addresses read before the 
Asociation shall become the property of the 
Association, and shall be published with its pro- 
iceedings; and no paper or address shall be 
^d in the absence of its author without the 
iconsent of the Executive Committee. 

; 8. No paper prepared for the day sessions of 
^ Association shall exceed thirty minutes in 
h, and no speaker except the person open- 
the discu^ion which follows the reading of 
paper, shall occupy more than five minutes, 
anless by vote of the Association. 

After the final adoption of the Constitu- 
Ibnaod By-Laws, the Association adjourned 
8 p. m. 




f 



WEDNESDAY EVENING. 



If ISS Jean Glenn sang two songs, and 
Jjl Miss Maggie Dotts recited " The Bob- 
iSiok" and "Aunt Jemima's Courtship," af- 
ter which the President introduced the lec- 
tattof the evening. Dr. A. A. Willits, of 
I'Ooisville, Ky., who delivered his lecture 
entitled 

ON THE WING. 

It b written, What shall the man say that 
pnveth before the king ? — but here am I com- 
ing after two queens, and how am I to charm 
^ car yet filled with the music of the nightin- 
Ple and the bobolink? But I must hurry 
^^'^h with my sketch of a summer flight from 
^ lork to Naples, for I see th<j young man 
**^ to escort Jemima home after the lecture, 
^oewho would rise with the sun must not 
^yaptoo late with the daughter. 

^^ teacher who can afrord it should take 
a snnuDer trip to Europe. The 3,000 miles are 
nade in eight or nine days, and midsummer is 
^* hest time to escape seasickness. You will 
^d Liverpool solid and substantial — no display 
^nothing shiny ; even the machinery lacks our 
•niamental brasses. After a day in old Chester, 
^th its Roman memories, we went to London, 
•hich is a large town, and which surprised us 
^ wide and dean streets, and firequent open 



spaces. Five millions of people are congre- 
gated here ; a dozen of our largest cities would 
not equal it. New York covers 22 square miles, 
London 120, with 8,000 miles of streets — enough 
in continuous line to reach from Clearfield to 
San Francisco and back, and then to Boston 
and New Orleans. To feed this immense num-. 
ber of people is so large an undertaking, that 
the number of animals consumed would make 
the figures practically meaningless, so we re- 
sort to another measure. It takes 180 miles of 
oxen, 250 miles of sheep, 18 miles of calves, and 
10 miles of swine, marching ten abreast, to sup- 
ply the city of London for a single year. 

We went to the Tower, saw the spot where 
the blood of England's greatest and best had 
been shed, and the very ax and block which 
had been used for some of them. I laid my 
head upon it, to see how it would feel, but whea 
a companion lifted the ax I rose — ^to the occa- 
sion. There was armor of every age — instru- 
ments of cruelty sufficient to destroy the human 
race ; but they will perform their office no more. 
In Westminster Abbey we stood in the most 
unique spot on the globe — ^the only national 
sepulchre — where England has entombed her 
kings and queens of thought and action — ^her 
statesmen, pioets and warriors. And what is all 
else compared with the lustre of those names of 
men and women who were foremost in the great- 
est achievements of their time and of all time ? 
And yet America shall bear the Saxon standard 
to grander heights and sublimer achievements. 

Fifteen days firom New York we left England 
and crossed, the Channel, and oh ! the horrors 
of that passage! We visited Antwerp, and 
among its treasures of art we found the "De- 
scent from the Cross,*' of itself worth crossing 
the ocean to look upon. Brussels came next, 
and the battle-field of Waterloo, where the very 
soil is overlaid with history. Thence to Cologne, 
with its 365 stenches, one for every day in the 
year, and its cathedral — the grandest Gothic 
edifice on the globe, the completion of which 
Satan is said to have attempted to prevent, but 
ineffectually. From Coblentz up the Rhine to 
Bingen, covering the most picturesque part of 
that most beautiful river. Never did I spend a 
more delightful day than that one. We passed 
to Switzerland, saw the bears of Berne, and 
watched the Alpine sunsets. At Freiberg, we 
heard the great organ of 7,800 pipes and 67 
stops. We crossed the Alps just before the 
Mont Cenis tunnel was opened to travel ; and 
found zigzagging along the precipices at an alti- 
tude of 1, 500. feet well calculated to make one's 
hair stand up. 

Down we went on the other side, into Italy — 
through Florence the home of Dante, Pisa with 
its leaning tower, Milan with its cathedral, 
Naples, Pompeii uncovered after its centuries of 
sleep, and back to Rome, where we saw St. 
Peter's and the Vatican, but left the pope no 
Peter's pence. We were more interested m old 
Rome, whose builders robbed the world to erect 
its splendid edifices, and boastfully called it the 
Eternal City ; yet we found the columns of the 
Forum in the dust, the great ampitheatre crumb- 
ling, the triumphal arches defaced. Returning 



Ii6 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Sept., 



to Switzerland we had a delightful sight of the 
illuminated Giesbach falls — 1142 feet high, in 
seven cascades ; and so home again. 

In all that wonderful old world, not one place 
did we see where we would be willing to stay — 
the magnet of the soul, ti\ie as the compass 
needle, pointed ever to the land of free school, 
free church, free press, free Bible, free people — 
where none need be so poor as to creep in the 
dust to find enough to keep them out of the 
grave — ^where you can check your valise across 
the continent, or from lakes to gulf, and be pes- 
tered by no uniformed official — where people of 
every clime and every color and every faith live 
under one flag that guarantees to all an equal 
opportunity — where ascent is better than de- 
scent, and a family is none the better for hav- 
ing, like the potato, its most valuable part un- 
derground. 

The lecture, of which the foregoing is of 
course a brief and unsatisfactory abstract, 
closed with a humorous description of the 
speaker's return to his home at midnight, by 
special boat propelled by himself. The lec- 
ture was well received, interrupted by fre- 
quent applause and laughter, and at its close 
the Association adjourned to 9 a. m. to- 
morrow. 



THURSDAY MORNING. 



READING of Scripture and prayer by 
Rev. A. J. Bean, of the I^utheran 
Church, opened the exercises of the day. 

REPORT OF TREASURER. 

The Treasurer, Supt. Keck, read in detail 
the receipts and expenditures of the last ses- 
sion, which had been examined by the Au- 
diting Committee, and found correct. An 
unadjusted account from previous years was 
referred to the Executive Committee of next 
year for final adjustment, and the report of 
the Treasurer was approved. 

THE TICKET AGENT. 

On motion of Prof. Darlington, the 
Ticket Agent was given an opportunity to 
explain an evident misunderstanding of some 
members who participated in the debate on 
adoption of the Constitution yesterday. 

Prof. SiCKEL said he understood that the 
Association yesterday acted under the belief 
that the Ticket Agent was still receiving the 
II50 salary provided for in the old Constitu- 
tion. This had been paid previous to the 
Erie meeting in '77, when the office and 
salary were abolished together, and the 
duties devolved upon the Executive Com- 
mittee. At Reading, the following year, 
the Committee being willing to be relieved 
of the business after a year's experience, he ' 



was asked if he would be willing to serve 
without the salary. He consented to do so, 
and the Committee agreed, of their own mo- 
tion, to pay his expenses to and from the 
Association, and of course the expense of 
printing and mailing circulars giving rail- 
road rates, programmes, etc. The sending 
out of 1500 circulars costs for postage and 
labor, but it pays in increased attendance. 
The next Ticket Agent would be just $20 
richer by the new Constitutional provision. 

Pfficial bulletin. 

Some inquiry was made as to the authority 
for publishing advertising sheets under the 
caption of '* Official Bulletin of State 
Teachers' Association," and a motion was 
made forbidding the use of such title except 
by express authority of Executive Commit- 
tee. The feeling manifested in the discus- 
sion seemed to be that only publicatioos by 
the Executive Committee should bear the 
^'official" stamp, and the motion wasamended 
so as to refer the whole subject to that Com- 
mittee with power to act according to their 
judgment. 

report on legislation. 

Supt. L. O. FoosE, of Harrisburg, made 
the following report from the Committee on 
Legislation appointed at the last session, 
which was adopted, and the thanks of the 
Association returned to the Committee f«. 
its efficient service : 

To the Officers and Members of the PeM- 
sylvania State Teachers' Association: Your 
Committee on Legislation, appointed at the 
meeting held one year ago, and at that time 
instructed to secure petitions, signed by citizens 
and friends of education, from all parts 0! the 
State, asking for the enactment of a law fixing 
the minimum annual school term at six months, 
reports as follows : 

Early in the fall of 1886, the committee pre- 
pared a form of petition and an accompanying 
circular of information. Nearly 4,000 of these 
were sent to county superintendents, teachers, 
and friends of education in the different coun- 
ties of the State, with the request that they be 
freely circulated among the people, signed by 
all friends of the measure, and then forwarded 
to the members of the Legislature. 

Large numbers of these petitions, for several 
weeks in the early part of the session, canae 
flowing back in an almost constant stream to 
the members of both houses of the Legislature. 
They have done much to stir up thought, and 
to prepare the people for work at home. ^ 
also to awaken an interest on this subje^ 
among the members at Harrisburg. They is^ 
done more to show the latent influence and re 
serve power which this class of citizens, the 
educators of the State, are able to exert, than 
any other agency heretofore employed for a like 
purpose. 



i887.] 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



117 



The work of the committee, however, did not 
cease with the return of these petitions to the 
members of the Legislature, but on the con- 
trary only commenced. Suitable bills were in- 
troduced in both houses. The enactment of a 
law, such as we petitioned for, had been at- 
tempted at several of the preceding sessions of 
the Legislature, but always failed for want of 
the proper co5peration and united support of its 
tnends. The nrst step, then, necessary to ensure 
success on this occasion was to secure the serv- 
ices of those in both houses who w;ere willing to 
cbampion the measure we advocated. 

In the Senate we readily found fast friends of 
our cause in the Chairman of the Committee on 
Education, Senator Stehman, and also in Sen- 
ators Cooper, Gobin, Harlan, Reybum, Martin, 
and others ; and in the House we had an ever- 
TJgilant and laborious advocate in the Chair- 
man of the- Committee on Education, Hon. 
Silas Stevenson. The committee would also 
make special mention of Hon. Horace B. Packer, 
of Tioga county, and Hon. John B. Robinson 
of DeUware county, whose eloquent speeches 
in favor of the bill won us victorv in the House 
in spite of very determined and continued op- 
posidon — much of it, too, from a source entirely 
unexpected by this Association. 

After leaving the House the bill was stealthily 
defeated or rather strangled, as a matter of com- 
promise in the Senate. When all attempts at 
letting it back again on the calendar failed, the 
committee threw its influence in favor of obtain- 
ing an appropriation of an additional $500,000 
for school purposes, with the hope, when this was 
secured, of again resurrecting the original 
measure, which, it was thought, would then be 
less objectionable to its opponents, because of 
^ increased revenue to districts where it was 
daimed it would be burdensome to the people. 
After resorting to about all the rules and devices 
in good usage in parliamentary bodies, the 
tends of our cause succeeded in pulling both 
measures through during the closing hours of 
the session, and in securing to the State a min- 
imum school term of six months and an addi- 
tional appropriation of $500,000 for school pur- 
poses. 

In concluding this report the committee de- 
fies to return thanks for the valuable assistance 
Tendered by the Supt. of Public Instruction, Dr. 
E. £. Higbee, and his deputies, Hon. Henry 
Hoackand Hon. John Q. Stewart. Without their 
aid, and especially without the constant watch- 
folness and untiring labors of the latter, to- 
gether with the benefit of his thorough knowledge 

^'men, measures, and parliamentary tactics, 

<'ttr efforts would undoubtedly have met with 
<Icfeat. The committee also desires to make 
in^ntion of the valuable assistance rendered by 
superintendents, teachers, and friends of edu- 
cation in all parts of the State, and to make 
public acknowledgment of the valuable work 
done by the educational periodicals and the 
daily newspapers of the Commonwealth. 

EXAMINATION IN GRADED SCHOOLS. 

The discussion of Supt. Jones' paper on 
the "Object of Examination in Graded 



Schools," was opened by Prof, A. W. Pot- 
ter, of Wilkesbarre, as follows : 

This question of the separation of the deserv- 
ing from the undeserving, the promotion of those 
able to do the work of uie next grade, and the 
detention of those who are not, is an important 
and difficult one in school management ; for it 
is here assumed that a distinction i§ made be- 
tween the two classes, and that pupils are not 
promoted en masse. 

There are three methods employed to deter- 
mine the worthiness of a pupil for promotion : 
I. To promote on the knowledge and judgment 
of the teacher in charge. 2. To promote on the 
knowledge and ability displayed by the pupil in 
a test examination. 3. To promote on the judg- 
ment formed from the final test, combined wim 
that formed from the year's ivork. The first 
method, with slight modifications, is the one 
asked for by the radical men of the " New Ed-, 
ucation.*' To them the teacher is the best and 
only judge of the pupil's fitness for promotion. 

Dr. Hinsdale sums up the premises upon 
which this beUef rests in the following postu- 
lates : I. That the teachers have the judgment, 
tact, conscientiousness and freedom from bias to 

aualify them for the work of judging. 2. That 
ley have the general knowledge of the school 
system of the city, the relation from grade to 
grade. 3. That promotions made in tiiis way 
would be free from vexations and excitement; , 
that there would be no disgrace \ that children 
would cease to " race,'* grow "sick," or become 
"hysterical." Now it is no discredit to an in- 
telligent teacher to say that some teachers have 
not the ability, experience, or knowledge of the 
schools to qualify them for this responsible work. 
Says Supt. Hinsdale, " It is not going too far 
to say that, if promotions were put wholly into 
the hands of the teachers, the tendency would 
be in time to ungrade the schools." If all 
teachers were teachers of large experience, and 
if the superintendent had the absolute power in 
the selection of his teachers, there would be less 
objection to die plan. About ten per cent, of 
our teachers are new each year. Can these de- 
cide with judgment and consideration so im- 
portant a question ? I doubt if teachers when 
they consider carefully the responsibihties in- 
volved in such a plan of promotion would care 
to assume it. As a teacher, I should prefer to 
shield myself behind some indisputable data 
and external authority. 

Some test should then be given that the pupil 
may show to all his fitness for the next year's 
work. From the condition of no test to that of 
the final test alone — taking into no account the 
year's work of the pupil — I should not go. A 
judicious combination of the two is a middle 
point between two great extremes. It would, 
indeed, be gratifying to note that such motives 
as sense of duty and love for knowledge are 
sufficient to prompt the student to honest en- 
deavor. But human nature does not seem to 
run that way. Latham says: " Because of the 
wide-spread human frailty of laziness, some 
motive must be supplied to spur students to sal- 
utary exercise of the mind." 
In some cases these higher motives may be 



ii8 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOUkNAL. 



[Sept., 



sufficient, but in many others they must be sup- 
plemented by some more powerful inducement. 
One of the best incentives is that of an exami- 
nation adapted to the requirements of the grade. 
To reach tne goal in examination with the rest 
of his class has spurred on many a lazy, yet 
able boy. This prompter has kept him up in 
the ranks until he has at last awakened to a 
consciousness of his condition, and is then able to 
go on to higher planes unaided by such stimulus. 

The chairman of a committee on examina- 
tions in reporting to the National Teachers' As- 
sociation in 1886 said: "Examinations may 
serve a useful purpose in education, as a stim- 
ulus, as a test for class progress, as a corrective 
of defects of instruction, to help determine in- 
dividual promotions, to determine class promo- 
tions." 

Such examinations should in the main, in our 
judgment, be written. Written examinations 
teadi method, promptness, self-reliance. They 
require acurate knowledge and concentrated 
attention ; and furthermore, behind all this, as 
Fitch says, " lies robustness of brain and ener^ 
of mind.'* Over-estimation of ability is a fail- 
ing as common amonp^ children as among 
adults. The pupil's failure in an oral test is 
condoned with tne thought that others would 
have failed also. But this cannot be the case 
with a written test, where all do the same work. 

An examination has of itself a value far be- 
yond die measurement of the teacher's work 
through the pupil. It indicates the higher ideal 
toward which sne should aim. Says Dr. White: 
"What an eye-opener a searching examination 
is, where teachers talk much and pupils little." 
In my own schools written tests at the end of 
the school year are held in all the grades, but 
in lower grades they do not coverall the subjects. 

Much has been said of the evil effects of 
these final examinations. Every spring, as reg- 
ularly as the "flowers that bloom," y* editor 
searcheth over his standing galley for his last 
year's fling against the public school examina- 
tions. The woeful complaints against the racks 
of torture, the Procrustean bed upon which the 
public school children of the land are about 
to be laid, is indeed heart-rending, and should 
enlist our deepest sympathy were uey deserving 
of our consideration. A certain professionsd 
paper quotes and endorses a »^» -professional 
paper in speaking of final examinations as so 
many "sharp hooks that are drawn back- 
wara and forward through the lacerated 
fibres of the mind." A dyspeptic editor, an 
ultraist of the new school, hears of a case of a 
nervous and excitable child, one who worries 
over little things and who through hard study 
— study too great for her, at least in quantity — 
one who is a mental invsdid — from such a case 
he proceeds to prejudge and proscribe the whole 
system — ex uno disce omnes. 

Over-ambitious men and women in every call- 
ing frequently overtax themselves and attribute 
the results to the exactions of the profession in- 
stead of to themselves. Says an educator, 
" For one authentic case of permanent injury to 
the health of the school boy or girl from too 
much mental exercise, there are twenty exam- 



ples of scholars who suffer from idleness or in- 
action." This supposed over-pressure in our 
schools is the scape-goat upon which many 
parents load the indulgence of their children 
m late hours, party going, novel reading, im- 
proper food, etc. The normal child, one whose 
mind is not filled with the frivolities and ex- 
cesses of society, one who gets two hours sleep 
before midnight and good wholesome food, is 
little affected by schom exactions and final ex- 
aminations. 

Again, this nervous condition of a child is 
frequently engendered or aggravated by refer- 
enced to the examination by the injudicioas 
teacher, who unwittingly lays much stress on the 
ordeal, talking about it in such a way that she 
produces the very state of mind in the pupil 
she sought to avoid. It is a wonder that all her 
pupils are not in a state of mental disability. 
It ought to be considered strictly unprofessional 
for a teacher to thus allude to examinations. 
They should come as calmly and as unheralded 
as a recitation. Let the teacher " take care of 
everything but the examination and let the ex- 
amination take care of itself." 

A word here in regard to what is called cram. 
With us " cram " has come to mean dishonest 
preparation, crude study, unintelligent knowl- 
edge. In England this term is a legitimate 
word, meaning honest drill and study for exam- 
ination. May not such an act be a healthy one?' 
May it not be thoroughly honest and justifiable? 
If taken at its first meaning the act is to be dis- 
approved. But is not an examination one of 
the best means of detecting the unhealthyr state 
of the mind and the unassimilated condition of 
the knowledge therein ? How can a pupil place 
himself in a false position in the subjects of 
reading, writing, drawing, or arithmetic ? If he 
can do these things, he has permanent knowl- 
edge, and the examination will detect it. Here 
reward comes to the deserving. If, however, 
there is too much ground to cover, so that the 
teacher is obliged to goad her pupils on to un- 
due efforts ; or, if she forces the child to cover 
in two or three months what should have taken 
ten, the fault is in the course of study, or in the 
teacher, and not in the test " Even this." 
Fitch says, " is ereatly exaggerated. It is good 
for all of us, all through life, to have reserve 
power to put special energy into one's own 
work at particular emergencies." 

Nearly as difficult as for the pupil to answer, 
is it for the examiner to frame the questions for 
examination. They should be broad in prin- 
ciple, natural and reasonable ; they should be 
clear, terse, and to the point. There are, no 
doubt, poor questions asked by examiners, as 
there is poor work done by teachers who pr^ 
sent pupils for examination. Here again the 
whole is judged from one unworthy part This 
work of preparing the questions should be done 
by one well versed in the work and condition 
of the schools, one thoroughly acquainted with 
the work from grade to grade. It should, cer- 
tainly, not be done by any board of examiners 
who live outside the atmosphere of school-lif<B 
and work ; but by the Superintendent. Ques- 
tions should be so framea as to give the pupils 



1887.] 



STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION, 



119 



bints to valuable and permanent knowledge. 
Tlie examination will be referred to, and it sets 
Qp before tbe school the standard toward which 
the Superintendent is aiming. 

After the question^ are given and answered, 
the next important step is the marking of papers. 
In cities, teachers must mark their own, as it is 
impossible for any one person to do it. But will 
diey agree on their standards? New teachers, 
esfiecially, will not. With some an incorrect 
aosver, a single mistake in adding four columns 
tf figures, involving perhaps from sixty to sev- 
enty additions, ^ives the question a zero, A 
single misstep m an analysis, although the 
numerous other principles involved are cor- 
rectly interpreted, carries zero to the whole 
question. This is withholding due considera- 
tion for the child's knowledge of the subject, 
and is manifestly unjust. 

On the afternoon of the first day of the final 
examinations with us, all teachers of corres- 
ponding grades meet in conference to discuss 
bases of marking and allowances, etc. They 
ate specially ui^ed to give due credit for unsuc- 
cessful effort. The papers are then marked on 
die basis of ten, and, after the examinations are 
over, they are filed in the principal's office' for 
reference and scrutiny. 

It has been said that some thought worthy by 
die teacher are not promoted, that all recom^ 
mended are not put up. In Cleveland, of the 
schools noted, 2,600 were promoted against 
2,300 recommended. In our schools, the differ- 
ence between the number of pupils recom- 
mended by teachers (the list being taken before 
examinations commenced) and those promoted 
on their averages, was about three per cent, in 
&vor of those recommended. Many of these, 
on account of absence ixova one or more exam- 
inations or marks very slightly below the re- 
quired average, will go up in the fall on special 
promotion. 

The examination test is, however, not infalli- 
ble. No one plan has yet been produced that 
can be regarded as entirely satisfactory. I 
vould not nave it the exact and only judge of 
ability to succeed in the next year's work above. 
It used to be the plan for the school officials — 
board of examiners — to rise above the teachers 
ud decide from external evidence the worthi- 
ness of a child for promotion. I understand 
^ plan is still in vogue in Cincinnati, and has 
been for thirty years. From this extreme the 
radicab have galloped their little horses to the 
^r. The golden mean is the position to 
^h reformers are found to retire. 

It does seem that the result which represents 
actual knowledg[e at the end of the year should 
be combined with that representing progress, 
^plication and ability during the year. In 
most cases these results should not and do not 
*ideljr differ. In all final examinations, one is 
iiupnsed at some worthy ones who fail, and at 
some unwordiy ones who pass. Now the term 
o^ks will in the first case aid, and in the 
second, perhaps, prevent promotion. This is a 
pleasant combination of the teacher's judgment 
and that of the examiner. 

How shall the year's work of the pupil be es- 



timated ? It is manifestly improper and unpeda- 

fogical for a teacher to trust to her transient 
nowledge of her work. Late impressions are 
liable to efface or overbalance former judgments^ 
Poor work and disinterestedness during the first 
part of the year are forgotten in the apparent 
effort and good-will in the latter. Some record) 
of scholarship should, then, be maintainec). 
Shall this record be taken from the recitation 
work or from stated reviews? Here again a 
proper combination seems most just. In one 
school I have had the term marks taken from 
monthly written reviews — examinations — in all 
grades above the second. I am decided, how- 
ever, that this does not give sufficient promi- 
nence to the daily recitation; but agree with 
Dr. White in hesitating to recommend daily 
marking, I would have the teacher, at the end 
of each week, mark her pupils in a general wa^ 
for the week's work. This will not be a difn- 
cult matter if she grades them o, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 9. 
Then at intervals of every six or eight weeks, 
or five, or four times a year, I would have the 
teacher five the written review test. The aver- 
age of these two will represent the " teacher's 
judgment." These manes are retained by the 
teacher, are for her and the Superintendent a 
powerful defense when the parent presents his 
inquiry as to the reason his child was not pro- 
moted. " He is entirely competent for the next 
grade,*' says the visitor, " for I have tried him 
myself." " WeU." we reply, " here is his re- 
cord : what do you think of it ?" 

I care not how scholarships are reported, but» 
if numerically, they should be within broad lines 
and should not be held up as a glory or a dis- 
grace. Scholarship and deportment should not 
be summed together. A plan of reporting by 
terms as excellent, good, fair, or bad — ^as in 
Albany — is a commendable one. I would ex- 
tend the list a trifle, however, and make the 
divisions excellent, very good, good, fair. poor, 
and very poor. In allotting these terms* I 
would grade 90 to 100 as excellent ; 85 to 89. as 
very good ; 80 to 84, as good ; 75 to 79, fair ; 60 
to 74, poor ; 50 to 59, very poor ; below 50, bad. 

These are the grade marks to be sent to the 
parents, yet the exact records are retained for 
the teacher's use at the end of the year. 

Some system like this would avoid compar- 
isons of pupils or teachers, which in some cases 
are made matters of public concern and com- 
ment. 

In closing, I should like to lay two questions 
before this body for its consideration and my help. 

1st. What relative value should each of the 
subjects of arithmetic, reading, spelling, etc.. 
have in casting up the average of scholarship ? 
Spelling and writing, it seems to me, have too 
much weight. Poor spellers and writers are not 
inconsistent with high scholarship. 

2d. Under a good teacher, and with an aver- 
age class, what per cent ou|;ht to pass? Of 
course the fundameiital thing is, after all, good, 
competent teachers. No rigorous examinations 
can offset poor instruction. 

SuPT. Harman: The teacher should ex- 
amine frequently during the term, framing 



I20 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept., 



his questions so as to test thought-power, 
keeping a record of results, and reporting 
to the parents. At the end of the year, an 
examination by the Supervising Principal or 
Superintendent is had, the results of which 
are taken together with those of the teach- 
er's several examinations, and all considered 
in promoting from grade to grade. Pro- 
motion from class to class in the same grade 
should be left entirely to the teacher. 

Miss Lloyd did not believe in iron-clad 
rules for examinations. The same plan may 
work admirably for one teacher, and not at 
all for another. She did not have much 
faith in examination at end of term or at 
stated times ; the best method in her expe- 
rience was to tell the pupils at beginning of 
term that they will be examined five or 
six times during the year, and they will be 
expected to remember what they have 
studied, and be ready for examination when- 
ever it may occur. The teacher should con- 
duct the examination, preserve the record, 
and promote accordingly. This plan does 
away with all the excitement and special 
worry previous to an expected examination. 
She would examine on one study only in 
one day. This plan gets at their real knowl- 
edge, not only what they studied yesterday, 
remember to-day, and may forget to-morrow. 

Supt. BuEHRLE thought the iirst object of 
examination should be to promote intelli- 
gent study. He was glad to hear the state- 
ment that more children are injured by too 
little than by too much study, which he was 
prepared to endorse. To secure intelligent 
study, frame your questions so that pupils 
cannot answer them by special cramming 
preparation. He differed from the last 
speaker as to the value of final examina- 
tions. In the cities you hold pupils in 
school, and prevent your attendance drop- 
ping off, by postponing the final examina- 
tion to the very last day of the term. 

Several members whose names were not 
given spoke briefly: One had failed in all 
methods except competitive examination; 
another preferred stated times and compara- 
tively easy questions ; another thought fre- 
quent examinations or reviews were a great 
help to the pupil in retaining knowledge. 

Supt. Phillips, of Scran ton, said that in 
the machine work of our graded systems we 
sometimes lose sight of the true office of the 
recitation. The teacher should know from 
day to day whether the pupil had mastered 
that day's work. Every recitation should 
be a test examination, in which the pupils 
should learn to depend on themselves, and 
not on the teachers. 



Prof. NoETLiNG said all examinations 
would be failures until we have competent 
examiners — men and women who under- 
stand pedagogics, and can test for mind- 
power, and not mere verbal memory. An 
examiner who knows his business is not 
heard to complain of special cramming for 
answers ; his questions cannot be answered in 
that way. The teacher who does not know 
the standing of pupils without special for- 
mal examinations, does not know much 
about his work. 

Prof. G. L. Maris had come here largely 
because this question was on the programme, 
and was disappointed at finding the paper 
had been read before its time. It is an im- 
portant question, in its bearing upon pro- 
fessional progress. The discussion indicates 
that we are substantially agreed on the ben- 
efit of frequent tests during the term, and 
considering these results in making up the 
final decision ; and most of us want also a 
final examination, whose results shall be 
weighed together with the others. But in 
many cases when they come up for promo- 
tion, we depend almost entirely upon the 
final test. It seemed to him wiser to com- 
bine the two, giving them equal weight. 

Supt. Bevan : Besides the verdict of the 
teacher from whom the pupil is sent, I be- 
lieve in taking the judgment of the one to 
whom he comes. Let him have a month's 
probation in the new grade, and by that 
time we will know where he belongs. 

Prof. Miller : If I understand the com- 
bination proposed, it means that if the aver- 
age of the pupil's monthly examinations is 
80, and of the final test 70, he should re- 
ceive 75. This is much better than depend- 
ing on the final alone. He would leave 
examinations as far as possible in the hands 
of the teachers, who know the children best. 

GREETING OF COLLEGE ASSOaATION. 

A telegram of greeting from the Associa- 
tion of College Presidents, in session at 
Lancaster, was read as follows : 

To the President of the State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation: The College Association of Pennsyl- 
vania to the State Teachers' Association at 
Clearfield, greeting: We congratulate you upon 
the increasing importance of the great work in 
which we are mutually engaged. Please report 
to us the time and place of your meeting next 
year. If you organize on Wednesday we should 
be glad to meet at the same place on Tuesday. 

Thos. G. Apple, President, 

To this telegram of greeting the follow- 
ing reply was promptly wired to Lancaster: 

To Dr. Thomas G, Apple, President College 
Association : The Pennsylvania State Teachers' 



iM;.] 



STATE TEACHERS* ASSOCIATION. 



121 



Association cordially reciprocates the greeting 
of the College Association. Scianton 1ms been 
selected as Uie place of next meeting, and the 
Executive Committee will be giad to co-oper- 
ate in the necessary arrangements for the ses- 
sion of 1 888.- Jas. a. Coughlin» 

President State Teachers^ Association. 



THURSDAY AFTERNOON. 



Dr. Waller's paper on the ** Resources 
ind Industries of Pennsylvania" was an- 
oonnced as open for discussion. 

Dr. HoRNE said the very excellent paper 
had omitted some of the productions of our 
State to which he wished to call attention. 
One of these was the quarrying of slate. 
Pennsylvania has almost a monopoly of the 
business in roofing slate. Good slate pencils 
are made from our slate. Every time our 
children use the slate and pencil or slated 
blackboard, they have a reminder of this in- 
dustry. Then the Pennsylvania ladies are an 
incomparable product — ftom Dakota to the 
Golf he had found none to surpass them — 
they are unsurpassable, east or west, north or 
south. Weare rich, too, in educational insti- 
tutions ; a circle of 75 miles radius in Eastern 
Benosylvania, just touching the Delaware 
river, will include a larger number of higher 
institutions of learning, with a larger aggre- 
gate attendance, than any equivalent area in 
the United Sutes—Lafayette College, Le- 
high Univjersity, Muhlenberg College, Kutz- 
town Normal School, Franklin and Marshall 
College, Millersville, Bloomsburg and Ship- 
pensburg Normal Schools; and sweeping 
round to Philadelphia we take in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, with its great med- 
ical school, and its sister, Jefferson Medical 
College, besides Haverford, Villa Nova, and 
bundreds of academies and smaller institu- 
tions. Then our churches — ^where else can 
ve find edifices erected for the worship of 
God to compare with ours? But there is 
00 end to this great subject, and one must 
«top somewhere. 

Miss Glbnn sang '* Flower of the Alps." 

Miss A. Lizzie Radpord, of Reading, 
fRsented the following paper on 

RKADING — SLOCUnON — ORATORY. 

Thought is said to be the highest attribute of 
tte human soul. But is not the power to con- 
trol thought a higher attribute than thought it- 
<!^? If so, what lofty position should be as- 
■gned to the arts of reading, elocution and 
<)ntory, bv means of which thought is controlled. 

These tnree arts have the handling of thought, 
hut in three different ways. Reading is getting 
thought from written or printed characters, and 
M therefore a mental act. Elocution is express* 



mf thought, while oratory is imfnressing^fXQi^X. 
The design of the three is to produce an im- 
pression on the mind; in reading, the ideas 
recalled by the perception of words produce an 
impression which, however, does not go beyond 
the mind of the reader himself. Unless the 
words recall their corresponding ideas, there 
will be no impression, and consequently no real 
reading. In elocution that which we call ex- 
pression is in reality impression, or the means 
by which an impression is made on the minds 
of others — ^a transfer of a mental image from 
the speaker to the hearer, through the medium 
of oral delivery. In oratory, impression takes • 
pre-eminence. The whole aim of the orator is 
to so impress the thought as to influence the 
conduct and actions of men. 

The art of reading does not receive the culti- 
vation it should. It is this that forms the basis 
of literary culture ; it informs and develops the 
mental faculties, and in great measure, moulds 
the character. It makes us familiar with the 
learning and wisdom of the past, and brings us 
into contact with the powerful intellects that 
have moved the world. Reading takes the 
thought as it finds it, and does not deal with its 
rhetorical construction, although the style of 
composition may help or hinder facility in read- 
ing. In combination with mental activity there 
ma^ or may not be vocal expression ; that is 
optional with the reader. 

Reading, in so ^ as it is an intellectual act, 
is assisted by the pauses. These pauses have 
no limitation of time whatever. The old cus- 
tom of designating a certain length to each 
pause, and marking this time with strict regu- 
larity, is a disadvantage, being calculated to 
draw the attention of the reader away from the 
thought itself to the marks. The sole use of 
these pauses is to aid in getting the sense. 
There are, in oral reading, other pauses un- 
marked, which aid not in getting, but in gitnng 
the sense. They are suspensions of the voice 
for the sake of emphasis, effect, or a concentra- 
tion of all the powers of expression to one im- 
portant point. These pauses cannot be taught 
or learned by rule, but taste and good tudgment 
must be the guide as to when and wnere they 
should be used. There are also pauses afkar 
each group of words, and pauses designated by 
die metrical foot in verse. The length of these 
pauses — indeed, of pauses of all kinds — is de- 
termined by the thought and the emotions 
which are called into action in reading. 

Oral reading is the giving of thoup^ht to others 
by means of the voice, and must either be pre- 
ceded or accompanied by intellectual reading* 
We exchange thought orally every day in con- 
versation. " Shall we read as we talk ?** is a 
question often asked. There are some distiiic- 
tions between reading and conversation. While 
the ideas may be identical in conversation, we 
use our own words, our own phraseology, our 
own peculiar manners, in short, we are ourselves 
— natural. In reading, we use the author's words 
and style. The difficulty in reading as we talk, 
is in adapting ourselves to soroethine which may 
be foreign to us. In conversation the voice nat- 
urally corresponds to the emotions we feel. In 



122 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sirr., 



expressing the author's thought as our own we 
must put ourselves in harmony with it and with 
his feelings, and adapt voice and manner ac- 
cordingly, and the difficulty of doing this makes 
oral reading less natural than conversation. No 
two persons converse exactly alike; neither 
> will two persons read precisely alike and be nat- 
ural. The beauty of natural reading is univer- 
sally acknowledged; and as Nature, the product 
of the Divine mind, is the model for art to copy, 
then good, cultured conversation may be taken 
as a model for good reading. 

To read poetry is much more difficult than to 
read prose. We have often heard it said, "They 
should be read alike." This would be well 
enough if the sense alone were to be considered, 
but there is something more in poetic composi- 
tion. The object of poetry, as one of the fine 
arts, is to please, consequently its construction 
differs from that of prose. It combines all the 
logic, history, and narration of prose with the 
rhythm of music. There is in all good prose 
writing a sort of rhythm, but it is neither so regu- 
lar nor so strongly marked as in verse. In 
reading poetry if we disregard the rhythm, the 
chief beauty of the verse is lost. If we read in 
this manner, what need of writing poetry ? the 
grandeur of Milton, or the pathos of Longfellow, 
need never have been expressed in poetic 
measure. 

On the other hand, if we pay all attention to 
rhythm, we fall into the jingling, sing-song style 
so prevalent, especially in reading rhyme. There 
is m poetry a certain proportion of accented and 
unaccented syllables constituting metre. Rus- 
sell says, *' Indicate the metre with your voice, 
but do not render it too prominent." There 
must be a due proportion of vocal expression' 
shown between sense and accent ; each must 
receive its share of importance from the reader. 

Excellence is an end which every reader 
should keep in view, and for which he should 
strive, although perfection never is, nor ever can 
be, attained. What constitutes excellence in 
reading ? This is a question which cannot be 
definitely answered, as what may be considered 
very good sense-reading may not reach the 
standard of high artistic reading; nevertheless, 
superior sense-reading is far preferable to indif- 
ferent reading claiming to be artistic. 

There are three kinds of oral reading, each 
highei- in the scale of excellence than the pre- 
ceding, yet each having its own degrees of ex- 
cellence. First is sense-reading. We read in 
Nehemiah viii. 8 : "So they read in the book, 
in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, 
and caused them to understand the reading." 
The object of sense reading is to give the 
thought in all its significance and fulness. It 
appeals to &e understanding, and is the basis 
6f all good reading. But sense without feeling 
is dead. It requires an animating principle. 
In addition to the imagination and the under- 
standing, the emotional faculties must be called 
into action. Emotional reading is a higher type 
of readi ng than mere sense reading. Emotional 
reading must of necessity include sense reading ; 
but cold and sluggish feelings are warmed into 
life, and in proportion as they are aroused in the 



reader, so may they be in the hearer. It b im- 
possible to arouse an emotion in others, that has 
not before been awakened in our own breast 
Men are often influenced by touching their feel- 
ings, so that excellence, requires not only sense 
but sentiment. 

There is still a hi|;her class of reading, which 
requires great skill m the expression, and skill 
brings it within the domain of art Its object is 
to present to the mind a picture complete in all 
its parts. Excellence in every kind of oral 
reading dei>ends on the manner of expression, 
and this brings us to speak more particularly 
of the second link in this triple chain, Elocutm, 

Elocution is, as its etymology signifies, "a 
speaking out." In its broadest sense, it includes 
ail manner of vocal delivery, from conversation 
to the highest oratory. As its object is to ex- 
press thought, as a science, therefore, it treats of 
the training of all the organs of expression, the 
most important of which is the voice. The ne- 
cessity for cultivation of voice is obvious. The 
special work of the voice is the expression of 
thought ; then it should be trained and devel- 
oped that the work may be better performed. We 
are delighted with the singing of Nilsson or 
Patti; yet, no -doubt, they could tell of months 
and years of toil to gain the control they possess 
over the vocal organs. And this is just as ne- 
cessary for public speaking. Skill in any art 
requires hard work, and drill, and discipline, 
year after year. Again, the voice should be 
trained because the whole significance of thought 
may be changed by a single intonation. There 
is a tone of voice for every emotion. In read- 
ing, these emotions, follow each other accord- 
ing to the sense. A knowledge of how these 
tones are produced, how they follow each 
other in rapid succession, and how they are 
to be adapted to the sentiment, is necessary 
to proper expression. Again, the voice should 
be cultivated for its preservation^ This is as 
necessary to teachers as to spe^,kers or readers. 
Every organ of the body grows strong by prac- 
tice, and weak by. disuse or improper use. and 
the voice is no exception to this rule. In teach- 
ing aiid speaking commonly, the voice is exer- 
cised in one register only, and the great reser 
voir of vocal power is never drawn upon; there 
is a sort of wearing out of the organs, and thus 
it is we hear of so much disease of the throat 
and larynx. 

A knowledge of the mechanism of this organ 
of expression would prevent this disease, and 
the voice exercised rightly and in accordance 
with its laws will become strong, pure, flexible. 

The motive power of the voice is regulated by 
respiration. " The nearer one approaches to 
perfect control of his breathing, in voice produc- 
tion, the nearer he comes to being master of bis 
art. " Of this matter of correct breathing, of the 
various movements of the voice, the kws by 
which these movements are governed, the 
methods of cultivation, time will not permit us 
to speak. 

The voice may be perfect in' Intonation, pure, 
full and resonant, yet the articulation be so in- 
distinct as to render the meaning quite unintelli- 
gible. It is not loud tones that enable us to 



iMrO 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 



123 



understand, but clear enunciation of the sounds 
of the language. Articulation is defective prin- 
cipally from me neglect to keep correct sounds 
distinct, by dropping them at the end of a sylla- 
ble or word, or fusing them as molten metal. 
This is caused sometimes by the ear being una- 
ble to detect these sounds very readily. Elocu- 
tion therefore treats of the training of the organs 
of articulation. Good articulation should be 
taught to children in our schools very early, both 
in speaking and in reading. 

Toere is another great element of expression, 
the physical, which, though not of so great im- 
poilance as the vocal element, yet demands a 
|ieat share of attention from the student in elo- 
cution. Position and graceful movements give 
dignity to the expression and are received with 
respect. Gesture and facial expression may be 
Teiy eloquent in themselves, yet their chief use 
is to aid the voice in rendering the meaning 
clearer or for the sake of emphasis. Gestures 
must be made to correspond to the sentiment ; 
thev appeal directly to the perceptive faculties, 
and should be natural. How shajl we make 
graceful gestures naturally ? It is in great meas- 
ure a speaker's self-consciousness that makes 
him awkward. When he loses sight of him- 
self, then he becomes more natural ; but his 
own nature may be ungraceful, what is he to do 
then? Train himself in graceful movements 
<mtil they become a part of himself. That which 
we do constantly becomes a habit, and a habit 
grows and strengthens itself. Then training in 
festure should go on at all times, in our daily 
ufe, that uncouth nature may be controlled. De- 
m(»theDes subjected hlm^lf to long and severe 
d^y discipline to overcome natural awkward- 
ness. He succeeded, and so may others. 

If a speaker, filled with the thought, uses his 
gesture for the purpose of aiding his hearers in 
getting the thought; if by daily practice he has 
acquired the habit of graceful movement, not 
for the purpose merely of public speaking, but 
far all tunes and occasions ; then these move- 
ments will be natural because they are* his sec^ 
ond nature, and he will make them uncon- 
sciously because they have become a habit, and 
they will be in harmony with the sentiment be- 
cause the thought, not himself, is filling his mind. 
Elocution as an art is subject to all the criti- 
cisms that refined taste may bring to bear upon it. 
As an art it bears some relations to, the thought 
opressed. First, in its comprehension. It is 
^lossible properly to express that which we do 
Bot understand. A clear, distinct and full un** 
^nstandine of the thought in its deep and hid- 
^ meanmg cannot be gained by a superficial 
^Vi&ag alone ; there must be a close study, a 
^bl ansdysis of diat which the author has 
^^ivai. Having gained this comprehension, 
^ will in the second place be . appreciation. 
% study necessary for a full understanding 
vin bring us into close communion with the 
^hor; we linger in his presence and catch - 
some of his inspuration ; then we can appreciate 
l^ich the writing and the motives which prompted 
^ We must follow Goldsmith, as he takes his 
vcar^, footsore journey through Europe, cheered 
by his only companion, the flute, in order to ap- 



preciate that intense longing for home, which he 
has expressed in these words : 

In all my wanderings round this world of care, 
In all my griefs — and God has given my share — 
' I still had hopes my latest hours to crown, 
Amidst these humble bowers to lay me down ; 
To husband out life's taper at its close, 
And keep the flame from wasting by repose ; 
I still had hopes, for pride attends us still, 
Amidst the swains to show my book-learned skill; 
Around my fire an evening group to draw. 
And tell of all I felt and all I saw ; 
And as a hare, whom horns and hounds pursue, 
Pants to the place from whence at first he flew; 
I still had hopes, my long vexations past. 
Here to return and die at home at last. 

The third relation is harmony. Having a 
clear comprehension, a eenuine appreciation, it 
will be no very difficult matter to harinonize 
voice and manner with sentiment. There must 
also be harmony of time and place. He who 
understands his art, will remember that a i^reat 
law of expression is the law of harmony. 

When expression deals with original thought, 
with a higher purpose in view than to please, 
then it expands into Oratory. This ma^c art 
had its rise in enlightened Greece. It was the po- 
tent means by which Demosthenes warned his 
countrymen against the insidious advance of 
Philip of Macedon ; by which Cicero .unmasked 
to the Roman Senate the treacherous designs of 
Catihne ; by which Pitt struck at corruption in 
the English government; by which Patrick 
Henry incited the American Revolution; by 
which Daniel Webster, in his great Senatorial 
contest with Hayne of South Carolina, upheld 
the provisions of our Constitution, apd incul- 
cated love for our Union ; by which, in short, 
every grand and great enterprise in the world 
has been fostered €uid advanced. 

What is oratory^ that it should wield such 
magic power ? Henry Ward Beecher defined 
it, '* The art of influencing conduct, with truth 
sent home by all the resources of the living 
man." Its aim is to produce conviction for the 
purpose of causing action or a change of action, 
and all the energies of the orator are bent in 
this direction. That the orator may at will set 
in motion a train of thought whose echoes shall 
reverberate through future ages, that he may so 
impress others that society may feel its effect 
either for good or evil ; that he may do these 
things, he must possess certain .potent qualifica- 
tions in himself, a few of which only we can 
mention. 

First, he must have some truth to present, 
something which he believes to be truth, and of 
vital importance. He must be filled with the 
truth, and lose himself in his subject. Then 
he must have acquired the habit of self-control. 
" He who would rule others. must first rule him- 
self.'* A speaker who loses control of himself 
is like a ship without a helm, tossed hither and 
thither at the mercy of the waves. With self- 
control he must possess will power. He con- 
trols the wills of others by the strength of his 
own will. His whole being is held fast in the 
grasp of a strong will. He has something to 
say, he is fully determined to say it, he is ox 



124 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Skpt.^ 



fully determined that they shall hear and be 
convinced. He Who is wavering, vacillatihg, 
lacking self-control and will power, will have 
little success as an orator. A third qualification 
is earnestness. This will claim and receive at- 
tention, for his hearers will receive a stimulus 
from the orator that will enchain their attention 
to the subject under discussion. If the orator 
endeavors to be in earnest, if he concentrates 
all his powers for the sake of seeming earnest, 
then he will fail in this very matter of earnest- 
ness. In proportion, as he feels the importance 
of the subject in hand, in proportion as he is 
filled with the truth and convinced from a firm 
principle from within him that he is right, just 
m that proportion will he be in earnest. 

Anotner qualification is culture, both literary 
and elocutionary. The more culture he has the 
better, provided he uses it in the right direction. 
When so much — sometimes even the fate of 
nations— depends on the impression that is 
made, oratory requires the best possible expres- 
sion that can be given. Sometimes, however, 
through excess of zeal, or possibly a desire to 
please, the orator may make his elocutionary 
training stand out too prominentljr ; it becomes 
then a sort of polish, the attention is drawn 
toward*s the speaker's fine voice and graceful 
manner, when the audience should be led to 
forget the man, forget the delivery, forget every- 
thing but the truth presented. Elocution must 
be made to serve the purpose of oratory. If 
it does anvthing different from this, the aim of 
oratory is lost, and elocution must then become 
a hindrance. 

Every qualification in an orator must be sup- 
ported by force of moral character. It is this 
which gives firmness and stability to what he is 
saying. Influence may be gained by the con- 
fidence one has in another, and character in- 
spires this confidence. Men trust an upright, 
conscientious man more quickly than one of 
opposite character. Character is strong, sure, 
forcible, and true, and without it no one can 
hope to be very successftd as an orator. 

Oratory, unhke reading or elocution, deals 
with the construction of the thought; conse- 
quently there must be some qualities necessary 
in an oration. " The man for the speech and 
the speech for the man.** First, an oration is 
argumentative. The orator feeling the truth of 
what he is to say, seeks to convince others of 
the same. This he does by argument. He 
may present his arguments from either of two 
sides to a subject. Is he speaking on temper- 
ance, he may argue for the good of sobriety, or 
he may argue against the evils of intemperance, 
or he may argue on both sides in contrast ; in 
either case, he must know thoroughly what he 
is talking about, give the proofs for his assertions 
and the ground for his belief. Argument ap- 
peals to the reason and the understanding. 
V«y frequently conviction by argument is not 
sufficient to influence conduct. This is especi- 
ally the case if the truths presented are unwel- 
come. A man's reaison may tell him that the 
speaker is right, yet his very convjction will 
often set his will in direct and determined op- 
position to the dictates of his reason. To over- 



come this the orator uses persuasion, conse- 
quently persuasion is an element of oratorical 
composition. Every life worth living is perm^ 
ated and controlled by a dominating principle 
for which men work and strive, looking for 
some good to be attained. If persuaded that 
this may be gained by a change of plan, pur- 
pose or action, then his will is aroused and a 
different course pursued for the furtherance of hii 
desires, be thev selfish, patriotic, or philanthropic 

There should be, in an oration, an adaptation 
of thought to the minds of the hearers. The 
mental development of all is not equal, the 
amount of literary culture is not the same, but 
the thought must be adapted to both the ignor- 
ant and the educated, the unlearned and the 
wise. If the thought be too lofty, one class wffl 
not understand; if too simple, the other class 
will find little to interest them. There is a 
style which is equally adapted to both; it is 
possible for an oration to be of this character. 

There must be a vein of sympathy running 
through the discourse. Nothing wins a man 
so soon as sympathy. All need it, no matter 
in what position placed. Sympathy in joy and 
in sorrow, in the battles of life, in prosperity 
and adversity, sympathy is a bond which unites 
us in one common brotherhood. The orator 
in sympathy with his audience makes them 
feel that he is one with them, "rejoicing with 
those that rejoice, and weeping with those that 
weep,** then he can hope to make a favorable 
impression. 

The ideas of an oration must be arranged in 
logical order. Each must have a bearing on 
the one previous. The orator keeping in view- 
the object for which he is striving, leads lus 
audience on step by step, until the gfoal is 
reached. There should be no break in the 
thought, for the attention distracted may be 
very difificult to regain. Above all there should 
be in an oration an appeal to the moral natme 
of man. It is this moral nature that intuitively 
judges of the right or wrong of all human 
action. All that elevates mankind, all that ^ 
beneficial or ennobling, springs from this intui- 
tion of the right. If one is convinced and 
persuaded that a course of action should be 
modified or completely changed, his moral 
nature will determine for him the right or wron^ 
of the matter, consequently this element is 
necessary in an oration. The orator submits the 
truth to the test of his own conscience, and per- 
ceiving the right, appeals to his audience to sub- 
mit it to theirs. All the argument, all the per* 
suasion, all the sympathy contained inanora^ 
tion, culminates in one earnest plea for the right. 

Miss Julia Orum said the lady who read 
the paper looked at this question from one 
standpoint, and she from another. The 
point, to emphasize is that we must, from 
the very beginning, teach expression. How 
are you even to know whether the thought 
is in the pupil's mind until you bring it out? 
The very effort at expression helps to make 
the thought more clear and definite. 

Prof. S. S. Neff said reading really in- 






1887] 



STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION, 



125 



dudes two branches — as different as history 

and geology — one the getting of thought 

from the printed character, the other its 

oral expression. We too often teach the 

wrong subject, and even that in the wrong 

way— beginning at the wrong end. We 

wast first to have a mental concept of a 

thing, then the word. You may give a 

child all the words in the First Reader, and 

afudy good idea of their meaning, and yet 

be my not be able to get a single thought 

from print, ^e must be taught to see the 

tluog or act represented by the words — 

fiien he can show you that he does that, 

: the utility of that particular lesson has 

I oased. He did nc^ believe that oral expres- 

I son can be taught on any definite plan. 

Miss L. E. Patridgb said too much is 

made of the comparatively unimportant 

branch of the subject. Everything depends 

on the ability to get the thought from the 

printed page. The wisdom of the race is 

shut up in books, and the vital necessity of 

the mind is the power to get it out. It is 

nin to struggle for expression before you 

have the thonght, and if one has the thought 

he will find the expression. We are not yet 

orilized on the subject of the relative value 

of studies. 

Miss Elizabeth Lloyd said it was not 
enough to teach our pupils to be good silent 
readers. The ability to r«ad well aloud at 
sight is one too seldom acquired. It need 
not be 90 — ^we can and should teach them 
to read so that the reader and hearer may 
both get the sense of what is read. Read- 
ing aloud should not become a lost art — ^we 
should be able to read so that a whole circle 
Bay enjoy the good book together. 
Prof. Young sang a solo — **The Three 
Voong Maids of Lee." 

IN MEMORIAM. 

The following address in memory of the 
itte Supt. Clsmens D. Arird, of Warren 
county, was read by Prof. A. B. Miller, of 
Wanen: 

1 rnppose very few of those present had much 

pcnoiuu acquaintance with the late Superin- 

^odent Arird.' Still fewer feel acquainted ^th 

^one selected to speak a word in his memory. 

Uvoidd certainly seem that after a heavy day's 

*Q^yoa might naturally feel but little interest 

^ w one stranger speak of another. And yet 

||a<Mf^ most of you may not be familiar with 

hiioame, Prof. Arird is no stranger. There 

^ very strong bonds connecting his life and 

his work with yours. In the military service 

every man who wore the blue uniform was a 

^rade. If on some neighboring hill-top you 

^ seen a regiment of sbldiers assailing the 

™k of the enemy, whose front you were op- 

P<>>>ag, you didn't care much about their names. 



their deeds made them your friends, and joined 
your hearts together like brothers. Professor 
Arird not only belonged to the grand army of 
Educators, but to your division of it — and just 
what you have been doing all through the State 
in cultivating the power of thought, in establish- 
ing right principles, and in building up sound 
character, for the benefit of individuals and the 
protection of the Commonwealth, these very 
same things has he been successfully accom- 
plishing for the last eight or ten years out in 
Warren county. Your interest in your owa 
work will not permit you to be indifferent to his. 

The story of his life is a very common one^ 
You could almost write it out, from your own 
knowledge' and observation. Yoi^ are familiar 
with the genius of American society. You yn- 
derstand its wonderful adjustability, its incessant 
motion, the restlessness of its individual ele- 
ments. The atom that expands rises, the one 
that shrivels sinks, a few are stationary. Hence 
this ceaseless activity and change spread down* 
ward, around, and upward. You would know 
beforehand that a successful School Superinten- 
dent would in some way illustrate this principle* 

Professor Arird was born of wealthy parents. 
Their wealth consisted lai^^ely, if not wholly, 
of six enterprising boys. You will not fail to 
appreciate how much richer were those parents 
than are they who have children and money 
mixed in such proportions that each one is sure 
to destroy the other. His parents seem not only 
to have been rich but wise, for the first thing 
they required of their boy was to ^w, and they 
kept him at it faithfully and diligently till he 
had reached a strong and sturdy boyhood and 
youth; and afterwards there was developed 
within him a keen and natural appetite for 
knowledge. 

This sent him into school. Having g^athered 
a little store of knowledge, he began with the 
spirit of a true philosopher to distribute it, and of 
course he found that the more knowledge he dis- 
tributed the more he had left, and with it a litde 
money besides. With this he laid in a larger 
store, and ^ave it a still wider distribution. By 
his graduation at the Jamestown Collegiate In- 
stitute, and the completion of a course of study 
at Chautauqua, he had so broadened his founda- 
tion of knowledge that he now felt ready to do ," 
and immediately the main question became, 
" What to do r 

At that time the office of County Superintend- 
ent of schools for Warren County was held by a 
capable and popular man, but an election was 
approaching ; the contest was of course open to 
ail comers, and young Arird entered his name 
for the race. At first there were expressions of 
amazement that this rash young man should as- 
pire so hi^h. After a few weeks it was thoueht 
that he might win an honorable defeat. A tew 
weeks later still, when told that it began to look 
as though he might come out ahead, he replied 
with modest demeanor, " That is what I propose 
to do." And that is what he did do, after a very 
industrious canvass and a sharp contest at the 
dose. Three years later he was unanimously 
re-elected. He had evidendy foimd his level 
for the time being. 



126 



PEM^S'kLVANlA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sept., 



So now we have the man ready for his work 
and the work ready for the man, what should be 
said of both ? They were so closely blended to- 
gether that a description of one describes the 
other. To begin with, he had a profound ap- 
preciation of me value and importance of his 
work. No man truly succeeds in any calling 
who has a poor opinion of it. And it is putting 
a very low estimate on such work as ours to 
value it for the money that can be made out of 
it, instead of its usefulness to mankind. 

Supt. Arird was in no danger of falling into 
such a mistake. He felt that he owed to it the 
very best exercise of all his powers; body, 
mind, and heart; and this he gladly gave. 
And though it is much, it is not too much to say 
that to his friends in Warren county, his name 
means " Fidelity to trust." 

But, fellow teachers, the one M/>f^ which ought 
to be spoken of and always reniembered of Cle- 
mans D. Arird. was his unwavering and pervad-- 
ing kindness to all with whom he had to do. 
His death was .sudden, altogether unexpected. 
When I heard of it, and my thoughts ran swiftly 
back through the various scenes of our associa- 
tion, throughout their whole extent, there shone in 
unbroken line the illumination of genuine kind- 
ness, still sending out its beautiful reflections. 
And when the teachers of the county met at his 
funeral or at their home neighborhoods^ the first 
thine they said of him. was, "He was always so 
kind !'* Indeed, it was self-sacrificing affection 
that brought his* work to such an abrupt close. 
Many days and many nights given to watching 
and care of his little daughter, stricken with a 
fatal illness, so exhausted his ow,n vitality that, 
when the fever seized upon him, he was utterly 
without defence, and could only follow his little 
one to the better country. 

As a natural corollary to this kindness I ought 
to call to mind his helpfuless to the younger and 
more inexperienced teachers, of the county. 
Every year multitudes are brought for the first 
time into the employment of teaching, and 
many come in without special preparation for it. 
Though still immature, tnev are urged on by an 
honorable ambition and arawn forward by the 
needs of the schools. They have talent but not 
experience, force but not skill. How precious 
at such a time both to them and to the public is 
the guiding hand and encoura^^ing voice of a wise 
and generous-hearted Superintendent. When 
he doubles their courage he redoubles their use- 
fulness. Many of our teachers to-day gratefully 
acknowledge their indebtedness to Supt. Arird 
for just such assistance, and most gladly yield 
to him the honor of a share in their success. 

Let this then be my tribute to a friend and 
associate: Fidelity, kindness, helpfulness. It 
is true, this does not distingruish him greatly 
from many of the goodly company to which he 
belonged. I rejoice to believe tnat the teach- 
ing force of Pennsylvania could furnish a long 
list of faithful public servants actuated by the 
same spirit. But a gold coin is none the less 
valuable because it is one of manv. And I feel 
sure that we all shall be worthy of honor, 
largely according as we shall exemplify in our 
lives the characteristics I have ascribed to him. 



*' However it be, it seems to roe 
' Tis only noble to be good ; 
Kind hearts are more than coronets. 

And simple faith than Norman blood." 

OFFICERS FOR NEXT YEAR. 

The Committee on Election reported thej 
choice of the following oflSicers, 295 votes] 
being cast in all : 

President — Supt. Matt. Savage. 

Vice-Presidents— U\9S Elizabeth Lloyd and] 
George A. Spindler. 

Secretary — ^J. P. McCaskey. 

Treasurer — D. S. Keck. 

Ticket Ajs^ent^], Fletcher Sickel. 

Executive Committee-^, W. Weiss, G. M. 
Philips, D. J. Waller, G. W. Phillips, N. S. 
Davis. 

Enrolling Committee—^. S. Monroe, Missl 
Clara Barrett. M. G. Brumbaugh, W. W.| 
Deatrick, N. J. Bieber. 

In the case of the Secretary, Treasurer, andl 
the Executive Committee, a unanimous ballot | 
had previously been ordered by vote. 

RESOLUTIONS. 

The Committee on Resolutions made thei 
following report through the chainnanj 
which was adopted: 

Whereas, another annual session of this As- 
sociation is about to close : 

Be it resolved by the Pennsylvania State I 
Teachers* Association, that we extend our sin- 
cere thanks to all who have in any way contrib*| 
uted to make this, the thirty-third annual 
sion, a success ; especially to those who ha^ 
contributed so much to the interest of the meet- 
ing by their addresses and prepared papers, andl 
who have so well entertained uswithrecitatioAsI 
and music; to the railroad companies for 
duced rates ; to the officers of the Association | 
who have so faithfully performed their duties ; 
to those schools that have placed their excellent! 
work before us, and to the citizens of Clearfield 
and vicinity for their encouragement and sup*| 
port. 

DRAWING EXHIBIT. 

The following report, signed by Messrs. 
J. C. Barclay and W. S. Monroe, was made 
by the chairman from the Committee on 
Drawing Exhibit : 

The Committee on Educational Exhibits re- 
cognize and appreciate the efforts of the Indiana* 
the West Chester, and the Clarion State Normal 
Schools, the Clarion School of Rimersburg, the 
Pennsylvania State College, the Wilkes-Barre 
Business College, the Osceola and Clearfield 
schools of Cleameld county, to make the exhi- 
bition a success. The display was of such a 
character as should reflect due credit on the 
schools represented. 

The Chairman added that to do the woik 
of this committee properly required no idle 
or careless hands, as his successors would 
discover; and the committee did not hold 
themselves entirely responsible for the par* 



8871 



STATE TEACHERS^ ASSOCIATION, 



127 



iai ^lilure this year. They had written to 
nny persons, and received many offers of 
■istance ; the result we had seen. If this 
ohibit is to continue a feature of our ses- ' 
iODs, it is necessary to have more general 
Doperation — ^all must join hands to make it 
I permanent success. He thought, perhaps, 
uny common schools felt reluctant to place 
lieiT work in competition with that of Col- 
leges and Normal Schools. 

The report was adopted, and Association 
tben adjourned to 8 p. m. 



THURSDAY EVENING. 



HE evening session being called to or- 
der, Hon. J. Q. Stewart asked leave to 
ilement the report of the Committee on 
ilutions by adding the following : 

Resohed, That the congratulations of this 
K)ciation are extended to the friends of edu- 
ioD throughout the Commonwealth, on the 
important laws recently enacted in the in- 
..t of the public schools. 
Rtsohed, That the thanks of this bddy, re- 
nting the educators of the State, are 
!by tendered to the Legislature for the for- 
d step it has taken in advancing the cause 
education by liberal legislation, which will 
It in elevating the standard of Uie teacher's 
cssion, and in broadening the sphere and 
iuence of the schools ; and to the Governor 
the Commonwealth, for the marked and en- 
Jng interest he has already shown in pop- 
education, and for his promptness in giving 
dve approval to all school legislation en- 
at the last session of the General As- 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted, 
which came a song, "Long Ago," by 
Glenk, recitations by Miss Guile, of 
iburg, and Miss Dorrs, and by re- 
:, Hans Andersen's story of the* Swine- 
and Whittier's poem, " School Days," 
Hiss Patridge. 
I D. W. McCuRDY, Esq. , being called upon, 
Nd that from the days of the oldest inhab- 
l^t and the first log school bouse, until 
!^«HJaywhen this body brought hither its 
^Abtc and genial fellowship, the people of 
^ hills have proven their love for the 
"Wichool system; and he hoped they had 
*>^J<>tn their appreciation of this visit that 
*U »ODld' bear away pleasant memories. 
V*<iay5 when applicants for teachers' posi- 
^«tt were willing to teach that the earth 
J** round or flat, as Directors preferred, 
Mfe passed away ; the days of government 
^ fear are also passing away, and woman is 
*®aing her way into the school, as every- 
where else where noble work is done. The 



reign of brute force is giving way to the 
reign of self-respect and self-control. No 
less striking is the contrast between the old 
log school-houses of former generations and 
our Patton and Leonard buildings here, and 
others like them all over the State. While 
we do not disparage the work of the past, we 
justly claim that the latter days are better 
than the former. You teachers occupy the 
vantage ground — your work must shape the 
future life of the nation : for as the colossal 
statue. of Liberty stands at the door of our 
great metropolis, flashing its light far sea- 
ward, so stands the common school at the 
portals of the great republic, ofl'ering that 
enlightenment which is alike the basis and 
the hope Of freedom for future generations. 
Long may a free flag float over a free school, 
bringing to the honest and- humble son and 
daughter fxi the land the blessii^gs of educa- 
tion! 

Hon. John Patton was the next speaker, 
who addressed the Association as follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : To a business man> 
nothing appeals with more force than figures, and 
the Report of the National Commissioner of Ed- 
cation tor the year 1885 is one of the most inter- 
esting and praiseworthy records issued by our 
government. 

How few persons are aware of the magnitude 
of the work m which you are engaged ! Before 
rae in this State Teachers' Association is but a 
single regiment of the great armv of 320,000 pub- 
lic school teachers in the United States, and the 
estimated value of our public school property 
alone reaches the grand total of $254,000,000. 
The income for our schools is ^113,000,060; the 
expenditures %\ 10,385,000, and there is enrolled 
an army of pupils whicl^ numbers 11,170,000. 
Who can estimate the power and influence with 
which these mighty figvres are charged ? What 
an impress they are making, not omy upon our 
own civilization, but upon die world ! 

The United States pays out annually more 
money for its public schools than any other 
nation, and whde every other civilized nation 
annually expends large sums on its standing 
army, we guard our broad empire with 25,000 
men, but we are not satisfied with less than 
320,000 school teachers. The educational idea 
is the prominent and predominant one in otu* 
history. The New England settler had hardly 
chinked up the rude church, until the school and 
college followed, and the influence of the Puritan 
has gone throughout all the land until the new 
States of the West make the land grant for a pub- 
lic school system the first clause in their constitu- 
tions, and their schools are endowed with a 
princely magnificence. 

To the superficial observer, and indeed, to 
many of our crumbling taxpayers, it would seem 
that we are doing all we can for the cause of 
education : but how great an error this is ! I 
have been lately reading a most interesting com- 
pilation of statistics, and I am indebted to it for 



128 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Sot, 



much information. The census shows that in 
1880 there were in the United States 1,908,801 
illiterate voters, men who could not write their 
own names, and this number will probably be 
increased. The Committee on Education of the 
United States Senate estimates the entire school 
population of the United States at 18,000.000, of 
which 7,500,000, or five-twelfths of the whole, 
are growing to manhood or womanhood without 
even a knowledge of the alphabet. What avast 
field remains to be sown ! What an opportunity 
is there ! In 1880, of the persons employed in 
the United States 1,118,356 were children 15 
years of age and under. The number increased 
m ten years 21 per cent, more rapidly than the 
population. These children should all be in the 
public school, but how many of them ever ex- 
perience its blessines ? To come a litde nearer 
nome, there is a problem at our very doors which 
is pressing for solution. It is momentous, and 
cannot remain lon^; as it is without peril to our 
institutions. A writer in the North American 
Review has already called the attention of the 
Nation to the fact that there are to-day little chil- 
dren from six years old and upwards working 
on the coal-breakers at our mines, in the dirt 
and dust, from early dawn to dark, every work- 
ing day, and this is the only> school they know. 
Think of it — ^what it means ! Stunted bodies, im- 
bruted, darkened minds, ignorance, and vice. 
It is estimated that there are 3,000 children be- 
tween six and fifteen years of age at work on 
the coal-breakers in the upper part of Luzerne 
county, Pennsylvania, alone. How shall these 
be reached ? Is it any wonder there are discon- 
tent and strikes ? What a harvest must inevita- 
bly come from such a sowing ! The child on 
the breaker and in the factory, as well as the 
illiterate voter, must be educated, or there is 
peril in store for our country. This is a problem 
for all thoughtful, observing minds. It is the 
proudest boast of our system that the school door 
is open to the children of the poor as well as the 
rich ; that equal laws, under our flag of the free, 
confer equal privileges to all ; but the startling 
figures show that 1,118.356 children are spend- 
ing the years of their lives that should be given 
to the public schools, in the narrow round of un- 
healthtul occupations, learning the lesson of 
crime. Under the blighting curse of African 
slavery, education was denied by some of the 
proud States of our country to the children of 
an enslaved and outcast race. We reverently 
thank God that this is no longer so, and the 
thought that I would impress in this brief ad- 
dress, is that we must see that the little children 
of our own and other races, in this the noon-day 
of the world's civilization, shall come into the 
beneficent light which streams out from the 
American puolic school. 

It is but stating a truism, a mere common- 
place, to say that we are living in a remarkable 
age, the most remarkable the world has yet 
seen. It is a time of great opportunities, and 
thoughtful men see in the next few years a 
seed-time which will be far-reaching and im- 
portant in the world's history. The responsi- 
bility on teacher, and trustee, and pupil, is vast 
and incalculable. God has cast our lot in an 



empire which is the most continuous, the mi 
united, the most magnificent yet possessed 
any people. The census of 1880 snowed us 
the world as the richest of all nations. Our 
ducts. are in excess of Great Britain by 
000,000, we have 2.970.000 square miles of 
and 1,500,000 arable. China supports a 
lation of three hundred and sixty millioQS 
1,348,870 square miles of land, less than 
half of ours, if we except Alaska, and the 
tains of China alone occupy 300.000 sqi 
miles. One-ninth only of our land is cultivi 
and that in a wasteful manner- We 
grand territory, capable of sustaining a tho^ 
millions of peophe. It is estimated that 
whole population could be placed in Texas, 
it would not be as densely peopled as 
Dakota could take them, and it would not 
crowded as it is in England and Wales, 
could all be fed in Texas too, as she has 164,; 
square miles of land, and could, if properly 
tivated, produce enough in a single year to n 
tain all our people. The mind is staggered 
the contemplation of the magnitude and 
sources of our domain. By rapid strides 
have climbed to the front rank of nations, 
it is the universal testimony of the most 
found thinkers, and keenest observers, that 
country is to shape the future. God s( 
have selected this people and this time, f 
others, in which to work out the greatest 
to man, and within this century tne great^ 
vances toward progress and civilization in 
history of the numan race have been m; 
The locomotive,'the steani-press, steamboat, 
the telegraoh have made history fast, and 
nihilated aistance and time. The world 
lived thousands of years smce steam and 
tricity brought its peoples together. 

With all our marvelous growth, with aQ 
attractions our land possesses, with a" 
chances for wealth, with all tfie protection 
freedom gives, is it wonderful, that the n 
of the earth are coming hither in such a n 
flood ? It is not strange that in the single 
1882, almost 800,000 landed on our sh 
They are swarming into all our ports, and 
continue to come. With the peaceful Ger 
the sturdy Swede, the thrifty Hollander, 
the liberty-loving Irishman, we have to take 
exiled German Socialist, the Russian Nih* 
the Revolutionist of France, and the libei 
convictT— the bad with the good — ^and one of 
gravest problems is. How shall we deal 
unrestricted emigration? We must digest, 
must assimilate this heterogeneous mass. Tl 
must be made citizens, their children i<>^''^!|! 
educated in our schools. It is to the scbofll 
teachers of America we all must look to haH 
these children grow up Americans, in full svi^ 
pathy with all our laws and institutions, itf 
an important work ; it is a work that mustN 
done. In wotking out the problem of self'j^ 
ernment on this soil, we have, under M> 
passed through the valley of the shadow tf 
death unharmed, through foreign warand atl 
strife, awful in its magnitude, tremendous in itti 
results; but our flag floats to-day with not* 
single star in its blue firmanent dimmed or 00- 



r 



1887.J 



STATE TEACHERS^ ASSOCIATION, 



129 



I, the admiration of the world. There will 

for our future* dangers for our fortitude, 

iptations for the weak, room for our courage. 

will experience the enervating influences 

attend luxury and wealth, but we have 

that this educational army will stand then 

[SOW between us and disaster. 

[Above all must we remember that learning 

intelligence are not all for which we must 

They will not compensate for irreligion 

cflirupt morals, and we must not forget 

t the civilizations of Greece and Rome were 

r, and learning more widely diffused, at 

iod than at the beginning. Corruption and 

began in the period of their greatest 

ity. "Man shall not live by bread 

Christianity must crown the work, and 

of knowledge must point the way and 

sine the path to the Cross of Christ. The 

"ing idea of Greek civilization was the 

after beauty which has left us the marbles 

[which mankind have wondered. With the 

of Rome the central idea was that of 

in its omnipotence and majesty, and that 

been the admiration of succeeding gen- 

)ns. Here in this dear land of ours, we 

erected a temple dedicated to civil liberty, 

dful in its proportions, radiant with the 

light of the Christian religion, and we 

hope that this may stand as the living 

lent of what may be accomplished by a 

people. The world is thronging at its 

attracted by its- beauty and enjoying its 

ges. 

chief pillar, the central support in this 

^ is the one of Education. Let it be our 

to see that it is not weakened, for this may 

)y &e structure. Guard and preserve it, 

then shall we more than realize all the 

dons of the great and good who havd 

td in the past, and transmit into the hands 

:eeding generations, the blessings of these 

imstitutions we all enjoy unspotted and un- 

d; and the Republic will move on majes- 

to the great future which we believe the 

lof Nations has placed before it. 

r.GEO. W. Atherton, of the State Col- 
was called upon, but excused himself 
^account of the lateness of the hour from 
ig more than a few words of greeting. 
true philosophy of education must be 
by comparing views, and thus get- 
idown to principles; and this body, in 
that line of work, will find its highest 

fc.R. K. BuEHRLE said it was part of his 
^ to speak for the absent. On the pro- 
for this evening was the name of 
fligbee. The State Superintendent was 
BOW crowded with work. On Tuesday 
^ at Mount Joy orphan school exami- 
Jon; the same evening he met the new 
iation of College presidents at Lancas- 
; on Wednesday he was here for a few 
1^5, and would have addressed us, but a 
■^understanding about the train time com- 



pelled him to leave while Mrs. Hunt was on 
the platform. On l^is behalf. Dr. B. ex- 
tended his hearty greetings to the Associa- 
tion. Another absentee was Dr. Wicker- 
sham. After being State Superintendent 
and Minister to Denmark, he had been pro- ' 
moted to a seat in the School Board of Lan- 
caster ; and he was there to-night, attending 
to what he considered a very important 
matter — the settlement of the question 
whether the schools of that city shall be 
made absolutely free, by the purchase by the 
Board of all the books and stationery for 
the schools — ^thus placing the poorest child 
on an equality with the richest, and compel- 
ling no one to ask as a charity the necessary 
tools of education. So the Doctor's zeal, 
so often manifested on this floor, is not less- 
ened, but as active as^ever ; he is true to the 
principle he has advocated for ^thirty yeats 
in his absence to-night, which no one re- 
grets more than himself. 

Speaking for himself, Dr. B. went on to 
say that he had spent a week in a clear field, 
and had met but one Savage — and, notwith- 
standing the experience of scalping-knife 
and tomahawk, he still lived to realize as 
never before that ''the post of honor is the 
private station." One thought that had 
often impressed itself upon him in these 
meetings is that we give a disproportionate 
amount of attention to the question. How 
shall our children make a living ? — a matter 
of little difficulty to any industrious person 
in. a rich country like ours. The teaching 
they need is, above all else. How to live. 
How the millions that are to come after us 
shall live, is the problem the common school 
must solve. Before this question, the mat- 
ter of industrial training falb into insignifi- 
cance. On this question, we need all the 
light that can be shed by the highest talent 
and culture of our country. No land ever 
came to grief because it could not sustain its 
people; they suffered because they were 
ignorant of how to Uve. 

Hon. D. L. Krebs was introduced, and 
after expressing his pleasure at meeting here 
the foremost educators of the State, gave spe- 
cial attention to the question, How shall we 
meet the questions raised by the tide of emi- 
gration pouring into our country milliofis of 
uneducated people from foreign lands, to- 
tally unprepared for the duties of citizenship ? 
Our hope, he said, is in the dissemination of 
the principles of Christianity through the 
common schools. Christianity is part of the 
law of this State, and its fundamental prin- 
ciples should be daily and hourly taught to 
the children, that its spirit may work upon 



I30 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[S 



their fiitttre lives. Government is an ordi- 
nance of God, and the child should be so 
taught that he may imbibe respect for law, 
and so be trained for good citizenship. He 
read an extract from the proceedings of an 
anarchist meeting, and denounced that class 
as one that should be crushed under the iron 
heel of law. Instead of the "red flag," we 
need the teaching of Jesus, that the highest 
aim of man is to love God supremely, and 
his neighbor as himself. 

Richard Darlington, being called upon, 
said his recollection of these meetings went 
back some 28 years. In 1859, at West 
Chester, the Association wound up with a 
banquet — he was glad we were not going to 
do so to-night. In those days we had less 
music, less elocution, more discussion. We 
had there the &reat Commoner, Thaddeus 
Stevens, who did more than any other one 
man to engraft upon our constitution and 
laws the free school principle. There were 
also Burrowes, Allen, Taylor — ^ardent, zeal- 
ous men — who took prominent part in the 
work. In the present session, not all the 
educational interests of the State are repre- 
sented — few are here from the colleges, 
almost none from the private schools. This 
is not because there is war among us — there 
ought to be no conflict ever again, and 
there will be none. The college men are 
at Lancaster this week, and will probably 
meet where we do next year. Our educa- 
tional system grows in the right direction. 
We want no German system : Prussia edu- 
cates her people for subjects, America must 
educate hers for citizens. He was glad to 
know that Pennsylvania teachers had done 
.so much to promote the interests of educa- 
tion in a commonwealth equal to any in the 
world — one which was able to furnish coal 
to warm and oil to light every poor man's 
home on earth. He was glad to be here, and 
hoped this meeting would produce good re- 
sults. We want to open every door to the 
poor man's child ; the rich can take care of 
themselves. Luther was the son of a peasant ; 
Lincoln and Garfleld were poor boys ; we 
want to help such boys to the front — that is 
the business of the common school system. 

Deputy Supt. J. Q. Stewart being called 
upon, reminded the members that when we 
were suffering with the heat at the Harrisburg 
session, and afterwards at Allentown, we had 
been advised to come up into the mountains, 
where the cool breezes would be enjoyed by 
every one — ^where there never was too high 
a temperature, except for an hour or two at 
noon on a midsummer day I Such was the 
inducement held out to us by the advocates 



of Clearfield as a desirable place of meetingi 
and acting upon it we came here. We wei^ 
promised a warm welcome, but we did m 
understand the words as we do now ! It 
wise in our Scranton friends not to try 
convince us that it is not hot there in 
mer time. Much as we might have enj< 
Chautauqua, he thought that we had 
well to decide against going out of our 
State. We need the influence exerted 
by these meetings ; much of the advance ii 
public sentiment is due to the work of thi( 
Association, and to the County Institutes, ' 
waking up their communities to a better 
preciation of the work and its needs. 

The work of this body has been felt 
along the history of school legislation, 
notably in the past year. The teachers 
the State have made effective use of their n 
fluence in their respective localities to 
the enactment of a law to extend the mi 
mum school term to six months. This 
has been passed, but not without encoonl 
ing persistent opposition in both branches^ 
the Legislature, which was overcome oi 
by the vigilance and earnestness of its 
porters. In the beginning of the agital 
six years ago, when the first organized el 
was made to increase the term, it was 
even to secure for the measure a res[ 
hearing, so indifferent were many repi 
tatives to the interests of our public sch< 
For three consecutive biennial sessions 
bill was introduced, and at the recent 
Ik passed the House by 103 votes — only 
to spare over the constitutional majority 
quired. It went to the Senate and was 
feated, but at the last moment it was 
rected and passed finally in that body. 
the work of the teachers of the State much 
the credit of this success is due, and we 
to-night congratulate our teachers on tl 
partial realization of the plan sketched 
by this Association 30 years ago. Even 
that early day the friends of the school s] 
tem asked for a minimum of seven montfaSi 
By the act of May 8, 1854, four months wtf 
fixed as the minimum term, by the act of 
April 9, 1 87 2, it was increased to five months, 
since which time until this year no further 
increase was made by law. 

It is a fact to be deplored by the friends of 
education throughout the State, that aboa^ 
eight hundred townships or school districttf 
having within their territorial limits nearly 
six thousand schools, failed to increase the 
term a single day beyond the minimum since 
1872. This is the more to be regretted in 
view of the fact that in a majority of these 
districts the schools were frequently closed 



I887.J 



STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, 



I3» 



at the end of a five months' tenn with funds 
ID the district treasury. The passage of the 
Six Months act by the Legislature, and its 
.prompt approval by Governor Beaver, in- 
sures an aidditional month of school during 
the ensuing term for over two hundred and 
tmnty-five thousand children in Pennsylvania. 

But the Legislature of 1887 did not stop 
, tkit— it increased the school appropriation 
to a million and a half of dollars, which 
o^gbtto insure better salaries for teachers 
ill over the State. And lastly, it provided 
fcrpajring the teachers for the time spent 
jt the County Institute, which practically 
laises the minimum school term to six 
noDths and five days ; and he hoped teach- 
ers everywhere would refuse to sign con- 
|nu:ts waiving this right. In all these ad- 
lance steps, the 20,000 teachers of Pennsyl- 
nnia have been heard, and their influence 
eit as a potent factor in securing progressive 

islation for the schools. 

CLOSING EXERCISES. 

The retiring President (Supt. Coughlin) 

'*d he had enjoyed this session so much 

U he felt like beginning it all over again, 

staying another week ; but since the 

le had arrived to close, he would once 



more assure the Association of his apprecia- 
tion of the honor conferred upon him, and 
thank them for their forbearance and co- 
operation. He hoped to see all their famil- 
iar faces at these meetings for many years to 
come, and that the work of this body might, 
in the future as in the past, accomplish 
great things for our great Commonwealth. 

He then appointed Supts. Buehrle and 
McNeal a committee to escort the Presi- 
dent-elect to the chair, which was done, and 
he was formally introduced. 

President Savage thanked the Association 
for the honor conferred, and expressed the 
kindest feeling toward those whose prefer- 
ence had been for another candidate. He 
would endeavor to the best of hb ability to 
justify the choice of the majority, whose 
earnest support he fully appreciated. 

Supt. Keck (Treasurer) made a statement 
of the statistics of this session. The entire 
enrolment, including two life members, was 
438, of whom 233 were from Clearfield 
county. The receipts were ^560.80; ex- 
penditures 1^96.10. 

After singing the Long Metre Doxology 
and benediction by Rev. McKinlsy, Associ- 
ation adjourned, to meet next year at Scran- 
ton, at the call of the Executive Committee. 



♦ » ♦ 



MEMBERS IN ATTENDANCE. 



ALLEGHENY — 2. 

T. Daniel, 
S. Latham. 

UMSTKONG — 2. 
lin Bowser, 
Bowser. 

BUYER— I. 

M.Reed. 

BCDFORO — I. 
Jobn H. Cessna. 

BERKS— II. 

^ S. Keck, 
J'CSchaeffer, 
!*»• C. Young, 
J f Augsburg, 
I }*E.Palridgc, 
*^M.E. Berry, 
J^Lttae Radford, 
JjgleW. Wicklein, 
«»koaJ. Bieber, 
^f-HeUman. 
** H. Kanf&nan. 

8UIR— 20. 
\ H. likens, 
?*»i<i S. Keith, 
m KinseU, 
J- F. Knkerton, 
JancisCaisidy, 
*• S. Datis, 



Maria Klos, 
Grace Morrison, 

i. A. Stewart, 
Irs. J. A. Stewart. 
£. £. Ale, 
Jennie Kean, 
Tillie Reinewalt, 
Martha Neville, 
M. F. Mendenhall, 
Anna M. Johnston, 
Lindie D. Canan, 
Louisa Dysart, 
H. S. Wertz, 

D. F. Myers. 

BUCKS — 2. 

W. H. Slotter, 
Elizabeth Lloyd. 

BUTLER — I. 

E. Mackey. 

CAMBRIA — 4. 

W. J. Cramer, 
L. Strayer, 
T. T. Bearer, 
Josephine Gregg, 

CARBON — I. 
James J. Bevan. 

CENTRE — 14. 

D. M. Wolfe, 
Louis E. Reber, 



John W. Heston, 
Milton W. Bohn, 
T. Wilber Smith, 
Mary A. Waring, 
W. \\, Sheeder, 
Myrtle Grey, 
Mary E. Ward, 

C. C. Shultz, 

F. W. A. Shultz, 
Phoebe Hoover, 
Lizzie Hamilton, 
Newton Williams. 

CHESTER — 6. 
Jas. S. Walton, 
Geo. M. Philips, 
Geo. L. Maris, 

D. M. Sensenig, 
J. P. Welsh, 
Richard Darlington. 

CLARION — 7. 
C. F. McNutt, 
A. J. Davis, 
R. J. Yingling, 
John Ballentine, 
Rev. W.W. Deatrick, 
Z. A. Space, 
J. W. Wamick. 

CLEARFIELD — 233. 

Matt. Savage. 
Mrs. Matt. Savage, 



B. C. Youngman, 
Jas. J. H. Hamilton, 
Mary Myrtel, 
Anna Hall, 
Alice Heisey, 
Minnie Hall, 
Debbie Reed, 
Clara Barrett, 
Sadie M. Gallaher, 
Madge P. Forcey, 
A. A. Bird, 
Alice E. Bird, 
Nellie Bird, 
Florence L. Beyer, 
M. L. McQuown, 
Mrs.M.L.McQuown, 
S. L Burge, 
John F. Weaver, 
Ruth Weaver. 
Rebecca Weaver, 
Kate Weaver, 
John F. Irwin, 
George W. Weaver, 
Oscar Mitchell, 
S. T. Bailey, 
John M. Adams, 
Ruth McGaughey, 
S. K. Rank, 
D. C. Sharp, 
Emma E. Sharp, 
Frank Merrell, 
Agnes Myrter, 



Bessie Dale, 
G. C. Roland, 

D. W. Krouer. 
R. H. Shaw, 
Blanche M. Wallace, 
Chas. H. Bickel, 

J. M. Martin, 
Fannie B. Coyle, 
John C. Barclay, 
Mrs. Clara McCord, 
Mrs. W. V. Wright, 
A. J. Haag, 
Mrs. J. A. Haag, 
Anna Savage, 
Kate M. MitcheU, 
Ellen J. Browne, 
Nannie K. Smith, 
Sue Gallaher, 
Chas. W. Tate, 

E. E. De Haven, 
J. L. Bailey, 

G. W. L. Oster, 
Gertrude Winters, 
J. L. Sayler, 
Zella Bloom, 
James G. Hill, 
Martha Ricketts, 
May McFarlane, 
Mary A. Heverly, 
Frank McGoey, 
Annie Worrell, 
May Hamilton, 



132 

Louie Lines, 
Ida Gerbait/ 
Herbert MehafTey, 
A. J. Smith, 
May Wood. 
EUa Read, 
Sophia McGovem, 
Mrs. L. M. Albert, 
Mary Powell, 
Singleton Bell, 
Mary Kirk, 
Maggie Forcey, 
Martha Sweeney, 
J. C. Harman, 
Henrietta ,Irvin, 
VadaJ. Kephait, 
Blanche Reynolds, 
H. P. Hewitt, 
J. M. Posthlewait, 
Jennie Owens, 
Annie M. Matthews, 
Maggie Reams, 
Carrie Stewart, 
Bertha Hay, 
Amy Taylor, 
Mrs. J. McPherson. 
Mrs. Jno. A. Boynton, 
Ehza Nevling, 
J. Boynton, 

J. B. Nevling, 
oseph Kirk, Jr., 
E. C. L. Barto, 
Sadie Mullen, 
Cora Read, 

E. J. Duffy, 

Paul Z. McKenrick, 
A. C. Holvey, 
G. B. Reed, 
G. M. Henry, 
T. A. Prideaux, 

F. K. Flegal, 
J. A. Dale, 
Josie Dowler, 
Maggie Mills, 
Wm. Scot^ 

F. H. McCully, 
A. M. Bloom, 
E. B. Forcey, 
Tacie Ross, 
James Kerr, 
E. A. Goodfellow, 
Robert Coflfy, 
James MahaJSTey, 
A. W. Lee, 
H. M. Pentz, 
D. D. Callahan, 
Agnes Shoemaker, 
Maggie E. Mead, 
Clara Corbin, 
Carrie McDivitt, 
Irvin Passmore, 
Tacie E. Ross, 
Mary L. Campbell, 
Kate L. Wertz, 
Mary B. Nevling, 
C. Ira Krebs, 
H. D. Pearce, 
Jennie Dewalt, 
Jennie M. Read, 
Elnia M. Read, 
Katie Mehrwein, 
Janet Patterson, 
Alice J. Irwin, 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



Lldie Mattem, 

A. L. Scofried, 
Geo. R. McCully, 
Emma Shirey, 
Jennie Shirey, 
Mattie Thompson, 

E. C. Bowman, 
Nettie Fenton, 
Mary M. Gallaher, 
Jennie Neff, 
Albert S. Brooks, 
R. A. Zentmyer, 
Fannie Buchanan, 
W. C. Miller, 
Frank Hutton» 
Harvey Roland, 

B. F. Chase, 
G. W. Mattem, 
Alice B. Shirey, 
Nettie G. Devinney, 
G. M. Passmore, 
Maud Sankey, 
Addie Tate, 

Elva L. Sankey, 
A. T. Erhard, 
Sophie Whitehill, 
W. Clay McGee, 
Geo. W. Wiley, 
Mary Tate, 

C. A. Haag, 
JohnC Nolen 
M. A. Hilliard, 
H. E. Meckley, 
Lizzie Beyers, 
Rebecca Work, 
George P. Weaver, 
A. L. Warrick, 
Silas Frampton, 
Carrie K. Dotts, 
Ella Neff, 

Grant Smith, 
J. Milton Weaver, 
Tensie Way, 
Emma R. Worrell, 
H. A. Haverly, 
Laura E. Lord, 
M. R. Ogden, 
Sue E. Owens, 
J. B. McEnally, 
Mary Whitehill, 
C. L. Biddle, 
C. Biddle, 
J. F. Snyder, 
Nora Crawford, 
Ida Beistle, 
Jennie M. Cook, 
Bertha Shaw, 

F. G. Harris, 
Eli Bloom, 
Ida A. Neff, 
Mollie McCardell, 
Robert Miles, 
Jennie F. Henderson, 
Mina J. Sloss, 
Blanche Sloss, 

J. W. Bell. 
Glencora Kephart, 
Blanche Spackman, 
Helen Ir^^in, 
Alta Spackman, 
Hettie Graham, 
Elva B. Lambom, 
Nannie M. Moyer, 



Lou Farwell, 
John N. Ake. 
Mrs. John N. Ake, 
Delia Russell, 
D. R. Fullerton,. 
Mary J. Kinney, 
D. B. Williams, 
Alice E. Kirk, 
W. P. Harpter, 
Emma L. Weaver, 
James Savage, 
J. F. Clare, 
Robert Young, 
Frankie Johnson, 
Mary E. Keenan, 
Frank W. Curry, 
Jesse E. Dale, 
W. D. Isenberg, 
Zella Hayes, 
Lou Prince, 
Carrie E. Vaughan. 

CLINTON — 13. 
D. M. Brumgard, 
James Eldon, 
Geo. P. Beard, 
John A. Robb. 
W. P. Dick, 
Mrs. Ida M. Dick, 
Anna M. Warner, 
Clarissie Haberstroh, 
Sadie Watson, 
Sallie E. Rhoads, 
Ella Williams, 
Mary Williams, 
Geo. P. Bible. 

COLUMBIA — 4. 

J. S. Grimes, 
D. J. Waller, Jr. 
Wm. Noetling, 
J. G. Cope. 

DAUPHIN — 7. 

R. M. McNeal, 
L. O. Foose, 
L. E. McGinnes, 
John H. Holtzinger, 
lola Urich, 
A. L. Crowe, 
P. G. Williams. 

DELAWARE — 2. 

A. G. C. Smith, 
Eliza J. Brewster. 

ELK — I. 

C. J. Swift. 

ERIE — 4. 

H. S. Jones, 
G. A. Langley, 
R. E. Hayti, 
Abbie Low. 

FAYETTE — I. 

L. H. Herrington. 

HUNTINGDON — 5. 

M. G. Brumbaugh, 
W. J. Swigart, 
Mattie McDivitt, 
Mary Geist, 
Ella Ralston. 

INDIANA — ^4. 

W. A. Cochran, 



Geo. W, Innes, 

A. E. Maltby, 
Jane E. Leonard. 

JEFFERSON — ^^5. 

Rose Butler, 
Ella Hastings, 
Lizzie Hastings, 
Belle Keys, 
Margery Thompson. 

JUNIATA — I. 

W. E. Auman. 

LACKAWANNA — 4. 

N. S. Davis, 
Geo. W. Phillips, 
J. Elliot Ross, 
Mrs. J. Elliot Ross. 

LANCASTER — II. 

E. E. Higbee,* 

B. F. Shaub, 
R. K. Buehrle, 
E. O. Lyte, 
Geo. W. Hull, 
I. S. Geist, 

S. H. Hoffman, 
J. P. McCaskey, 
Wm. Riddle. 
J. D. Pyott, 
Mary Bowman. 

LAWRENCE — I. 

J. Q. Stewart. 

LEBANON — 5. 

W. B. Bodenhom, 
J. T. Nitrauer, 
Henry Houck, 
George W. Houck, 

Carrie Altenderfer. 

• 

LEHIGH — ^5. 

J. O. Knauss, 
L. B. Landis, 
A. R. Home, 
Thos. W. Bevan, 
A. F. K. Krout. 

LUZERNE — 8. 

Jas. M. Coughlin, 

D. A. Harman, 
Will. S. Monroe, 
P. F. Fallon, 

A. W. Potter, 
Ida J. Patton, 

E. I. Wolfe, 
Boyd Trescott. 

LYCOMING — 9. 

Charles Lose, 
Mrs. Charles Lose, 
S. Transeau, 
Chas. W. Scott. 
Maggie Laird, 
Sallie S. Kirk, 
Cora Clark, 



[Sept. 

Annie Carlisle, 
Sophia Richard. 

m'kean— 2. 
W. P. Eckels, 
Mrs. E. L. McCain. 

MIFFLIN— I. 
J. A. Myers. 

MONTGOMERY— 2. 

M. E. DotU, 
Kate Titus. 

northumberl'i>-2. I 
W. E. Bloom, 
Wm. F. Harpel. 

PERRY— I. 

Frank B. Ellis. i 



POTTER— I. 
Henry H. Kies. 

SCHUYLKILL— 7. 

Geo. W. Weiss, 
H. H. Spayd, 

C. H. Moycr, 

B. F. Luckenbill, 
J. M. Hoffman, 

D. H. Christ, 
W. C. Jacobs. 

SNYDER— 3. 

C. W. Hermann, 
H. K. Gregory, 
I. N. Johns. 

somerset— I. 
J. M. Berkey. 

SUSQUEHANNA--2. 

U. B. Gillet, 
Benton E. James. 

union— I. 
B. R. Johnston. 

WARREN— I. 

A. B. Miller. 

WASHINGTON— 2. j 

Geo. A. Spindler, 
T. B. Noss. 

WESTMORELAND— 2. 

Geo. H. Hugos, 
M. J. Mohney. 

YORK— I. 
H. C. Brenneman. 

PHILADELPHIA—^. 

J. F. Sickel, 
Wm. H. Samuel, 
J. A. M. Passmore,* 
Silas S. Neff, 
A. P. Flint, 
W. H. Bamett, 
R. H. Campbell, 
Julia A. Orum. 



OTHER STATES — 6. 

H. J. Danforth, New York City, 

T. R. Hill, New York, 

G. B. Hulse, New York, 

T. H. Dinsmore, Jr., Emporia, Kansas. 

D. Frazer, Boston, Mass. 

Matilda H. Ross, Chicago, 111. 

Total, 438 (2 Life members.) 

*Life Members. 



i887.] 



PUBLISHERS' DEPARTMENT. 



m 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. ; 

rhe New Volume (36lh) of The School Journal 
began with the July No. We lake pleasure in ac- 
knowledging the following orders for subscription, 
Dany of which are from old subscribers who have 
kmg been on our mailing list. With prompt renewal 
Tht Journal can be mailed regularly with each 
DDoothly issue, which is always more satisfactory to 
(he sabscriber. The more general the circulation of 
Thi Journal the belter for the schools everywhere, 
^e Jball always try to make it worth more than its 
eoAtD the reader, and of especial value to Teachers 
tidto School Officers. Can the average Board of 
School Directors better expend Seven Dollars in the 
JBterest of their Schools than by ordering The School 
Immal to each of its Members for one year ? The 
Lw of the State assumes that it cannot ; and the ex- 
perience of the most progressive School Boards has 
far many years approved the wisdom of this law. 

/iuNi.— Butler District, A. A. Wierman, Secretary ; Hun* 
lufdoD, J. W. Wierman: Latimore, Geo. L. Deardorff; 
Xcv Oxford, E. G. Cook ; Reading, Augustus Deatrich. 

^//iyAnnr.— Bethel, T. M. Walker; Braddock twp., A. C. 
Cotther; Coraopolts. W. B. Dillon; Elizabeth twp., R. S. 
dfevait; Indiana, w . J. Robinson; Lincoln, Alex. Calhoun ; 
IkKeesport, Jno. W. btewart ; Plum. C. Kane; Richland, D. 
D.McKelvy; Reserve, L. A. Hoffman; Ross. J. F. McDon- 
ald; Sewickley, W. M. Johnston; Snowden, Jacob Linhart; 
N. Vcnaillcs. John J . Stewart ; Scott, E. P. Holland ; Verona, 
> A. H.Rowland. 

I Armttromf. — Kbkiminetas, H. C. JCnappenberger; Madi 
MB, Henry M *' " ~ " 



Henry M Keller; Parks, R. G. Parks. 

" C. Woodruff. 

Miller; North Heidelberg, R. M- 



Jbmrr.— Bridgewaier, J. C. Woodruff. 

i^Av.— Birdsboro, D. R. Miller ; Nortn neideioerg, J 
Gniber; Long Swamp. James F. Wertz; Penn, Jno. K. Bal 
iaser: Union, Sam'l L. Wolf; Robeson, J. H. £schelman. 

^^f>.— Allqtheny, Geo. McCloskey ; Antes, David Man- 
%; Freedom, Geo. W. Benton ; E. Hollidaysburg, C. £. 
[bfafelt; Logan. J. W. Smiley: North Woodbury, H. D. 
mger; Taylor, E. C. Kagarise; Tyrone Twp., A. L. 
: Woodbury, £. W. Hartman. 

Br44f9rd.—k%y\Mm, W. H. Benjamin; Orwell, H. H. At- 
\wA; Wyalusing, T. C. Lee. 

ifsciy.— Bnstol Boro., Byram C. Foster; HiUtown, Samuel 
iR.Moycr; New Hope, J. P. Smith: Plumstead, Harvey 
jGsTiaa. 

iirt^.— Buffalo, S. S. Fleming ; Penn, James Martin ; 

Tiifield. J. C. Oalbraith. 
Cmi^tu,— Cambria Twp., G. J. Jones; Millville, Enoch 

UrJM.^Banks, Hugh Ferry; Kidder, A. P. Carter; Le- 
^a, F. P. Lentz. 

Cnfrr.—Bellefonte, Wm. B. Rankin; College, Theo. S. 
^: Haines. J. H. Wyle. 

CUflrr.— Bradford East, Chas. S. CArter; Coatesville 

Vko., Dr. H. E. Williams; North Coventry, Wm. Smith; 

M«&, Urs. A. E. Stone; Spring City, W. J. Wagoner; East 

Taccat.C. W. Brown; Valley, Hugh Kenworthy. 

Q«riM.—E. Brady, R. Robinson; Elk, T. W. Updegraff. 

Cte*i^«/^.— Greenwood, G. W. Dickey; Lawrence, Peter 

Mutian; Morris, C. E. Belcher; Woodward, Thos. Beynon. 

Cfial^a.-AUison, J. A. Leitzell, 

Cf/aaiMt.— Berwick, D. C. McHenry; Greenwood, L K. 
Tiwsn; Pine, Ezra Eves. 

Cra«/#r^.— Meadville, D. D. Leberman; Saegertown, G. 
W.Rhodes: S. Shenango, J. P. Mc Arthur; Sparu, £. A. El- 
an; Summit, N. W. Read. 
CaaiirrAuM^.— Carlisle, C. P. Humrich ; Hampden, David 
: South Middleton, Chas. £, WoU, Monroe, J. M. 
^5]r; Newville, D. S. McCoy; Penn, F. G. Williamson; 
^Mboro.J. P. Wilbar; W. Pennsboro, Jno. Dtnkleber- 
, ^ ^ppensburg Twp., John L Cox. 

L^Mm.-Halifisx Twp., Hiram Yeager; Middletown. W. 

tt Jy* ^' Lower Paxton. David Smeltzer; Steelton, C. A. 

^"^■l: Swatara, J. H. Walter; Lower Swatara, S. B. 

?^; Lykens, W. S. Young; Hummelstown, M. K. 

*|g*er; WilUams,j. W. Hoffman. 

^•^wiiMrr.— North Coester, David Aaron; South Chester, 
I y- J. Hewes ; Upper Darby, Geo. E. Burnley ; Ridley, T. F. 
!S**"= ^P^ndf Le'^w J. aniith ; Chester City, H. L. Don- 
Wdiw: Cltfton Heights, Geo. Heath. 

Li?'"^*"**®^©. J -J. McWilllams ; MiU Creek, R. H. Ar- 

gwde; North East twp.. F. A. Mallick; Springfield, H. G. 

l«»»ny; Erie City, Thos. O'Dea; Fairview Twp., J. M.Tag. 

prt: LcBoeuf, J. McGonnell; Union City, L. D. Rockwell. 

^•9"*<r.-Redstooe- L. D. Craft. 

f«»;rf.-Jeaks, P. V. MereiUiott ; Kingsley, H. A. Zuen- 
• Tionestt Twp., Geo. a Armstrong. 



Franklin. — ^Montgomery. Henry B. Angle; Quincy, H. 
Heintzelman ; Waynesboro, S. C. Plank. 

/W/tfj».— Wells, J. R. Foster. 

{^r^Mi^.— Gilmore, T. M. Hennen; Monongahela, N.' M. 
Hartley. 

^MM/ii»/'^<»«f.— Huntingdon, Geo. W. Sanderson; Porter, 
W. S Huyett; Warrior's Mark, J. Fetterhoof. 

/i«i/«aiM.— Banks, C. D. Smith ; Cherry Hill, J. W. How- 
earth; Conemaueh, J. N. Coleman; Greene, J. L. Myers; S. 
Mahoning, Wm. Morrow; White, Joseph Griffith. 

ytfftrson. — Warsaw, Lewis Evans. 

Lackatoannn. — Ransom. Thomas Johnston. 

Lanctuter. — West Cocalico, John £. Gehman ; Columbia, 
L. W. May; East Donegal, Jas. F. Johnstin; West Donegal, 
Solomon Hoover; Drumore, J. C. Helm; East Earl, L H. 
Handwork ; West Eari, Ruoy Frankhouser ; Ephnita, Jacob 
Gorgas ; East Hempfield, H. W. Graybill; West Hempfield, J. 



L. Keitzell; East Lampeter,!. F. Landis; West Lampeter, 
Hebron M. Herr; Leacock, M. Buck waiter; Mount Joy, C. 
G. Sherk ; Paradise, D. B. Esbenshade ; Pequea, A. B. Shank : 



Penn, Jno. H. Kreider; Rapho, A. S. Brubaker ; Strasburg, 
J. H. Long; Strasburg Twp., B. F. Musselman; Warwick, 
iry S. Miller: Conestoga, Henry H. Kurtz. 



I em 



Lebanon. — South Annville, Frederick Yake; Jackson, Frank 
Stoudt; Mill Creek, H. L. Illig; N. Lebanon Ind., M. B. 
Blanch. 

Z,«Atf><%.~Catasauqua, David Davis; W. Bethlehem, E. 
Engler; White Hall, F. G. Bcmd. 



LuMtrn*. — Conyngham, J. W. Harter; Hazleton, Geo. Hei- 
enreich; Pittston Twp., P. J. Ruaune; Plains. Jas Martin; 
Fairmount, S. C. Buckalew ; Freeland, W. G. Sufford : Ply- 



A ««ft Aaa\/iAaaby »^» x^> ***a**«%»»a^»v ^ a • ^^a^ftA^aB »» ^^» ^^tt^sa^r*^* g * »j 

mouth Twp., Patrick Devers; Sugar Loaf, Wm. F. Tressler; 
HazleTwp., B. F. Fallon. 

ZvctfiNfMr.— Clinton, C. C. Kelchner; Mclntyre, David 
Sechrist ; Mill Creek, John M. Fague. 

MeKtan — Bradford City, Jas. Robinson; Bradford twp., 
Wm. Lockhart; La Fayette, E. W. Penfield; Norwich, C. W. 
Dickinson. 

Mercer. — Delaware, Geo. W. Magee ; Lackawannock, J. 
W. Hope : Salem, W. A. McLean ; Sandy Lake, B. U. Owen. 

jlfr^/i«.— Union. David H. Zook. 

Montgomery, — Jenkintown, Mary L. Thompson ; Lansdale, 
H. J. Smith; Lower Providence, Isaac Z. Reiner ; Spring- 
field, Geo. W. Shriver; Trappe, P. Willi.4rd; Whiiemarsh, 
G. W. Bartholomew. 

Montour. — Danville, J. R. Phillips. 

A(7r/>btMr//tfM.— Allen, E. W. Fenstermaker: South Easton, 

iohn F.Vivian; Hanover, Geo. O. Kleppinger; Lower Mt. 
lethel, H. Fulmer ; Palmer, E. D. Huhn. 
ttortkumberland. — CMUisquaqua, R. M. Cummings; Coal, 
Samuel Clayberger ; Mt. Carmcl, James H. Smith; Mt. Car- 
mel Twp., A. J. McGuinncrs; Shamokin, John J. W. 
Schwartz; Sunbury, J. C. Irwin ; Turbot, Wm. A. Reed. 

Perry. — Juniata, James Stephens; Oliver, J. H. Fisher; 
Penn, Wm. A. Holland. , 

Pike. — Greene, John Marsch. 

Potter. — Abbott, Dr. Chas. Meine ; Poruge, Aaron Elliott ; 
West Branch, Geo. W. Fowler. 

^-Aw^/^bV/.— Gilberton, M. A. Leary: Mahanoy City, H. 
K. Smith ; Minersville, D. A. Jones ; Pine Grove Twp., Eld- 
ward Hummel: Port Carbon, Jacob H. Reiter; Rah n, Ber- 
nard Boyle; Reilly, Patrick Lyons ; Shenandoah, S. W. Yost : 
Tremont Twp., lames O'Neil; Union, H. D. Rentschlcr; 
Pottsville, Geo. W. Kennedy. 

Snyder. — Spring, Geo. Lambert; Washington. Henry Brown. 

Husquekanna.—iyi^niQVi.'^no. S. Bennett; Herrick, S. O. 
Churchill ; Harford, Lee Tiffany. 

Sullivan.— Y ox, A. B. Kilmer; Laporte Twp., Wm. T. Low. 

Tioga. — Blossburg, L. W. Johnson; Charleston, W. D. 
Jones; Duncan, James Pollock; Delmar, Chas. Copestick; 
Elk, J. H. Hubers: Richmond, V. R. Pratt; Tioga Twp., 
C. L. Thomas ; Covington Twp., Jas. T. Cushing. 

Union. — East Buffalo, Geo. H. Wagner; Gregg^ John Gal- 
loway; Lewisburg, John P. Miller; LimestoneTj. F. Miller. 

Venango.— ^^\Ti\QVit Wm. Ashton. 

Wtfrrrw.— Brokenstraw, W. F. Mead; Cherry Grove, T. 
Ewing: Farmington, R. E. Miller; Limestone, Jno. Schoelkopf. 

W€ukington.—Y^%\ Finley, A. K. Craig; Smith, Xenophou 
Cooke. 

Wayne. — Damascus, G. A. Kessler. 

W>*/»wr*A»ifrf— Allegheny, R. Miller; Derry Two., Wm. 
M. Ferguson; Franklin, J. F. Hoey; Latrobe, E. S. Womer; 
Salem Twp., W. W. Martz; Youghiogheny, F. C. Martin. 

Wyoming. — Clinton, J. G. Copwell. 

York.—bfXtA, E. Arnold; Glen Rock, L. W. Shafer; New 
Freedom, John Sechrist; Peach Bottom, Wm. I. Bamett; 
Stewartstown, Allen I. Frey ; Lower Windsor, Jacob Leithiser ; 
WrightsviUe, J. P. Levergood. 

From Mr. Jno. H. Likens, Co. Supt. Blair Co., we have just 
received an order for 30 subscriptions. 

Subscription for their Tbachbrs by the School Board. 
The School Board of Braddock Township, Allegheny Coun- 
ty, orders (Aug. 37. 1887,) at the cost of the District, subscrip- 
tions for one year ror the Fivtbsm Tbachbrs employed in the 
Township. This is a renewal of last year's subscription, and 
b surely a wise expenditure of the District funds. 



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>^S-;»», 







OCTOBER, 1887, 



SYMPATHY AS AN ELEMENT OF POWER IN THE TEACHER. 

. SUTHERLAND. 



something of their feeling, struggled and 
overcome the difficulties with which they are 
now contending. He must not only be pos- 
sessed with the truth of what he teaches, but 
he must make his hearers feel that he be- 
lieves that they can be led to accept the 
same truth, and be moved by the same mo- 
tive power. Look over the world's great 
tireachers, either of this century or of ear- 
ier centuries; you will not find one who has 
exerted that wonderful heart power which 
men of the coolest intellect must admire, 
who has not possessed sympathy in an emi- 
nent degree. So true is this that there are 
those of whom we say that we do not ad- 
mire its excess, while the truth is that there 
is in them no excess, but they, seeing the 
power it gives, have counterfeited and ex- 
aggerated the original. Look over your 
favorite authors, those whom you would 
really love independent of any verdict of 
the world of taste in literary matters. Some 
of them come right into your heart of hearts 
to talk with you. The gentle Elia seems 
almost to take your hand, as it were, and 
sit beside you chatting until you look where 
he looks and see what he sees. Robert 
Burns loves you despite your frailties, which 
he so well knows, because they are of his 
own nature, until you have something of his 
deep, generous sympathy with humanity. 

Instances might be multiplied, but it is 
needless, for we all know that the poet must 
"attune his ear to nature's harmonies" be- 



^ARLYLE'S words of Sir Walter Scott 
;luive always had a charm for me, and 
^oent meditation upon them but increases 
feeling. "And, then, with such a 
If current of true humor and humanity, 
fnc, joyful sympathy with so many things; 
ku of ^re he had, aJl lying so beautifully 
M, as radical latent h^t, as fruitful in- 
■ul warmth of life ; a most robust, healthy 

"A free, joyful sympathy with so many 
i>gi!" I like his use of the word sym- 
Khf in the sense which permits joy in it, 
■d not the restricted sense of commiseration 
itli others in grief. 

Sjinpathy gives power over others, gives 
!» interest in life through the wonderful 
•i^t which it permits into nature and hu- 
Mitj. Wherever it is found in a marked 
*M, Ihere do we witness its unmeasured 

[ 't icarcely need another to point out 
|r™fwiitial it is to oratory. Who is it 
tliatnoTcs men to action? Not the man of 
^1 dar intellect, who, being on the 
^ighi, fiirgets that he was ever in the valley, 
nd makes those in a lower intellectual 
N^H intensely conscious of a separating 
Stance. There may be a certain kind of 
^miration tendered him, but he will never 
" i leader. That can never be until 
■ongh some subtle power he makes those 
™m he would lead conscious that he has 
*«Jght something of their thought, felt 



132 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct, 



fore he can set them to music ; that one can- 
not interpret the heart of man except by the 
key which his own nature has given him; 
that he can only read the lessons from the 
life of the race by the experiences of his 
own life. 

We talk about the "magnetism" of cer- 
tain great political leaders ; and this quality 
is deemed of such importance that in look- 
ing over available candidates, its possession 
is given considerable weight in determining 
the scales in favor of one man, and its ab- 
sence stands seriously in the way of the 
nomination of another candidate. Now, 
the most certain element of this as yet not 
completely analyzed magnetism is sympathy. 
It, of course, is not the sympathy which 
comes from the special knowledge of each 
man's particular affairs, but the fellow-feeling 
of joy or sorrow that comes from a knowl- 
edge of the varied conditions of the race, 
and a heart touched by these conditions. 

But if we look over every field of human 
labor we shall find no place where there is 
greater need for the potent influence of sym- 
pathy than in the school-room. Nor is there 
any time of the pupil's life of which we can 
affirm that the necessity for sympathy has 
ceased. It is almost the breath of intellec- 
tual life to the very little children. And if 
the teacher is so unfortunate as to have grown 
old in heart, she cannot accomplish the 
highest results in the primary department, 
even if she has a good deal of the wisdom 
which comes from maturity of intellect. 
The little ones have, many of them, come 
from homes where the mother's very exist- 
ence has been so bound in theirs that she 
has had a laugh for their most childish sport, 
or a tear for even imaginary woes. 

If the teacher is lacking in loving sym- 
pathy, the removal from home to, the school- 
room will be too much like taking the tender 
house-plant and placing it out in the cold 
winter air. On the other hand, if a child 
has come from one of the unhappy homes 
where children receive little care, our sym- 
pathy will be like the blessed sunshine to 
the plant which has scarcely felt its genial 
influence. 

I think one makes a better teacher of 
the little ones by knowing something of 
dolls, and having an appreciation of their 
beauty. It is not beneath your dignity 
to have some knowledge of boys* sports. 
At any rate, to rejoice at their success in 
harmless games and to feel with them in 
their defeat, will make them believe that 
you "really are of some account,** and give 
them more confidence in your ability in 



other matters. Don't let them see that 
things which seem to them of great moment 
are of trivial import to you. The child's 
nature is to throw ofl* grief, but while it lasts 
it is very sincere, and you must enter into 
the sorrow. Indeed, if you have a woraanlf 
heart this is not difficult for you. If joi 
put your mind into such close sympatif ^ 
with the little learner that you feel the effort ] 
he is making, by some subtle effect which I \ 
cannot fully explain, you carry him to, 
at least a degree of success ; whereas if yoi 
repel him by fear, or are indifferent or pre- 
occupied, you lessen materially the chan 
of his success. Sympathy on the part 
the instructor is more needed by so 
pupils than . by others. I know little girl 
whose progress has been very marked, w[ 
owe much to the kind sympathy that t' 
have received from their teachers; liti 
girls whose natures are so sensitive that tj 
lack of sympathy makes them draw 
into themselves the very qualities of m 
and heart which render them so attractive. 
As the pupils grow a little older, we mi 
not let svmpathy die out. I think it 
be true that it is easier to cherish this feelii 
for the very little ones, and again for 
oldest pupils ; because out of sixty there 
scarcely six of the six and seven-year- 
pupils without something winning al 
them; and the older pgpils are groi 
into something of intellectual com] 
ionship with us, where sympathy becoi 
easier. But if it is not easy to feel it 
wards the boy and girl of twelve, thirte 
and fourteen, there is special need 
teachers should cultivate the feeling, 
girls will be growing away from dolls 
little dishes; we must have some infiuei 
in determining what they shall grow tt 
wards, and how can we have that unless 
set our minds somewhat in accord wil 
theirs? The boy is getting *' too big" 
many of his early sports — " too big" for 
boyish costume ; we must see to it that 
does not grow **too big" for his teacl 
Such boys can be made the most loyal 
friends if only convinced that you are hoflp 
estly interested in them and in their amusfr 
ments; while their scorn for "a womaB 
who smiles all the time and doesn't mctf 
anything by it," is delightful in itsgenuis^ 
ness. Again, their desire to get away W 
the teacher who wants to work them up ^ 
as high a standing as pupils in a correspond- 
ing grade, but in her heart of hearts adnii^ 
that she '* hates boys," is only equalled b| 
the desire she would have to get away fro« 
them — if she did not get a good salary foi 



i8«7.J 



ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE, 



133 



cUying^ If you believe them very disagree- 
able animals at this age, they will try to 
lealize your expectations, and I can not say 
|)Qt that I sympathize with • them in the de- 
lirt. This is a period of life when they 
ikave naturally a tendency towards adven- 
ituie. You can enter into that feeling, and 
'lad them to the reading of works of some 
of the world's great travellers. They have 
ft taste for the daring, the heroic, and they 
CO be led {I speak from txperience) to the 
■oit eager devouring of history. 
When the pupils are growing older a sym- 

Ctby on the part of the teacher, which 
ds towards the taking of an interest in 
eierymatter of moment to the pupil, leads 
to a companionship perfectly consistent with 
ipline in the highest sense of that term. 
is companionship brings its own reward, 
ideed, the freshness of young life with its 
th and courage is to us the fountain of 
ih. College honors have more than 
been laid by their winners at the feet 
high-school teachers, because the sym- 
hjr which bound teacher and pupil to- 
her had been so perfect that separation 
not, in any degree, weaken the sense 
t the rejoicing of the teacher-friend would 
almost the echo of the victor's rejoicing. 
In the darkest hour of loneliness, when 
dread visitor's presence was still felt in 
household, the faithful teacher has gone 
her pupil, and the low-spoken "I knew 
would come,-' has told the whole his- 
of the relations that have existed. 
Without at all weakening character, this 
pathy will give the teacher a power over 
minds and hearts of her pupils which 
enable her to guide their intellectual 
moral development. 
Bat not alone in the school-room is sym- 
hy an element of power in the teacher. 
Q teacher meets teacher to discuss ques- 
connected with the interest of the 
Is, is its subtle influence felt. The 
ty institute instructor who can make 
*ndience feel that there is not a teacher 
honestly trying to do his duty, however 
*>Wc his position, with whom he does not 
rV^puhize in his endeavors and in his trials, 
2!^'^ a thought in more than one mind 
™ch till result in action. And, after all, 
•"P »e so very far advanced that we can 
J^y reach our brothers and sisters by the 
Ncr-tips instead of with the helping hand ? 
[If the intellect is growing stronger and the 
prt wanner, to impart to others something 
P this strength, something of this warmth, 
■our most precious privilege. 

Ohio Educaticnal Monthly, 



ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE. 



BY PROF. WILLIAM CLARKE. 



HUMILITY is the foundation of all true 
knowledge of nature, of man, or of 
God. Except we become as little children, 
we cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven. 
God hides the truths of His kingdom from 
the wise and prudent, and reveals them unto 
babes. And it is the same with knowledge. 
*' It is a point fit and necessary," says Lord 
Bacon, in his "Interpretation of Nature," 
'' in the front and beginning of this work, 
without hesitation or reserve to be pro- 
fessed, that it is no less true iu this human 
kingdom of knowledge than in God's king- 
dom of heaven, that no man shall enter it 
except he become first as a little child, ' ' 

There is nothing paradoxical or difficult 
in this statement. If men have associated 
the possession of human knowledge with 
high-mindedness, it has been because they 
have been influenced by prejudice or by 
jealousy, or else because they have selected 
some isolated examples, and made them 
typical of the whole class. If we proceeded 
in this matter with careful and deliberate 
examination, we should speedily discover 
that conceit and self-sufficiency, wherever 
found, are powerful hindrances to the at- 
taining of solid and accurate knowledge. 
It is the man who knows his ignorance, his 
small capacity, the boundlessness of knowl- 
edge, the extreme difficulty of perfect accu- 
racy, the labor needed for the acquisition 
of any real knowledge — it is such an one 
who will always make the most successful 
student. And as a matter of fact, the 
greatest thinkers, scholars, discoverers, and 
inventors, have commonly been the men of 
the deepest humility. The story of Sir 
Isaac Newton is well known. Whatever he 
might seem to others, to himself he was but 
as a child upon the sea-shore, finding per- 
haps some pebbles more beautiful than those 
which others had discovered, but with the 
great ocean of truth lying all undiscovered 
before him. 

"The sciences," says Pascal, one of the 
master minds of the world, "have two ex- 
tremities which touch each other. The first 
is that pure ignorance in which all men are 
born. The other extremity is that which is 
reached by those great souls who have tra- 
versed the whole extent of human knowl- 
edge, and return to the same sense of igno- 
rance from which they set out. But this is 
that learned ignorance which knows itself." 
We have here the truth which corresponds 



/ 



»34 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct, 



with the statement of St. Paul : '' If any 
man thinketh that he knoweth anything, he 
knoweth not yet as he ought to know. (i 
Cor. viii. 2.) 

But valuable as the human mind is in the 
seeker after truth, it is but the first, and only 
a kind of preliminary requirement for the 
pursuit of knowledge. The concentration 
of attention is indispensable in the acquisi- 
tion of all knowledge which deserves the 
name. Attention is, in truth, the helm by 
which the mind of man is governed and 
directed. It is the explanation of most ot 
the differences by^ which one man is distin- 
guished from another. According to the 
direction and concentration of a man's at- 
tention, such is the man. In other words, 
according as a man gives his whole mind, 
or a part of his mind, to this thing or to 
that thing, so b his intelligence informed, 
his will shaped, his whole character 
moulded. 

"Attention," says Sir W. Hamilton, "is 
to consciousness what the contraction of the 
pupil is to sight. . . . The greater capacity 
of continuous thinking that a man possesses, 
the longer and more steadily can he follow 
out the same train of thought, the stronger 
is his power of attention ; and in proportion 
to his power of attention will be the success 
with which his labor is rewarded. All com- 
mencement is difficult, and this is more espe- 
cially true of intellectual effort. But if we are 
vigorous enough to pursue our course in spite 
of obstacles, every step, as we advance, will 
be found easier; the mind becomes more an- 
imated and energetic, the distractions grad- 
ually diminish, the attention is more exclu- 
sively concentrated upon its object, the kin- 
dred ideas flow with greater freedom and 
abundance. The difference between an or- 
dinary mind and the mind of a Newton 
consists principally in this, that the one is 
capable of the application of a more con- 
tinuous attention than the other. This is, 
in fact, what Sir Isaac, with equal modesty 
and shrewdness, himself admitted. To one 
who complimented him on his genius, he 
replied that if he had made any discoveries 
it was owing more to patient attention than 
to any other talent. It is very much the 
judgment expressed by the late Mr. Carlyle, 
when he pronounced genius to be " a tran- 
scendent capacity for taking trouble." 

And this is only one part of the general 
truth, that in the pursuit of knowledge there 
must be devotion, labor, toil, the ardent 
devotion of a love which will never desist 
from its pursuit until it has gained the object 
of its desire. "Jacob served seven years 



for Rachael, and they seemed unto him bot 
a few days, for the love he had to her;" 
and such must be the ardent and self-saai> 
ficing devotion of every one who aspires to 
the possession of knowledge. Truth wiH 
not yield herself to every chance comer iil» 
seeks her hand. Before she surrenders ]»» 
self she will demand, and must receive, Ae 
most unquestionable proofs of devotion. 

There is no knowledge gained without 
labor; and, generally speaking, the value of 
the attainment will be in strict proportion to 
its cost. A motto, attributed to St. Francis of 
Assisi, which was early adopted by the greil 
Italian Savonarola, abd evidently chenshei 
by him thoughout his life, deserves to be in- 
scribed upon the memory of every true stiK 
dent: "A man knows as much as he 
works." It need not be said howwiddf 
this truth is forgotten or ignored, 
seem to forget that knowledge, like all oti 
possessions which are worth having, costs 
great deal. It is a great mistake, one of ' 
greatest, to imagine that it will fall into 
laps while we sit below the tree of knp 
edge with folded hands. " If a man 
not work, neither shall he eat," is a 
as true in the world of mind as in the wi 
of matter. In both departments alike, » 
ness and drowsiness will clothe a man 
rags. 

" Art is long and time is fleeting." Tl 
is much to know, and the time is sh( 
Yet this time rightly used may suffice, if m 
for the attaining of all knowledge, even 
all that we count needful, yet for the qi 
fying ourselves for the work here in 
world, and, beyond this, for acquiring soi 
thing of that general knowledge and cult 
which are involved in what we call a lil^ei 
education. It has been said that a 
should know something of everything ai^ 
everything of something. The language 
exaggerated, but it has a truth at its founc" 
tion. Certainly we should do our best » 
understand our own business, whatever 1^ 
may be ; but the pursuit of any branch 01 
study to the exclusion of every other has, 
of necessity, a narrowing effect, and we are 
injured morally as well as intellectually ^ 
allowing departments of our intellectual a 
sympathetic life to lie barren and uncoH 
vated. It must suffice, for the present,!* 
have touched upon this point. Only 
topic remains to be urged. With all 
getting of knowledge we must not negl< 
the knowledge of ourselves or the knowlcdi 
of God ; for this is the culminating point ' 
all knowledge. .. 

We should seek to know ourselves. i» 



i«87.] 



ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE, 



I3S 



^ite of all that has been said against it, 
ttere is yet much to be urged in favor of the 
« Heaven-descended Know thyself ^ It is 
trne that there is always a danger of exces- 
iveand morbid introspection; but we must 
Bot therefore neglect the duty of self-exam- 
ination. Whether we wish to amend our 
cnois or to discover what kind of work we 
nay hopefully undertake and successfully 
^ peiiform, we must do our best to know our- 
^ idles. 

.^d we shall never really know ourselves, 
wwhat man is or may become, without the 
faowledge of God. And it is the more 
tecessary to dwell upon this subject, since 
I is by many declared in our own days that 
nch knowledge is unattainable. We have 
knowledge only of phenomena, it is said. 
Nets of the material world around us we may 
in many different ways, and upon the 
lovledge which we thus obtain we may 
a certain amount of reliance. But we 
ive, and can have, no such knowledge of 
spiritual world and of God, and there- 
, whilst sentiment and imagination may 
forth into those regions, knowledge and 
action which depends upon knowledge 
be restricted to the sphere of the seen 
the tangible. 
Tliese are bold assertions, and their very 
" ess may win them acceptance with 
y minds; but for all that they are as un- 
nable as we hold them to be untrue, 
course, if we are quite determined to do 
we may doubt the existence of anything, 
the possibility of attaining to any certain 
k^ge on any subject. We may declare 
we have no positive knowledge of an 
1 world. All that we really know is 
own sensations, and these have been ex- 
by different persons in different 
lys. But however they may be explained, 
Bat least certain that all men live and act 
Qtbe presumption that there is an exter- 
world, something besides ourselves with 
f*hich we are continually in contact, and of 
^b we have an amount of knowledge 
•Scicnt for all practical purposes. 

^ow, it is so far from being true that we 
JU'^a knowledge of matter but no knowl- 
^ of mind, that the very reverse would 
** Wttcr the truth. Our knowledge of 
?^ is immediate and direct, it is revealed 
w our own consciousness ; our knowledge 
^ inattcr is mediate and indirect, it comes 
to OS through the contents of our conscious- 
•^ Whatever may be our theory of per- 
son, this is true. We begin with mind. 
«>t for this we should never really know 
<oytbing: and it is absurd, as has been well 



remarked, to subordinate the knowledge of 
mind to the knowledge of nature, seeing 
that we can know nature only by means of 
that very mind whose existence we are de- 
nying. 

But it is not only within ourselves that the 
existence of mind is revealed to us. Nature 
is unintelligible except as the expression of 
mind. Everywhere we behold the preva- 
lence of order and reign of law. And so 
everywhere we behold the existence of 
mind, and of mind which is not our own nor * 
ourselves. For we do not create the order 
of nature when we gaze upon it : we only 
recognize its existence. It is there, inde- 
pendently of our thoughts and perceptions. 
In other words, there is mind as basis of na- 
ture and of existence. 

And this truth is recognized by men in 
general, in all ages, and it comes out alike 
in the sense of responsibility and in the 
craving for the infinite by which mankind, 
as a race, is distinguished. That sense of 
responsibility of which we are individually 
conscious belongs, in greater or less degree, 
to our fellow men. It is shared by all, or 
almost all, who have not destroyed their 
moral faculties, which like our other powers, 
intellectual and physical, are certainly cap- 
able of being destroyed. It is assumed and 
acted upon in all the relations of life. We 
are conscious of its authority in ourselves, 
and we assume that others are under the 
same guidance. 

And so our cravings for the help and guid- 
ance of a Higher and Greater than ourselves 
lead us to seek for Divine light and love, 
just as other impulses urge us to the attain- 
ment of other knowledge and other means 
of satisfaction. And how can we explain 
these longings but by the theory of a 
Divine origin and a kinship with God. 
Yes, it is He that hath made us, made 
us for Himself, made us like Himself, and 
there is no fiiU and abiding satisfaction 
for such a creature, but that which is found 
in his Creator. *' This is life eternal, that 
they should know Thee, the only true 
God." 

And this knowledge of God is not only 
possible, is not only the secret of true life, 
it is the completion of all the knowledge of 
which man is capable. All other knowledge 
is incomplete without the knowledge of God ; 
for that which all knowledge reveals to us is 
but a part of His ways. Until a man knows 
God he cannot really know himself, he can- 
not know his privileges, responsibilities, du- 
ties. "In Thy light shall we see light." 
It is in God that we know ourselves, our 



136 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[OCT.i 



fellow -men, our place on earth, and all the 
duties connected with it. This knowledge 
alone casts light down upon the path which 
we tread on earth, and forward upon the 
unknown way which we must take when this 
life is over. 

All knowledge has its worth, and we ought 
not to depreciate any field of human inves- 
tigation ; but we shall be neglecting the 
highest and the best, if we do not seek to 
acquaint ourselves with God. And this 
knowledge is now, by God's mercy, brought 
near to us all. It is no longer necessary to 
ask : "Who shall ascend up into Heaven' * to 
bring us this knowledge, since Christ has 
come down from Heaven to reveal the Most 
High, the only begotten of the Father, 
full of grace and truth. We have seen His 
glory, the glory of the Father ; and He 
alone can reveal the Father. In His light 
We shall see light, and walk in light, the 
light of truth, of knowledge, and of love. 

Canada Ed, Monthly, 



MUSIC IN THE SCHOOLS. 



THE U. S. Commissioner of Education, in 
response to a circular sent out last Au- 
gust, has gathered some valuable information 
as to Che teaching of music in public schools. 
Replies were received from 343 cities and 
towns, embracing a total population of 
7,933,193, a school population of 2,181,634, 
and a public school enrollment of 1,209,677. 
Of these places, 96 report no instruction, 
132 report that instruction is given by the 
ordinary teaching force, 19 report only spe- 
cial teachers for music, and 96 report the 
employment of both ordinary and special 
teachers for music. From the replies of 132 
superintendents of cities where instruction is 
given exclusively by the ordinary teaching 
force, it appears that 50 teach either by rote 
or without system; 14 use the fixed doy 51 
the movable do^ 2 use the tonic sol-fa only; 
the rest use two or more of these methods 
variously combined and modified. The 
time devoted to music varies from one to 
three and three- quarter hours. Of the ni nety- 
six cities where no instruction Ls given, 
seventy-six give reasons. In one, the school 
board considers the community too poverty- 
stricken ; another finds no reason except the 
lack of time ; a third, that the organization 
is immature; a fourth, the population is re- 
ported to be mainly made up of manufactur- 
ing operatives, and it is a common remark 
that the children are too poor to occupy the 
time spent out of the mills in learning music ; 



some members of the board class music as 
among the "brass ornaments"; a fifth gives 
lack of interest ; a sixth, the community con- 
siders the "three R's" are the only subjects 
that should occupy a permanent place in 
public instruction ; seventh, .music has been 
taught poorly in the past and failed lameie- 
ably. The Commissioner is convinced that 
" a correct philosophy of music is able to 
adapt its instruction to the lowest conditions 
of mind," and that " musical instruction 
should begin with the youngest and smallest 
child, and can begin then with eminent swh 
cess." He says the testimony of obseneii 
appears to justify the estimate that from 
ninety to ninety-five per cent, of the chil- 
dren in the primary schools, are capable of 
practically appreciating the main elements, 
of music, and of associating these elements 
with musical notatioi). — N. Y, School Jm-. 
nalyjune^ '<?/. 



-•- 



5CH00L GOVERNMENT. 



THE school is made up of many differ-j 
ent parts. First, there is th£ teacher,] 
then the pupils and the Board of DirectoiStj 
These are the different bodies that composd 
the organization in its largest senses. Th< 
again the school may be considered as 
pupils organized into classes, and pursui 
a systematic course of study, each ci 
bearing a certain established relation 
every other. Then again, the school na] 
be considered as a miniature governmental 
with its legislative, and executive powenvj 
and divided into the governed and govern*! 
ing. Then it may be thought of as a series; 
of exercises or experiences, performed in » 
regular order, and for certain definite pur- 
poses. These are named punctuality, rego* 
larity, silence, industry, politeness, ctCj 
These are sometimes called the cardinil| 
school virtues. We are inclined to nanac 
them the cardinal school exercises. Bat 
from whatever point of view we regard the 
school, it is seen to be an organism com- 
posed of definitely related parts. 

Now, the first purpose of school govern- 
ment is to preserve this organization; bjr 
which is meant, to keep all these different 
sets of parts in their proper. relation tooflf 
another. For example, productive iodustrf 
is impossible in any high degree without 
punctuality, regularity, silence, kindness, 
and the like. So with every other di th» 
set of parts. It is largely dependent npotJ 
the others. And but for this set of partSj 
the other set of classes, or of governmental 



i«87.] 



HUGH MILLER'S EARL Y DA YS, 



137 



parts, could not properly perform their func- 
tions. So by a little analysis and reflection, 
we come to see the significance of the state- 
ment that the purpose of school government 
is to preserve the organization of the school. 
Unless this be done, the second higher pur- 
poseof school government can not be realized. 
This second purpose is to develop the 
power and habit of self-control. The prim- 
ary fomi of government, whether of an in- 
divrdoal emerging from infancy or of a peo- 
ple emerging from the savage state, must be 
tkt of authority. It is an influence from 
without. The law is something external to 
which the subject feels commanded to yield 
obedience. This is ever the condition of 
diildhood and youth. But it is the function 
of the school, through its method of admin- 
istering its government, to bring the pupil 
on, as far as the degree of the development 
of reason within him will permit, toward 
that state in which he shall be a law unto 
hinjself. Or, in other words, to bring him 
to that state in which the direction of his 
tendencies and habits, and the dictates of 
his reason and conscience shall be in accord 
with the law of right, as it is expressed in 
the written and unwritten laws of society. 

Illinois School Journal, 



IF I SHOULD DIE TO-NIGHT. 



If I should die to-night, 
Mjr frieods would look upiin my quiet face, 
lefore they laid it in its resting-place, 
'And deem that death had left it almost fair ; 
Aid, laying snow-white flowers against my hair, 
Wonld smooth it down with tearful tenderness, 
iid fold my hands with lingenng caress, 
Poor hands so empty and so cokl to-night ! 

If I should die to-night, 
Nt friends would call to mind, with loving thought. 
Some kindly deed the icy hand had wrought : 
Some gentle word the frozen lips had said ; 
Enanas on which the willing feet had sped. 
The memory of my selfishness and pride, 
My hasty word, would all be put aside. 
And so I should be loved and mourned to-night. 

If I should die to-night, 
^<D hearts estranged would turn once more to me, 
^ling other days remorsefully, 
^tyesthat chill me with averted glance, 
""•ttlook upon me as of yore, perchance, 
^Joiien in the old, familiar way ; 
Forwko could war with dumb, unconscious clay ? 
& I might rest, forgiven of all, to-night. 

0! friends, I pray to-night, 
K<«p Dot your kisses for my dead, cold brow ; 
The way is lonely : let me feel them now. 
Think gently of mc : 1 am travel- worn : 
«y filtering feet are pierced with many a thorn. 
Jwp»€, O hearts estranged, forgive, I plead ! 
when dreamless rest is mine, I shall not need 
The tenderness for which I long to-night. 



HUGH MILLER'S EARLY DAYS. 



HUGH MILLER devoted himself early 
to a life of hard labor as a quarry man 
and a mason ; and by the steady exertion of 
the powers which God had given him, rose 
to a position of much usefulness and honor. 
His story has been often told, to show what 
can be done by the earnest use of common 
means. 

His father was master of a sloop belong- 
ing to Scotland, which was lost in a fearful 
tempest. In consequence of this bereave- 
ment, the widow had to work late into the 
night as a seamstress, to provide for the 
family. Hugh used to frequent the harbor 
and watch the shipping, sadly missing the 
familiar vessel, the return of which used to 
be the cause of such joy to him. He would 
also climb, day after day, a grassy knoll of 
the coast, close behind his mother's house, 
which commanded a wide view of the Moray 
Frith, and look wistfully out, long after every 
one else had ceased to hope, for the sloop 
with the two stripes of white and the two 
square topsails, commanded by his father. 
But they never appeared again. 

He learned the letters of the alphabet by 
studying the sign -posts. He afterwards at- 
tended a dame school, and persevered in his 
lessons till he rose to the highest form, and 
became a member of the Bible class. The 
story of Joseph aroused his interest, and he 
became a diligent reader of all the Scripture 
stories. He then began to collect a library 
in a birch-bark box about nine inches 
square, which was found large enough to 
contain all his books. 

He has described, in his "Old Red Sand- 
stone," the feelings with which he began 
quarry work, and the happiness he found in 
it. "To be sure, my hands were a little 
sore, and I felt nearly as much fatigued as if 
I had been climbing among the rocks; but 
I had wrought and been useful; and had 
yet enjoyed the day fully as much as usual. 
I was as light of heart next morning as 
any of my brother workmen." After de- 
scribing the landscape, he says: "I returned 
to the quarry, convinced that a very exqui- 
site pleasure may be a very cheap one, and 
that the busiest employment may afford 
leisure enough to enjoy it." 

Various wonders soon disclosed themselves 
in the rocks: marks of furrows, as of an 
ebbing tide, fretted in the solid stone; fos- 
sil shells and fish, and leaves of plants. 
Almost every day opened new discoveries 
to his curious eye, and awakened deeper 
interest. And thus began that course of 



138 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct. 



observation and study which made him fa- 
mous as a geologist, and enabled him to 
render valuable help in the progress of sci- 
ence. 

His first year of labor came to a close, 
and he found that ''the amount of his hap- 
piness had not been less than in the last of 
his boyhood." "The additional experi- 
ence of twenty years," he adds, "has not 
shown me that there is any necessary con- 
nection between a life of toil and a life of 
wretchedness." 

"My advice," says he, "to young work- 
ingmen desirous of bettering their circum- 
stances, and adding to the amount of their 
enjoyment, is very simple. Do not seek 
happiness in what is misnamed pleasure; 
seek it rather in what is termed study. 
Keep your conscience clear, your curiosity 
fresh, and embrace every opportunity of 
cultivating your minds. Learn to make a 
right use of your eyes; the commonest 
things are worth looking at — even stones 
and weeds, and the most familiar animals. 
Read good books, not forgetting the best of 
all. There is more true philosophy in the 
Bible than in every work of every skeptic 
that ever wrote ; and we should all be mis- 
erable creatures without it." 



SCHOOI^ROOM DECORATION. 



A CLEAN school-room is pleasant even if 
wholly unadorned ; but a dirty room is 
unsightly in spite of the most elaborate 
decoration. Before we begin to beautify 
our school-room, therefore, let us make it 
clean. The greatest source of untidiness is 
ink. No loose ink-bottles should be allowed 
in the room. Ink-wells sunk in the desk 
are the best to use. To keep the floor free 
from papers it is only necessary to provide 
a large waste-basket. This should be of 
simple and chaste^ design, and may be made 
ornamental as well as useful. 

Now, having our room bright and clean, 
we are ready to decorate. Maps and globes 
of soft and well-arranged hues should be 
preferred to those of brilliant and inartistic 
coloring. Passing to those things not com- 
monly considered necessary, I will first 
mention window-shades. Even where there 
are inside blinds, it will be found that 
shades or curtains give the school-room a 
home-like look, and not only aid in furnish- 
ing it, but also afford great relief to the 
eyes. 

Pictures are within the reach of all. 
Good pictures exert a constant influence, 



gradually and insensibly raising the taste of 
the pupils, and refining their thoughts. But 
cheap pictures are far better than none ; al- 
ways provided they be good of their kind. 
A good wood-cut is better than a poor sted 
engraving, and a good steel engraving is 
better than a poor painting. Nothing is 
better than the portraits of eminent men. 
Views of noted places are of great intenst 
and value. The geography lesson is most 
pleasantly committed if the pupils can have 
meanings given to the long, hard names bj 
a glance at pictures of the places they are 
studying. 

Photographs of ancient sculpture iUus- 
trating classical mythology are eminently 
appropriate. So are photographs of classic 
scenes and buildings such as the plain ot 
Troy, the ruins of Pompeii, the Coliseum, 
and the Parthenon. 

Mottoes are very pretty decorations for a] 
school-room. They have also a far greater] 
moral power than most persons would sup-' 
pose. Who can estimate the potency of the] 
world's aphorisms and proverbs? 

Nothing can be more beautiful or fitting 
for school adorning than flowers. It is a| 
pretty custom of many rural towns for the] 
little children to bring a bouquet of wil 
flowers each morning to a "teacher." 
will be well to have a few pots of fio\ 
always blooming in the window. . 

In a corner of the room should be a 
some bookcase filled with well-bound bool 
of reference — the dictionary and cyclopedia^] 
of course, and a good atlas and gazetteer. 
Then add as many books of travel, history, 
and science as possible. In another comer 
I would have a table covered with baize, on 
which should be laid a daily and a weekly 
paper, and one or two of the leading 
monthly magazines. A few comfortable 
chairs about this table would be attractive 
on rainy da)rs, before school, and during 

the " nooning." Youth's Compamion. 



CHARLES SUMNER.— Longfellow. 

River, that stealeth with such silent pace 
Around the City of the Dead, where lies 
A friend who bore thy name, and whom these eyes 
Shall see no more in his accustomed place. 
Linger and fold him in thy soft embrace. 
And say good-night ; for now the western skies 
Are red with sunset, and gray mists arise 
Like damps that gather on a dead man's facc^ 
Good-night ! good-night ! as we so oft have said 
Beneath this roof at midnight, in the days 
That are no more, and shall no more return. 
Thou hast but taken thy lamp and gone to bed ; 
I stay a little longer, as one stays 
To cover up the embers that still bum. 



l«7.] 



INCREASBD SCHOOL APPROPRIATION, 



'39 



THE INCREASED APPROPRIATION.* 



RXBfARKS OF HON. JOHN P. SLKINS. 



I 



DESIRE, Mr. Speaker, to take this op- 
portunity of saying a few things relative 
to die general question of increasing this ap- 
propriation. From the beginning of the 
ttsion to the present moment I have inter- 
ested myself in this appropriation, and shall 
coodnue to do so until it is passed finally or 
defeated, as the case may be. Now, sir, 
8Dce our Appropriation Committee have 
acted so fairly with us in recommending an 
additional |^oo,ooo, I hope the House will 
latify its action by passing it as the commit- 
tee reported the bill. I would gladly have 
voted for 1 2,000,000 if our finances would 
warrant it, but we will rest content this 
time with the bill as it came from the com- 
mittee, in the hope of getting more in the 
future. 

Now, Mr. Speaker and fellow members, 
it is not my purpose to panegyrize the com- 
mon school system of our State, nor cen- 
iore the action of previous Legislatures in 
limiting the amount appropriated to the 
common schools for the past thirteen years 
to the minimum fixed by the Constitution. 
However pleasant it may be to dwellupon 
the theme of education and mark its steady 
growth in Pennsylvania, yet I apprehend 
that we are here as practical men, willing 
to concede all that Thaddeus Stevens 
claimed for free schools away back in the 
thirties, when he stood like an Horatius at 
the bridge, defiant in the face of legions, 
nd by the force of his logic and the elo- 
^KDoe of his language, hurled back the 
enemies of free schools and placed the 
tdocational interests of our State on a plane 
hnn which they will never fall, and inter- 
ested more in the question of the ability of 
oor State to increase this appropriation than 
the advisability of such a policy. 

In rising in my place to advocate an in- 
^^'cased appropriation to our common 
)(^ls, and thus break, if possible, the 
^^ spell which seems to have riveted the 
^c^lative mind on that same old million of 
^^ during all these years, I trust my 
iBotives may not be construed to be those of 
^cDthusiast. After some study of the con- 
<^'tiop of the State's finances, I am fully 
convinced that we are in a shape to make an 

•Remarks of Hon. John P. Elkins, of Indiana 
^^ott&ty, before the House of Representatives, May 3, 
^0^7, 00 the question of appropriating an additional 
^Soom for Uie benefit of the Common Schools of 
tbe CommoDwealth. 



appropriation of $1,500,000 to our common 
schools. 

But aside from the question of the ability 
of the State to increase this appropriation, 
we should not lose sight of the fact that 
Pennsylvania owes it to herself to support 
her common schools liberally. Universal 
education is the hope of popular govern- 
ments. The ballot in the hands of intelli- 
gent voters is a power for good, while the 
ballot in the hands of an ignorant voter is * 
the rock against which the ship of state may 
be dashed to pieces. It was the Old Com- 
moner of Pennsylvania who said, in speaking 
of the duty of a State to provide a liberal 
education for its citizens: "If an elective 
Republic is to endure for any great length 
of time, every elector must have sufficient 
information not only to accumulate wealth 
and take care of his pecuniary concerns, 
but to direct wisely the legislatures, the 
ambassadors and the executive of the na- 
tion; for some part of all these things, 
some agency in approving or disapproving 
of them, fails to every freeman. If, then, 
the permanency of our government depends 
upon such knowledge, it is the duty of the 
government to see that the means of infor- 
mation be diffused to every citizen." These, 
sir, are the words of a statesman, and Penn- 
sylvania will do well to keep them in sacred 
remembrance. 

Some one may ask, what benefit will the 
c6mmon schools receive by increasing this 
appropriation? I think it will have the 
effect of increasing the wages of the teach- 
ers, and this is a consummation devoutly to 
be wished. There is no class of people so 
miserably paid as are the teachers, and I say 
all speed the day when they will receive bet- 
ter pay. There is not much encouragement 
for a teacher to prepare himself for his work, 
and devote his time exclusively to a profes- 
sion than which there b none higher, when 
he examines the report of the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, and ascertains the 
startling fact that in Pennsylvania, the aver- 
age wages for male teachers in 1886 was 
I36.87 per month, and for female teachers 
$29.41 per month. Why, sir, the old 
Roman pagans, more than two thousand 
years ago, placed the deity who presided 
over intellectual endowments first among 
their idolatrous gods ; we seem to rank ours 
last. Think of it 1 askiiig people to make 
teaching a profession and paying them 
$29.41 a month, and giving them employ- 
ment for about six months of the year. It is 
a notorious fact that we pay our bartenders 
more than we pay our teachers. We have, 



140 



PENNSYL VAN/A SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct. 



in Pennsylvania^ more than twenty-three 
thousand teachers. This appropriation, if 
divided among them, would stimulate many 
a struggling teacher to enter a training 
school and prepare himself better for his 
work. 

When seated in royal chairs, we should 
not forget the peasant's rounds. Being 
favored with good school facilities our- 
selves, we should not neglect our more un- 
fortunate neighbor. Startling as the fact 
may seem, yet I presume there are but few 
of us who have stopped to examine the cen- 
sus reports of 1880, to learn that Pennsylva- 
nia has 228,014 people between the ages of 
ten and twenty who can neither read nor 
write. Enough to make a city like Pittsburgh 
and Allegheny 1 Truly, this does not reflect 
great credit upon this State of industrial 
wealth and great natural resources. It looks 
to me as though the god, Money, had jilted 
the goddess. Education. There were in the 
common schools last year, 979,429 pupils; 
there were outside of them one-fourth of 
that number who could not read nor write. 

Are we not convinced that something 
should be done to remedy this evil in our 
common school system ? I believe the time 
is not far distant when the State will pay her 
teachers, equip her schools, and exercise ab- 
solute control over her school system. Be 
that as it may^ and I beg pardon for this 
disgression, I think this Legislature will 
crown a very fair record in lasting honor, 
if it concludes to take a step in advance of 
its predecessors and appropriate ^500,000 
more to the common schools. 

No appropriation could be made which 
will give more satisfaction to the people 
of the State. The framers of the new Con- 
stitution were quick to recognize this fact, 
and as a result, we have that provision 
which makes the minimum appropriation 
for this purpose 1 1,000,000. This clause 
did as much to carry the new Constitution 
into favor with the people, as any other part 
of that fundamental law. By referring to 
the constitutional debates you will see that 
this was the prevailing argument in favor of 
putting this provision into that instrument. 
Thirteen years have passed since then ; our 
State has made rapid strides in population 
and wealth ; our revenues grow larger each 
year; our schools^ instead of numbering 
17,000, as they did in the year 1874, now 
number 20,, 683 ; then we had less than 
20,000 teachers, now we have more than 
23,000; yet we are still anxious to appro- 
priate that same old million of dollare each 
year. Let us, fellow members of this House, 



change this thing if for nothing else than to 
relieve monotony. Why, sir, if the gentle- 
men who fought over this question m the 
Constitutional Convention could walk in 
here now, they would imagine that they had 
been enjoying a Rip Van Winkle sleep for 
the past thirteen years, and that old Time 
had stood still to wait on their slumbers. On 
this question we have held our ground 
bravely. They, in their wisdom, said we 
should never appropriate less than $ i ,000,000 
to the common schools ;' we, in our generos- 
ity, have not been able to appropriate more. 
Now, Mr. Speaker, I would like to appeal 
to the pride of the members of this Hoose 
to make this appropriation, and I have every 
reason to believe that a Legislature which 
has redeemed every pledge it made to the 
people, will not mar so excellent a record 
by giving a black eye to the common 
schools. There is no danger of exhausting 
the Treasury by making this appropriation. 
It appears from the late report of the Audi- 
tor General that there was a balance in the 
Treasury, November 30, 1886, of |2,ioi,- 
45 7" 5 7- Why is it necessary to have such a 
balance deposited in the various banks of the 
State, making money for capitalists ? Would 
it not redound more to the credit of this great 
Commonwealth to have given at least a fourth 
of this to aid our schools? For years, when 
the friends of common schools would talk 
about increasing the appropriation, some 
financial officer of the State would whisper 
into the Legislative ear: " Don't do that 
this year, wait until the next Legislature 
meets." This argument has spent its force 
and no longer deters the friends of common 
schools from making honest and just de- 
mands on the Treasury. Pennsylvania's 
finances are in too good condition to admit 
of the plea of proverty against this demand. 
The total public debt of this State was, on 
November 30, 1886, 117,258,982.28; the 
total assets in sinking fund, 110,180,746.46. 
A little more than 17,000,000 would wipe 
out the entire debt, and we have a balance 
of f 2,000,000 in the Treasury, which would 
reduce the indebtedness to f 5, 000,000. 
No, our Treasury is big enough, our State is 
rich enough, our Representatives are willing 
enough; then why,, in the name of all that 
is good, do we hesitate to increase this ap- 
propriation ? 

Aside from our ability to make this ap- 
propriation, I take it that Pennsylvania has 
pride in her common schools, and cannot 
afford to lag behind in the onward march 
of education. I am within the bounds oi 
truth when I make the assertion that Penn- 



iS87.] 



AN HOUR IN MODEL SCHOOL, 



HI 






I 



sylvania contributes less to her public 
schools, in proportion to her ability, than 
any other state. The other day I spent 
several hours in looking over school reports of 
other states, and was surprised to learn how 
much more liberaUy they support their pub- 
lic schools than we do. I will mention only 
a few of the many instances to prove the 
correctness of this statement. New Jersey 
appropriated to her common schools in 1885, 
|r,529,292.84. California appropriated in 
1S86, {1,884.065.07. Ohio's appropriation 
60m the various funds in 1886, amounted 
to {3,248, 793. 01. New York distributed 
among her public schools in 1885, |3,339>- 

I find that the average wages for teachers 
in Pennsylvania is less than in twenty-nine 
other states. Now, sir, it does seem to me, 
that a State whose resources are almost unlim- 
ited can well afford to aid her public schools 
as much as any state of the Union. Why, 
the very gods must frown upon us if we con- 
tinue this grudging policy. Of them to 
whono much is given, much is required. 
Certainly Pennsylvania is not meeting this 
requirement in her treatment of the common 
schools. I hope the House will resist every 
attempt, either here or in conference com- 
mittee, to reduce this appropriation below 
11,500,000. 



AN HOUR IN MODEL SCHOOL. 







N Friday a reporter of The News spent 
one of the pleasantest half days that he 
bas enjoyed for a long time in the Model 
Department of the West Chester State Nor- 
mal School. Usually the school day has 
been from 9 o'clock in the morning until 
2:30 in the afternoon, but since the warm 
weather began one session has been the rule. 
At 8 o'clock school began, and the school 
joined heartily in singing a simple Jiymn, 
and after an appropriate Scripture lesson all 
chanted in concert the Lord's Prayer. 

After these exercises two of the classes 
»cre dismissed to the recitation rooms, 
'jicre Miss Lydia A. Martin and Miss Ab- 
fe Eyre hear their classes. In the main 
«fcool room there came first the A reading 
class, which read in a most pleasing and 
appreciative manner, Alice Carey's ** Order 
for a Picture" and Longfellow's "Wreck 
?f the Hesperus," showing the best of teach- 
w*g. Gesture was brought in in the most 
natural yet skilful manner. Thirty minutes 
soon passed, and the classes changed. Then 
came a young geography Class, who were 



thoroughly interested in the geography of 
Pennsylvania. They were learning geog- 
raphy and learning to tell in the best way 
what they had learned. In fact, it seemed 
to us that in no educational line greater 
progress has been made than in the teaching 
of geography. What with books of travel, 
newspaper clippings, pictures, natural pro- 
ducts of various countries moulding the 
maps, geography has become one of the 
most delightful of studies. 

After the next change came the younger 
reading class. It was really astonishing to 
one who had been brought up on Comly's 
spelling book to see what these children had 
learned in less than a year. We heard them 
read passages that they had never seen be- 
fore as well as we could, and the beauty of 
it was they read so naturally. No bad habits 
of tone or manner ; to use their own words 
they told the story. Their reading lesson 
was illustrated with stuffed animals and birds 
from the scholars' fine museum, and as the 
half hour would have been too long for an 
exercise for such young children, they were 
sent to the blackboard and drew in white 
and colored crayons very creditable pictures 
of various little objects furnished them. 

A reading lesson by one of the older 
classes was about the coffee tree. Not only 
did they read well and intelligently, but 
everything was explained in the clearest and 
most interesting way. When they read that 
the height of the coffee tree was six feet, one 
boy was sent to the door-frame to mark how 
high he thought six feet was, and then 
another boy carefully measured six feet up 
to see how near number one was right, and 
by the way he was remarkably near right. 

Composition Class. — The "Fly" was the 
subject for the day ; by skilful questioning 
and the aid of pictures and a fly a great 
many interesting facts about it were brought 
out. They were expected to prepare a com- 
position about ^' The Fly " for an exercise 
during the next session of the school. The 
following is a copy of one written by a mem- 
ber of this class on the subject of **The 
Squirrel" after examining a stuffed specimen. 

THE SQUIRREL, 

" This is a squirrel ; it has two eyes, two ears,, 
four feet, and d tail. Its eyes are black and are 
set in the side of its head so that it can see all 
around. The squirrel's body and tail are shaped 
like a cylinder. The squirrel has a cone-shaped 
head, its body is .long and slender. The head 
and body are covered wiih fur. The squirrel is 
a reddish-grey on its back, and underneath it 
is a greyish-white. There is a dark-red stripe 
along its back and tail. The squirrel's tail is 
long and bushy. The squirrel has four toes on 



143 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JO ORNAL. 



[Oct., 



each front foot, and five toes on each hind foot. 
Its toe-nails are long and sharp. The nails, or 
claws, are sharp and curved, so that the squirrel 
can climb a tree or a fence. The squirrel's front 
paws are called hands, because he can hold 
nuts and other things with them as we do with 
our hands. The squirrel has four long sharp 
teetii, two in the upper jaw and two in the lower 
jaw. They are yellow on the outside and white 
on the inside. The yellow part is hard and the 
white part is soft. The squirrel keeps his teeth 
sharp by grinding them on the nuts he eats.** 

The author of this composition, as may 
be plainly seen, repeats what his attention 
had been called to the day before, but the 
spelling and punctuation are his own with- 
out correction or change at the hand of the 
teacher. The handwriting in the manuscript 
is good and legible for a child. 

This only serves as a sample of the work 
in every department of study — ^nothing 
seemed to be forgotten. In everything the 
children were taught to do their best. We 
saw a number of compositions; all were 
written neatly and in their best hand. What 
most astonished us was the punctuation and 
use of capital letters was almost without 
fault, and their grammar uniformly correct. 

After the lesson in natural history and 
composition came an older geography class, 
and while these were drawing their maps on 
the blackboard the little folks had their 
number lesson. They were as happy over 
iheir mathematics as if it were a game, and, 
tndeed, it came pretty near being one. They 
were learning the fundamental rules of arith- 
metic with real things, not with abstract 
figures, and the knowledge and skill they 
showed were astonishing. Here and every- 
where we were impressed with the fact that 
times have certainly changed; here was a 
school of children learning all that we ever 
learned, and a great deal more and better, 
and yet always with evident pleasure. 

And then their writing ! Why, the six 
and seven-year-olds wrote before our very 
eyes in a way that made us ashamed of our- 
selves. The Typographical Union ought to 
give Miss Blanchard a vote of thanks for 
• what she is doing in this line. It seems 
that they begin to write on the first day in 
school, and every detail, such as the hold- 
ing of the pen, etc., is learned just right at 
the statt. 

One of the most interesting exercises we 
witnessed was drawing in water colors by 
the whole school. Only about fifteen min- 
utes were allowed for this exercise, and all 
entered into it with enthusiasm. Freshly- 
cut rose buds were distributed among them, 
and they were instructed simply that car- 



mine and white properly blended would 
give the rose color, and emerald green and 
brown the color for the leaves. In the little 
time that was devoted to thb employment 
the paints were mixed and the work ac- 
complished. While there was not perfec- 
tion of coloring in any of the paintings, it 
was astoojshing that children, some of whom 
were not yet seven years of age, should with 
only a few weeks' practice be able to paint 
a rose bud with so much success that it was 
easy recognizable, and to have taken it from 
nature. What noade it more remarkable 
was the accuracy with which each child re- 
produced the characteristic markings of the 
specimen before him. 

ENTHUSIASTIC LITTLE FOLKS. 

The little folks appear to be all enthus- 
iasm in whatever they attempt, and in some 
way it is made to be a delight to them. 
Nothing is a task, and form, color, dimen- 
sions and the relation of parts is studied in 
every object that their eyes may light upon. 
Hand and ear and eye are trained for prac- 
tical use. Hie muscular exercise is always 
furnished in the way of graceful movements 
to music easily accomplished without telling 
the child of any awkward or angular motions 
that may be natural to him. His training 
simply leads him out of them, and. gives 
him something better instead. Training 
the muscles of the throat by exercises in the 
vowel and consoiiant sounds prepares them 
for clear enunciation. No spelling lessons 
are given, and a child that does not know 
the alphabet is taught to read at once both 
print and script. He is shown a stuffed 
bird ibr instance. He recognizes it, the 
. word '^ bird " is written on the blackboard» 
then a short sentence of two or three words. 
He b taught to copy it. He can now read 
it, though he does not know a letter. The 
same words are put into other combinations. 
If the teacher writes on *the board, ** The 
bird has two eyes," the child is expected to 
bring the bird and point out to his class- 
mates the eyes that are referred to, and so 
in all their studies to learn things in a nat- 
ural way. This alone can account for the 
progress made. 

The Model School has, during the past 
year, been very successfiil. Between 60 and 
70 pupils have been in attendance, and 
among them we saw children from many of 
the best and most prominent families in 
West Chester and the surrounding country. 
From what we saw of the school it is evident 
that the progress ap4f4iscipline of Uie school 
could not be excelled. The children were 



1887] 



ONE OF OUR EARLY BOTANISTS, 



H3 



always busy and evidently were delighted 
with their work. The best of order pre- 
vailed both in the school room and in pass- 
ing to and from classes. And yet the con- 
trol was of that perfect but rare kind that 
seems to manage itself. It is evident that 
these children are learning as much in good 
babits and good manners as they are from 
thdr books. The school was evidently used 
to visitors^ for the boys and girls were in no 
nj disconcerted, and we learned that many 
teachers and others interested in education 
visit the school. We really do not know 
There our readers could spend a pleasanter 
morning than in this remarkable school, 
vhcre we are sure they would meet with a 

hearty welcome. West Chester Local News, 



ONE OF OUR EARLY BOTANISTS. 



THE Pionier Verein, an association de- 
voted to the history of our early German 
settlers, has just issued to its members an 
address by Prof. J. M. Maisch, on Henry 
Mahlenberg and his services as a botanist. 
It is full of interesting matter, and it has a 
special charm as showing the close connec- 
tion of our early scientific workers with 
their colleagues in Europe. The first Muh- 
lenberg came from Germany to this city in 
1742, and became the patriarch of the Ger- 
man Lutheran Church in America. His 
eldest son was General Muhlenberg, who 
changed his minister's gown for a soldier's 
tmifonn, served with distinction in the 
Revolutionary war, and in many public 
offices. The second son also left the pulpit 
to become a Representative in the Conti- 
nental Congress, and remained in the pub- 
lic service throughout his life. I'he third 
son, born in Montgomery county in 1753, 
'[as educated in Germany, returned to as- 
sst his father in his clerical work, and 
^ly became pastor himself in Philadel- 
phia. In 1777 he was forced by the British 
to leave the city, and, taking refuge in Lan- 
^»ler, he became minister of the Lutheran 
Cterch there, and died there in 1815. It 
'as in this exile from Philadelphia that he 
fadevoted his attention to botany, and the 
(hMroughness that characterized all his work 
^^^ made him master of all that was then 
kaown of this useful science. Muhlenberg's 
«nrices were acknowledged by the European 
botanists of the day, including Michaux, 
^thcr and son, the latter the benefactor 
*hosc gift has given the Park its splendid 
collection of oaks and its botanical lectures, 
and by Pursch, who, after serving three 



years as gardener for Hamilton at the 
Woodlands, became famous by his collec- 
tion of American plants. 

Muhlenberg worked diligently in his own 
Ideality, and near Lancaster found eleven 
hundred plants useful in economical and 
medical botany, and over a hundred and 
fifty kinds of grass, as to whose character 
and fitness for domestic purposes he made 
diligent study. His ''Flora Lancastriensis " 
was one of his earliest contributions to the 
American Philosophical Society, and his 
botanical friends abroad and at home helped 
him to make it complete, for his industry 
in serving others in their scientific studies 
was so well known that no one hesitated to 
ask his help, and some leaders in science 
were glad of the opportunity of returning 
his kindness. Muhlenberg planned and 
sought the co-operation of other botanists in 
the preparation of an American Flora, but 
it was not done until our own time, by Tor- 
rey. Gray and their co-laborers. Still, the 
merit of its suggestion belongs to Mtihlen- 
berg. He pointed out the men to whom 
special sections could be entrusted, and as 
least set some of them at work which has 
made their names known. Muhlenberg, in 
1813, printed a catalogue of American 
plants, which showed the progress he had 
made in his task, and his ''Catalogue of 
American Grasses" was not printed until 
after his death, while his Herbarium was 
presented to the Philosophical Society in 
1 818, as a memorial of his services, but, 
unfortunately, it was so neglected as soon 
to .lose its value, and was entirely useless 
when Gray wanted to study it in his exten- 
sion and renewal of Muhlenberg's botanical 
work. In Gray's Manual, Muhlenberg is 
credited with over a hundred species and 
varieties which he was the first to describe. 
His name has been honored by foreign and 
American botanists, who have given it to 
many plants in various fields of botanical 
research, while the names he himself gave 
to plants, and especially to grasses, have 
been extended to numerous new varieties 
found in regions quite unknown to him. 

His correspondents included all the lead- 
ing botanists of the old world and the new, 
and many of them either visited him or sent 
their students to him in his hospitable Lan- 
caster home. One of his visitors was Hum- 
boldt, who, in 1804, on his return from his 
five years' jonrney in South America, the 
beginning of his great fame, paid Muhlen- 
berg a visit with Bonpland, his companion, 
and Humboldt wrote grateful acknowledg- 
ment of the instruction he had received 



144 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct., 



from the American botanist. Princeton- and 
the Univei^ity of Pennsylvania, and learned 
societies, both at home and abroad, recog- 
nized Muhlenberg's scientific services, by 
conferring honorary degrees and distinc- 
tions, and all this time he was living the 
quiet, busy and useful life of a local clergy- 
man of a large and flourishing church in 
Lancaster ; yet he found time to do an 
amount of scientific work that has made its 
mark on botany ever since. The immor- 
tality which was promised him by some of 
his correspondents- in giving his *name to so 
many plants, is limited now largely to the 
text-books and books of reference, but his 
merits deserve the handsome acknowledg- 
ment which Prof. Maisch has made in his 
lecture. PkUa^ Ledger, 



THE PALACE. 



EVERY man, woman and child upon 
earth owns a Palace. We may be very 
poor in this world's goods and chattels; 
our dwelling may be in a by-street, sur-' 
rounded by squalid forms and repulsive 
imagery; our purse may be empty, our ha- 
biliments worn and faded ; yet every one of 
us, dear reader, owns a palace. And it is a 
glorious structure, formed of the costliest 
material, more magnificent in its structure 
than Versailles or the Vatican; builded by 
a greater architect than he who designed 
and finished those splendid piles in their 
matchless beauty. It is the palace of the soul. 
Yes, within that wonderful world of ** the 
dome of thought,' ' the human brain, is that 
palace reared, and in it are many chambers, 
lofty, spacious, glorious; where the soul 
walks as their lord and master, and dwells 
in absolute sovereignty as '*king of thought." 
But the soul must furnish her mansion ; 
must fill those chambers with pictures and 
imagery, beautiful, chaste, grand, noble, 
lasting, and eternal in their loveliness and 
splendor ; or hideous, impure, low, debased, 
fading, darkened and defaced. Among the 
furniture her own hands placed within her 
palace that Soul must dwell ; must gaze upon 
JA. scene of beauty, or on pictures wild, weird, 
cruel, desolate, repulsive. 

How shall she furnish, then, that dwell- 
ing, in which she must reside for ever? We 
answer, with the images, the pictures, which 
she brings from the environment without; 
from the world, the universe around her home. 

Literature offers many things that the soul 
wcan appropriate to furnish her abode. Things 
.that are pure and lovely as the dreams of 



heaven, things of grandeur and of splendor, 
and of majestic mien and aspect ; or forms 
that are revolting and ghastly, which lie 
under shadows dark, and are only lit by the 
lurid gleams of hell. The sweet images that 
the poet brings to light ; his fairy scenesof love 
and beauty, his visions of loveliness, whid 
haunt the heart with their tender beauty. 
The grand pictures of the past, the present, 
the future, which history and philosophy 
bring to the mental vision; the lovely crea- 
tions of the artist, which, transferred to the 
speaking canvas, are again transported and 
delineated on the walls of memory's magic 
chamber in our palace. These may be seized 
upon and appropriated by the soul, and may 
adorn her palace with all the haunting love- 
liness of their lasting presence; and she can 
retire *at will from the coldness and the com- 
mon-place without^ to gaze upon her treas- 
ures in her own sweet home ; treasures which 
the thief cannot steal and the moth cannot 
corrupt. 

Nature too, sweet, living, outward Na- 
ture ! With her fair, green vales, and her 
sunny hillsides; with her blue waves, and 
her bright bending skies; with her sunset 
clouds of glory, and her dawning splendon; 
her moonlight on fair waters, and her pure, 
calm stars in the dark blue vault of night; 
her song of singing-birds; her melody of 
running waters, and whispering zephyrs, 
and tender mysteries of her sweet reveal- 
ings ; the blush of her roses ; the fragrance 
of her flowers j her lovely lights and deli- 
cate shadings. These, all these, speak to 
the soul; offer themselves to the soul to 
make them her own, and to hang them up in 
the picture galleries of her fairy palace; to 
brighten it with the unspeakable splendor of 
their matchless beauty and unfading glory. 

Religion, too, offers her spirit-beauty to 
furnish the palaces of the soul. She brings 
the picturings of its native land of heaven to 
the spirit exiled for a moment here. She 
reveals vistas of eternal glory, the faintly 
revealed glimpses of '*the green pastures," 
and the " pure river,*' where the ** Father's 
House," the Palace of God, stands with its 
gates wide open to welcome back the wan- 
derer home, with its flash of golden harps 
and its music of celestial voices. 

Ah, fairer, purer, sweeter than all earthly 
and outward seeming ; far, far sweeter, may 
be that furniture, those pictures, that ima- 
gery, which the soul may gather and gaze 
on, and study and dwell on with delight, 
in her palace, if she be only pure and holy, 
and gather sweet flowers, instead of seeking 
the ghastly things of evil. Oh, then, let 



iM?.] 



DOES EDUCA TION DIMINISH INDUSTR Y? 



145 



not the ''strong man" keep that palace, 

and darken its chambers, and fill it with his 

ghastly imagery; but let the "stronger 

than he " come in and dwell with you, and 

furnish your palace immortal with the true, 

the beautiful, and the good. 

So shall you nearer be the spiritual nature ; 
And war triumphant with your own. 



SERMON OF THE FLOWERS. 



BY DR. J. M. GREGORY. 



IN our land adornment, the number of 
available objects in which the element of 
beauty resides, is almost endless. The land 
itself, smoothed into the level lawn, swelling 
into soft undulation, or cut into terraces 
in a thousand combinations flecked with 
shadows or sleeping in the pale or ruddy 
light, is perpetually beautiful. The myriad 
forms of plant life, from the delicate 
mosses that deck the ragged rock as if to 
help to look beautiful, and the little grasses, 
making in their very multitude the royal 
holiday attire of our good mother Earth, to 
the stately pine and the grand oak, unite in 
their outlines and foliage every conceivable 
line of grace, and mingle every hue and 
tint of beautiful colors. 

And the flowers, those reminiscences of 
Eden and promises of Heaven, the splendid 
children of the sun and the jewelry of the 
soil, what shall I say of them ? Beautiful in 
form, beautiful in color, beautiful in ar- 
nngement, infinite in variety, endless in 
profusion, decking without reluctance the 
poor man's cot, brightening without pride 
the rich man's home, blooming with wild 
content in lonely forest glades and on the 
unvisited mountain sides, blazing without 
ambition in the public parks, shedding their 
fragrance without anxiousness in the cham- 
ber of sickness, cheering without reproach 
the poor wretch in prison cell, blushing in 
the hair of virtuous beauty and shedding 
without blush their beautiful light on the 
^w of her fallen sister ; sleeping in the 
codle with the innocent life of infancy, and 
bboming still in the coffin with the cold 
clay that remains after that life is spent ; 
scattering their prophetic bloom through or- 
chards and fields, and lighting up the grave- 
yards with their still undismayed promises ; 
scorning no surroundings however humble, 
or however sinful, flinging beauty in the wild 
wantonness of infinite abundance on the most 
precious and the most worthless things; they 
are God's incarnated smiles shed forth with 



a love that frightens our poor justice out of 
its wits, and with an infinite justice that 
puts our uttermost love to the blush, teach- 
ing us a theology better than the creeds, 
and a science better than the schools ; at 
once mocking and stimulating our acts, kiss- 
ing us when we fall, but refusing to let us 
lie quiet in our prostration, and perpetually 
urging upon the great heart of humanity, 
by their myriad and unending illustrations, 
the lesson of infinite trust in that divine 
Fatherhood which gives their splendor to 
the lilies, and tells us that '^ Solomon in 
all his glory was not arrayed like one of 
these." 



DOES EDUCATION DIMINISH ^ 
INDUSTRY? 



THE London Spectator^ at once the most 
serious and dignified of papers, recently 
published an article of which the above is 
the title, which took for the subject of its 
comments the plan now being advocated in 
England for introducing work-shops into 
the national schools. As the same plan is 
coming into prominence in this country, 
the Spectators remarks will interest our 
readers. The writer in question says that 
many critics of the present system of pri- 
mary instruction in England fear that it 
will breed up a generation with a distaste, 
and even contempt, for manual labor. 
'' The boys make less trusty workmen, and 
the girls worse cooks and housemaids and 
laundry women. They are less hardy and 
more conceited than a former generation ; 
have less liking for work, and more ' no- 
tions."' 

As this language is used in advocating a 
specific project, it is perhaps too strong to 
be critical, but there is no doubt it ex- 
presses a feeling very general not only with 
*' the classes," but with employers of labor 
of all degrees, and especially with employers 
in a small way. Moreover, behind all these 
complaints, some of which are justified, for 
the English have as yet been too busy mak: 
ing up leeway in the battle with utter ignor- 
ance to attend sufficiently to technical edu- 
cation, there rests an idea general enough 
and broad enough to deserve attention, — the 
idea that education is in itself inimical to con- 
tinuous industry. A lad who expends some 
years in acquiring knowledge will not, it is 
fancied, betake himself willingly to the 
drudgery of manual labor, will avoid it, 
even if he loses by the avoidance, will 
crowd into the towns, and will go perilously 



146 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct., 



near starvation in any easy employment, 
rather than work with his hands for fifty- 
four hours a week. The old method of 
training lads through apprenticeship to the 
necessary habit of endurance is breaking up> 
and with it the mechanical aptitude trans- 
mitted through generations which made the 
acquisition of the necessary knowledge 
almost unconscious. The working lad's 
mind has expanded, however little ; and he 
will not, it is contended, work as he did. 

It is quite right that the subject should 
be stirred, for, if the theory of the objectors 
be true, the lookout foe the world is but a 
poor one. Some of the most necessary 
tasks are disagreeable tasks. Somebody 
must cart the muck, dig the drains, unload 
the ships, stack the coals, carry the bricks, 
or the world will stop; and a resort to 
slave-labor would be criminal, or too exces- 
sive to pay highly, inconvenient, or impossi- 
ble. Machinery will not do everything ; 
will not, for instance, before making the 
bricks, excavate and damp the clay for fill- 
ing the moulds. The human hand is still, 
in many departments of labor, the only 
conceivable as well as the only available 
machine; Education cannot be stopped; 
and if, therefore, education develops an 
aversion to hard work, humanity will stand 
in presence of a nearly insoluble problem. 
The chance even is serious, and attracts the 
more attention because there is sovat prima- 
facie evidence that the danger is real. One 
clever race, the Jew, which, though often 
uneducated, has just the kind of intellect 
that education by itself produces, steadily 
and successfully avoids hard manual labor. 
The Hebrews all over the earth will not 
plough, yet they contrive to live. Another, 
the Yankee, which is educated, dislikes 
work so much that it is said that its true 
destiny is to oversee workers, and that a 
Yankee sitting on the gate to drive other 
men to labor is worth five Yankees in a 
field. 

The drift towards the towns, which in 
all countries follows education, and is now 
covering Europe with huge centres of popu- 
lation, is believed to be in part caused by 
the hope of obtaining ^' light " tasks; and 
the excessive increase of competitors for 
clerkships has been for years matter of con- 
stant observation. The clerks swarm in 
ever- in creasing numbers, till their wages 
are driven down to starvation-point, and 
they declare themselves incapable of living 
under a competition which seems to have no 
bounds. There are trades, we believe, now, 
in which the clerks pay the employers. 



Some of the people of the continent are 
penetrated with the notion that instruction 
IS fatal to willing labor. Mr. Hamerton, in 
his wise book (» France, declares that the 
peasants think a son who has gone to school 
outside the village is lost to their work, and 
believes that in the main they are right, the 
lads who have been instructed revolting 
against the unbroken toil, the penury, tl^ 
calculating thrift, essential to the peasant 
life. English dealers of the lower class say 
a lad must be taken young, or he will never 
succeed ; and in one trade at least, that of 
a sailor, the rules in favor of beginning 
early are made immutable, the old han<h 
knowing from experience that the life is in- 
tolerable to most of those who have tried 
any other. 

On the other hand, no dislike of work, 
which is at once the roughest, the most c<mi- 
tinuous, and the worst paid, has appeared 
among two of the best-educated races. 
The Scotch, who have been taught for two 
hundred years, and are now far more 
thoroughly trained than the English na- 
tional-school boys, show no disposition to 
avoid labor, but are, on the contrary, re- 
markable for persistent and fairly contented 
industry. There are thousands of Hugh 
Millers among them, though without his 
genius. The Prussian peasants, who are as 
educated as the English will be twenty 
years hence, working exceedingly hard, and 
in the country, where their holdings are 
their own, show none of the resentment at 
their fate which is no doubt manifested in 
the towns in the form of socialistic aspira- 
tion. Gardeners, who all over Great 
Britain are the best instructed of manual 
laborers, work, more especially when work- 
ing for themselves, with unusual diligence ; 
and it is matter of constant observation that 
a laborer who happens by any accident to 
be a "bit of a scholar" can be depended 
upon when work presses and every man is 
required. The people of Rome, who can 
read and write, are far more diligent than 
the Neapolitans, who cannot ; and the best 
workmen in Italy are those who have passed 
through the army, and so obtained what is 
practically an education. There seems no 
a /wn reason why it should be otherwise. 

Attendance in the schools, which are well 
ventilated and warm, notoriously improves 
health, and there is no evidence whatever 
that it diminishes strength in the lower 
class any more than in the upper, who 
decidedly benefit by school- life. Nothing 
recognizable, in fact, happens to the child 
who is taught, except a break in his habit 



i887] 



DOES EDVCA TION DIMINISH INDUSTR Yf 

# 



147 



of steady endurance, which is met in the 
agricultural schools by the system of half- 
time, and does not appear to impair in- 
dustry in factories or work-shops. Culti- 
vated lads — we mean lads *' well educated *' 
in the conventional sense — work in scores 
in the foundries, learning the engineer's 
bosmess through a most severe physical ap- 
prenticeship j and lads who emigrate with- 
out apital constantly work at hard tasks as 
well and as steadily as ploughmen; often, 
moreover, acknowledging a complete con- 
tentment with their toil. They feel monotony 
when there is nionotony ; but they do not re- 
sent hand-work any more than thousands of 
educated Canadians or New England farmers. 

Od the whole, and subject to the evidence 
which can only be supplied by many more 
jears of observation, we should say the 
truth was something of this kind. Educa- 
tion of the modern kind does not diminish 
industry, and does not, except for a very 
Aort period, break the habit of assiduity at 
vork. Nor does it diminish the readiness 
to do manual labor in those who do it, 
though it does diminish their number, — the 
"delicate '' lads, as their mothers call them, 
liHio, if left uneducated, would have gone 
tt in the groove of their forefathers, taking 
ty a species of natural selection to the lighter 
tasb. The remainder work as before, 
^gh probably not in the old, machine- 
ike way. They spare themselves more, are 
ftore quick to avoid unnecessary toil, and 
io doubt, as a large proportion are and 
^ be selfish men, in numberless in- 
Ances they ** scamp '* their work in ways 
tlie unintelligent never think of. That 
icifflping, together with the eagerness for 
Aore money produced by new wants, and a 
certain indocility or independence, combine 
{o produce an unfavorable impression as to 
industry which is not justified, or rather is 
^oe to other causes than aversion to work. 

Tbe English must wait a little for full in- 
^(^nnation, the boys who have passed 
^ongh school not being thirty yet ; but 
^ do not despair of seeing plenty of 
^<^gh Millers among their workmen \ that 
^ rocn who are educated, yet have a defi- 
nite love for and pride in exceedingly hard 
^ nionotonous manual toil. Miller set up 
^ne walls for eight hours a day — ^a real 
l^ck-breaking occupation — but he had 
l^rned more than most lads. It would be 
*ell if half-time could be made general, as 
*^y are nearly convinced it would in- 
^^f^ase learning, by allowing school-time to 
^t longer, and would not discourage any 
scheme for keeping up the habit of manusd 



labor, which will be the lot of the great 
majority while the world goes round, and 
which is, in fact, the permanent gymnasium 
of the human race ; but there is little fear, 
even if the present system continues. 

The changes which may come will not be 
produced by laziness, but by a longing for 
larger wages, and the comfort they bring, 
which some industries, agricultural espe- 
cially, in closely-populated countries, may 
find it difficult to satisfy. It will be satis- 
fied, however, in one way or another, for 
education opens wide the grand safety-valve, 
the power of wandering over earth in search 
of the opportunity of toil. For what we 
know, the human race may be destined 
some day to perish like mites on a cheese, 
through their own multiplication; but at 
present there is ample space for all of our 
race who may for the next century, at the 
cost only of expatriation, have their twenty 
acres apiece to work on. Germans, English- 
men, Italians, are swarming out in thousands 
daily ; but still there is no chance that they 
will perish for want of room, or be driven, 
like Chinamen, to that ceaseless work for 
bare existence under which other virtues 
than industry are apt to perish. Another 
Europe could live and prosper on the un- 
peopled river-basins of South America. 
Education helps to disperse mankind ; and 
we certainly do not find that emigrants, 
who are rarely of the know-nothing class, 
are at all reluctant to undertake severe toil. 

Is there not in the whole discussion a 
defect caused by tradition, an impression 
that as brain-workers avoid hard labor, 
knowing well that they cannot do both up 
to their full power, those whose brains have 
been developed will never do it? Fortu- 
nately, or unfortunately, they will specially 
feel the great disciplining force of the world, 
*' the strong conscription of hunger," which 
constrains us all. If all the world were 
Newtons, nobody would get a' mouthful of 
bread without somebody facing all weathers 
to plough and sow and reap. 

Science and Education. 



The difficulties of moral teaching, ex- 
ceed, in every way, the difficulties of intel- 
lectual teaching. It is bad policy to pre- 
scribe lessons of excessive length, expecting 
only a part to be learned. — Bain. 

In truth, the history of pedagogy dates 
but from the period relatively recent, when 
human thought, in the matter of education, 
substituted reflection for instinct, art for 
blind nature. — Compayru 



148 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



. [Oa., 



AN ORCHARD FOR BEAUTY AND 

PROFIT. 



ITjTE spend money for flowering shrubs; 
VY the beautiful double- flowering almonds, 
the weigelas and deutzias, which delight us 
with their spring and summer bloom, and 
we rejoice over them without objecting to 
their "fleeting show." Now, all these are 
enjoyed solely for their beauty. An orchard 
IS no less beautiful than these. A massive 
apple tree, a globe of snow just faintly tinged 
with the most delicate pink ; a dwarf pear, 
a pyramid of flowers \ a standard, a fountain 
of spray ; the cherries and plums ; and the 
peaches with their soft violet shade — all 
these are unsurpassed by any of the popular 
flowering shrubs. Then, after the blooming 
season is over and our sense of sight has 
beengratifled, the fruit comes in, sometimes 
no less beautiful with its varied brilliancy of 
color, but more useful than the majority of 
farmers are ready to believe. How many 
farmers ever think how easy it is to grow ap- 
ples and pears, and how exceedingly valua- 
ble the fruit can be made for feeding to 
their animals, if for no other purpose ! When 
some of the pear trees littered the ground 
with their ripe mellow fruit, I fed them to 
my cows. A peck of pears with two quarts 
of meal and bran for a noonday feed, in- 
creased the milk and butter one-fourth ; and 
when the apples were ripe, and only fifty 
cents a bushel could be got for them in the 
market, the horses, cows, pigs and fowls had 
all they wanted, and the ripe fruit did them 
a great deal of good. 

Some farmers give the windfalls — wormy, 
hard, gnarled fruit — to their animals, and 
complain that they are unwholesome. And 
why not ? Are they wholesome for them- 
selves ? Do they not suffer the pains and 
penalties of eating hard, unripe apples ? Why 
should they expect their stock to escape 
similar consequences? Give only ripe, 
sound fruit to the animals ; they will be 
greatly benefited by it. 

An orchard is a permanent crop, yield- 
ing more than its acreage of roots, and at 
scarcely any cost, during a man's whole life ; 
three hundred bushels of fruit, one year with 
another, to the acre being by no means an 
extravagant estimate. At twenty-five cents 
a bushel, a moderate estimate too, here is 
seventy-five dollars per acre for, let us say, 
thirty years, with no money outlay, and 
scarcely any labor beyond gathering the 
crop. Two thousand two hundred and 
fifty dollars from each acre of orchard is the 
total profit. Then why should not every 



farmer plant and care generally for at least 
ten acres of apple trees ? If he did, and 
fed the fruit, his stock would mostly escape 
the diseases now so destructive; and it 
would pay into his pocket every dollar abow 
estimated. Therefore, plant trees! 

Orchard and Garda, 



♦- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA FORESTRY 
ASSOCIATION. 



BY W. N. LOCKINGTON. 






THE need of some concerted action for 
the protection of our forest trees 
been long felt by those who have not al 
lowed their own individual work and inter- 
ests to so completely fill their lives as 
render them insensible to the interests 
the community. 

The white man found almost the enti 
area of that part of the North American o 
tinent east of the Mississippi, and a 
tract to the west of it, covered with a con 
tinuous forest of broad-leafed trees— a wi 
drous forest — full of magnolias and liriod 
drons; of conspicuous flowered legumim 
trees such as the Robinia and the Judast 
of beautiful Ericaceae and Rosaceae, of 
flowering dogwood and the catalpa; 
rich in numerous species of oaks, el 
birches, beeches, willows, poplars, aid 
ashes, and many others. But the forest 
not grow corn, and the American axe 
invented. It is a very efficient imple 
and does its work well. To fell trees 
the ambition of every settler ; he wali 
around with an axe on his shoulder, and 
favorite pastime was tree-slaughter. This 
still the case in many districts, yet little 
little the love of tree-destruction has, 
least in and near the centres of civilizatioi 
given place to a vague fear lest our fo 
might fail us, a feeling that trees need soia^ 
kind of care, since they cannot be grown !• 
a year or two. 

The cyclones, droughts, and freshets to 
which the arid regions of the Far West are 
subject, began to teach the lesson that trees 
were necessary to protect a region against 
an irregular distribution of rainfall; tbf, 
floods upon the line of the Ohio preadtf' ' 
sermons against the destruction of the li^ 
ests about the head-waters of the Moncft- 
gahela and the Allegheny; botanists took 
up the subject and wrote upon it, enforcing 
their arguments with circumstantial accoonti 
of the effects of tree-slaughter and tree-cul- 
ture in Europe ; until at last the ear 



ofthlU 



1887.] 



PRINCIPLES AND METHODS. 



149 



people has been reached, and even in coun • 
try districts a sentiment of respect for trees 
b growing. 

The United States is one of the last of 
civilized countries to commence to care for 
its trees. In Europe the era of tree-slaughter 
has passed. Southern Europe has suffered 
greatly from its effects ; England and France 
have been scathed ; Northern Europe has 
been threatened with the loss of one of its 
greatest sources of revenue ; and now tree- 
planting, and the conservation of the exist- 
ing woods, are in various ways enforced by 
lairs and by public opinion. 
' Bat the times are ripe in this country, and 
ihc movement has commenced. Even Penn- 
sylvania, slow to move though it be, has now 
its Forestry Association, the object of which 
is to disseminate among the people informa- 
tion respecting the effects of forest-destruc- 
tion in the change of climate, unequal dis- 
tribution of rainfall and water-supply, and 
fnjury to important interests; to promote 
nch legislation as shall prevent the occur- 
lience of those disastrous conflagrations that 
jiiow do even more damage than the wanton 
of the axe ; to foster tree-planting, and to 
courage tree-conservation. 
In this good work every one can help, 
ugh in varying degree. Every youth 
ho, when in the woods, forbears to break 
cut down a promising young tree, every 
or woman who plants a tree where it 
have a chance to grow, is assisting in 
t preservation. Whatever legislation 
y ultimately be formulated, the conserva- 
of our woods will ever depend princi- 
ly upon the amount of public opinion 
ch supports legislation. When the own- 
t)f trees, and all those whose livelihood 
directly or indirectly affected by the de- 
tation of our State, shall have learned 
take the same care of trees that they take 
domestic animals, to cut down only such 
are required for use, and to either plant 
<*f protect from injury promisingyoung trees 
to supply the place of those cut down — then 
^ forests will be safe. 

To effect this, as to effect other great re- 
S^, much teaching must be done ; and, 
*Jiile no effort should be spared to reach the 
nands of adults, the education of the young 
jn this respect is of even greater importance. 
It needs no separate text-book, no addition of 
, *new *ology to the school course, to compass 
this object. More or less of physical geogra- 
phy is taught in our schools, and the usual in- 
fcrmation concerning the distribution of trees 
I can easily be enforced by a few practical les- 
ions upon the influence of trees upon man. 



In this, as in every State, there ought also 
to be a school of forestry, in which all things 
relating to the conservation of existing for- 
ests, to tree-planting, arboriculture, methods 
of exploitation, and laws bearing upon the 
subject, shall be taught to those who expect 
to have, whether in a public of* private capa- 
city, the management of forested land. 

The American. 



PRINCIPLES AND METHODS. 



ANOTHER thing, also, which the teacher 
should always regard is the amount of 
in^telUctual patience which it is reasonable 
to expect in his pupils. The attention of 
young children to one thing can be secured 
for only a short time, and there should be a 
very careful gradation in this regard, from 
the primary school to the college. In the 
primary school the exercises should be very 
short ; and even in our grammar and high 
schools there is great danger of trying to 
hold the attention too long to one subject. A 
fixed, earnest attention, even for a short 
time, is productive of better mental habits 
than a languid attention — if it may be called 
attention — for a much longer period. The 
chronic indifference of pupils, of which 
teachers complain so much, I have no doubt 
is due quite as much to the length of the 
exercises as to lack of interest in the sub- 
jects. I recollect reading several plays of 
Shakespeare, with a freshman class in col- 
lege, and feeling all the time that the 
students were impatient of delay when I 
ventured any critical remarks or explana- 
tion of the text ; but the same class, when 
as seniors we read the same plays, so beset 
me with questions that we were able to read 
not more than one-fourth as much in the 
hour allotted to the lessons as formerly. 
This, I regarded as evidence that, whatever 
criticism might be made on our college cur- 
riculum, the students had acquired some- 
thing of that "intellectual patience*' to 
which Newton ascribed his chief success. 

Still another important principle, closely 
related to that of which I have been speak- 
ing, is that children can only be educated 
by their own mental activity under the guid- 
ance of the teachers. Montaigne complained 
of the teaching of his time, that it gave only 
the thought of others, without requiring the 
pupil to think for himself. He says '* he 
has no taste for this relative, mendicant, and 
precarious understanding. * ' ** Like birds," 
he says, ** who fly abroad to forage for grain, 
bring it home in their beak without tasting 



150 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct., 



it themselves, to feed their young, so our 
pedants go picking knowledge here and 
there, out of different' authors, and hold it 
at their tongues' end only to spit it out and 
distribute it. amongst their pupils." 

The dancing-master might as well teach 
us to move gracefully through the mazes of 
the dance, without requiring us to leave our 
seats, as the teacher to inform our under- 
standings without setting them to work. 
*' Yet 'tis the custonii of schoolmasters," 
says the same author, '' to be eternally thun- 
dering in their pupils' ears, as if they were 
pouring into a funnel, whilst the pupils' 
business is only to repeat what others have 
said before." This, however, was the com- 
plaint against the teaching of the sixteenth 
century. Is it possible that the same com- 
plaint might be made against the teaching 
in the nineteenth century ! Judge ye. 

American Teacher, 



USE OF PICTURES IN SCHOOL 

ROOMS. 



NEXT to the objects themselves, pictures 
are most valuable in exciting ideas and 
thoughts, and are therefore useful as a means 
of language study. They may be used as 
objects are used when a description of what 
is seen is called for, or they may be used as 
a basis for imaginary stories. In describ- 
ing the parts of a picture, young children 
will need special assistance and direction 
from the teacher. Place a large, interest- 
ing picture — not too complex at first — be- 
fore the class or school, and question some- 
what as follows : 

" How many bo)rs are there in the pic- 
ture?" •' What are they doing?" " What 
animal is following on behind?" ''What 
kind of a dog is it ?" "What is one of the 
cows doing?" The answers should be in 
entire sentences, and should be afterwards 
written out connectedly under the direction 
of the teacher. After some practice of this 
kind, the pupils may be able, without much 
assistance from the teacher, to state in full 
all they can see in a given picture. Care 
should be taken that the description does 
not consist of short statements, poorly ar- 
ranged or connected together by many 
'' and's." The final description of the pic- 
ture suggested above might be as follows : 
** I see two boys driving some cows. One 
of the cows is eating grass by the side of the 
road, and one is going into a field. A large 
shepherd dog is running behind the boys. ' ' 

Another scarcely less valuable use of pic- 



tures in teaching langtmge is to suggest 
imaginary stories to be told by the pupils. 
The pictures used for young children should 
be simple and somewhat striking. By pre- 
senting a good plan or by asking questions, 
lead the pupils gradually into good habitso/^ 
thought and constniction. With the pic- 
ture above indicated, the questions might be 
somewhat as follows : What shall we call 
the boys?' Where do they live ? Do both 
live on the farm ? Which one is the visitor 
from the city ? What relation are they to 
each other ? Who came with Charlie to the 
country? What are they doing? What 
else do they do on the farm? etc. After 
questioning, the story may be told orally by 
one or more of the pupils, and afterwards 
written out in full. Older pupils may be 
able to write the story out in full after a 
given plan, without preliminary questicniDg 
or without first telling it or£dly. The cor- 
rection and revision of the papers may be 
made during the time of a regular recitatioD, 
or may be given out as a language lesson. 
Encourage, as far as possible, independence 
and origmality of expression. 



STEADY FOR A HUNDRED YEARS. 



AS we are turning our faces now towank, 
the year 1787, in commemoration ofa| 
great event in the history of our own country, 
we instinctively go further to glance at the 
political condition of Europe in that same \ 
year. It is curious to consider that the cen- 
tury of our Constitution that we are now 
coinmemorating carries us back at its begin- 
ning over all the numerous revolutions in 
France to the Bourbon Louis XVI. ; backlOj 
the great Empress Catharine of Russia ; ba( 
to the personal and despotic rule of Fred( 
rick the Great in Prussia, and over the nui 
erous vicissitudes through which the Gei 
man Empire has passed; back to the earli( 
days of George III., when "the people" 
had no voice in choosing the House of Coi 
mons ; back to Stanislaus of Poland, an^ 
back to the days when an Irish Parliameol 
sat in College Green. Then absoluti^ 
prevailed in all the great countries except^ 
ing Great Britian, but even there, while tl 
Government was " constitutional," it ws 
the constitutionalism that was administeidj 
by the ** pocket borough parliament " 
that day, the seats in which were held 
the landed aristocracy — ^a constitutioi 
Government that was the farthest remove 
from the parliamentary government of o( 
day, which is controlled by the ballots ol 



1887.] 



PLANTING TREES. 



ISI 



the millions of enfranchised voters of the 
British and Celtic Islands. Now every great 
power of Europe except Russia and Turkey 
(which latter is Asiatic rather than Euro- 
pean) is limited by constitutional covenants. 
Instead of the petty kingdoms of Sardinia, 
Piedmont, the Sicilies and the States of the 
Church, we have the Parliamentary King- 
dom of Italy. The absolutism of Louis 
XVI, who was then the reigning monarch 
in France, has been followed by the Direc- 
tory, the Consulate, the Consulate for life, 
the Empire of the Great Napoleon, the res- 
t(»ation of the "legitimate" Bourbon, the 
reign of the ** Citizen King " of the French, 
the Restoration of the short-lived ** Repub- 
lic," the Second Empire, and now the 
third Republic, which has already had a 
bnger lease of life than any of its prede- 
cessors. The Prussia of that day was the 
Prussia of the despotic Frederick the Great, 
who had died but the year before, bequeath- 
ing his sword to Washington — the Prussia 
which, within a quarter of a century, passed 
through the deep humiliation of Jena, and 
has now again risen to be the great military 
power of Europe, heading the reconstituted 
German Empire of Kaiser Wilhelm, Bis- 
marck and Moltke. The house of " Bra- 
gaoza has ceased to reign,'' and so, indeed, 
has the elder branch of the Bourbons. Po- 
land was then still upon the political map 
of Europe, and her king, Stanislaus II., still 
Occupied a place in the list of European 
lovereigns, but, while Polanid was still there, 
tbere was no Belgium, that industrious, 
thriving and intelligent kingdom in the 
"low countries'* being a creation of more 
nodem times ; and, as already mentioned, 
what is now the powerful Italian kingdom 
vas a scattered group of small kingdoms, 
dukedoms, and petty principalities. 

Amidst all these separations, congrega- 
tions, aggregations, reconstructions, as con- 
spicuously exemplified in the dissolution of 
the Austro-German Empire and the construc- 
^nof the Prusso-German Empire of our 
^Ti the great characteristic is the change 
*the fundamental basis of government— of 
"fenns" of government and the advance 
towards government by constitutional com- 
pact, guaranteeing political rights to the 
'^^^sses of the people. These changes, 
pomerous and multiform, though all tending 
in the one direction of guarantees to popular 
fights, are the broad marks in the political 
history of Europe since the proclamation of 
Ite American Constitution of 1787. And 
the great fact connected with that frame of 
government is that amidst these momentous 



changes everywhere else in the civilized 
world, it has remained unchanged as a 
** system " of government, the two or three 
great amendments being additicHis relating 
to the enfranchised slaves, their votes, and 
their social rights. But as a '' frame of gov- 
ernment" — as a system — it has gone on 
unchanged through these hundred years, 
while change was written on the face of 
nearly all other nations. — Phila, Ledger. 



PLANTING TREES. 



NOTHING adds more to the beauty of a 
homestead than a few trees arranged in 
an artistic manner. Native forest trees are 
indeed graceful, but it is not often that they ' 
grow at the most convenient places. Art 
must aid nature in makinpf our homes pleas- 
ant. Nothing seems more dreary than a 
home without any trees in the yard. There 
is nothing to protect the house from the 
direct rays of a July sun. With but little 
expense the homestead can be' made both 
pleasant and attractive. Plant a tree and 
watch it grow, and each year your home 
will become more attractive. 

Trees along the streets add much to the 
beauty of a country village. Nature is beau- 
tiful, but under the control of man she will 
become more beautiful or more repulsive. 
Nothing is more desolate than a ruined 
homestead. Nature has gone to ruin. Man 
instead of adding to her beauty has only 
deprived her of her strength. By a little care 
even a wilderness may become attractive. 

Frequently the district school-house is 
located at the most dreary spot in the neigh- 
borhood. The land is not fit for farming, 
so they build a school-house. All are influ- 
enced to a greater or less extent by their sur- 
roundings. The beautiful in nature appeals 
to the beautiful in character. The school 
should be the most attractive place in the 
community. Let trees be planted in the 
yards and the grounds be decorated in the 
manner most pleasing to the community. 

Plant trees around the school- house, and 
the boys will take care of them. Encourage 
the boys to do the planting. Have appropri- 
ate exercises, and "Arbor Day" will b« cher- 
ished for years. All are interested in taking 
care of their own work. If the bo)rs plant 
the trees they will protect them. We like 
the idea of permitting the children to plant 
forest trees and take care of them as their 
own property. Every boy is made better 
by cultivating a tree. 

We would like to see our tree-planting' day 



152 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Oa., 



observed in all parts of the State. He who 
plants a tree is doing something for future 
generations. How many desolate, gloomy 
places might be made attractive by a little 
time and expense on the part of the people ! 
There is not a village but might be made 
more pleasant and attractive. Let us study 
nature more carefully, and we will find 
many things to admire. 



VISITING SCHOOLS. 



HOW CAN A SUPERINTENDENT MAKE HIS VISIT 
TO A SCHOOL MOST EFFECTIVE ? 



THE work of a Superintendent must vary 
somewhat according to the character of 
the community and the condition of the 
schools, but there are some general princi* 
pies which are equally applicable to all situ- 
ations. He should be in full sympathy with 
his teachers, that they may regard his visits 
as those of a generous friend, desirous of giv- 
ing them any aid in his power, and not the 
mere round of an official to inspect and 
criticize. 

It is assumed that the Superintendent 
should visit the schools under his care — that 
he should spend much of his time in the 
school-room with the teachers and pupils. 
Without this familiarity with their daily 
work, most of the meditations* and devices 
of the office are likely to be of little worth. 
H is thought may be clear and logical, but 
his aim, in many cases, will be wide of the 
mark. 

His entrance to a school-room should be 
quiet and familiar, causing hardly a ripple 
^ of excitement to pass over the room, or the 
mind of the teacher. Nor should he often 
interrupt the regular work, of whose charac- 
ter he wishes to learn ; and in no way should 
he say or do anything to disconcert the 
teacher, lessen her authority, or disparage 
her scholarship or character in the estima- 
tion of her pupils, but rather should his 
presence be helpful, and an inspiration to 
teacher and pupil alike. 

He will often see and hear methods which 
he does not approve ; but is he to censure 
and condemn, bringing an uncomfortable 
feeling over all parties, with little probabil- 
ity of any improvement ? No earnest work 
is all bad, and among much that is faulty, 
some good will crop out. This he can com- 
mend, and suggest how it might profitably 
be carried still farther. With the direct or 
implied consent of the teacher, never to be 
forgotten, he may ask some question sug- 






gestive of a better method — something to 
awaken their curiosity and quicken their in- 
telligence. With her consent, too, he may 
ask if they have ever done their work in 
this way, or that, getting their opinion as 
to which they think the better. He may 
find a class in history, for instance, repeat- 
ing the words of the book, and ask who, 
forgetting the text, can tell the story in his 
own way, as he would describe what he had 
seen to a companion. In geography he may 
ask a pupil to step to the board and sketch 
the boundaries of the state, for example, with 
one or two towns and rivers, and tell them 
that when he comes again he hopes to give 
them another trial. Most teachers are dis- 
cerning enough to follow the lead thus given. 

He Bnds a room in infinite confusion, the 
floor lined with papers, the ceiling covered 
with spitballs, some pushing and shoving, 
much talking and no work. One of our 
experienced principals, some time since, 
wisely, I think, remarked to one of his as- 
sistants, that he " never should allow him- 
self in the presence of disorder. ' * What is 
the Superintendent to do ? Let him, per- 
haps, with a pleasant, encouraging word to , 
the pupils, walk down through the aisle and \ 
back, and with many a smiling look from 
little boy and girl, he will find the floor 
cleared before the completion of his round 
They will appreciate the improved appes* 
ance, be ready to assure him that he wifl 
not ^nd it so again, and the teacher, with 
some quiet suggestions and cheering com 
mendations of what is good, will go on with 
her work stronger and happier. 

This work of visiting, to be truly valuable, 
must be supplemented, or preceded, by 
meetings of the teachers, at which directions 
and suggestions can be given, errors pointed 
out, methods indicated, and illustrations 
given. 

The Superintendent should never discour- 
age any method without suggesting some- 
thing better to take its place. This fault- 
finding, this pulling down, is so easy, but 
leaves such a void, such dissatisfaction, and 
often helpless despair, as its only results. 
The visit of the Superintendent should al- 
ways be an encouragement and an enjoy- 
ment, and looked forward to with pleasure 
and hopeful anticipation. 

Illinois School yournti^ 



Instruction should give pleasure to chil- 
dren, and where this is not the case, there is 
something wrong as regards either the mode 
of instruction or the subject matter selected 
for instruction. — Tate. 



188;.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



153 



Editorial Department. 



THE SGHQQL elQUBITAL. 

LANCASTER, OCTOBER, 1887. 
IHIGBEL • . • . J. P.McCASKEY 



' Vemy be aye stickin' in a tree. Jock ; it will 

be growin' «rhen ye're slccpin'." Scotch Farmer, 



AUTUMN SCHOOL ARBOR DAY. 



Official Circular. 



1 



Department Public Instruction, 
Hakrisburg, Sept. 27th, 1887 

To ike Superintendenh^ Teachers and School 
Directors of Pennsylvania, 

THE work which Arbor Day shall accomplish 
in the Schools of the Commonwealth is but 
begun. What has been accomplished is but a 
prophecy of what is to be done. A field ever- 
widening is before us. School grounds especi- 
ally must be properly enlarged, and fitly orna- 
mented, so as to secure the admiration of our 
communities, and become a source of refining 
culture to all the youth of the Commonwealth. 
With this will go forward the improvement of 
nir roadsides, until man and beast shall travel 
kneath the shade, and the birds cpme back 
igain to cheer them with song. Then rural 
jarb can be provided, wherever possible, and 
1 universal sentiment be aroused, which shall 
fnard our mountain springs and streams, and 
ieep intact the shadowy hills and mossy dells 
tith which our State abounds. 
Trees must be more generally thought of and 
ored for by the people of the State. Forest 
(ftes, fruit trees, and shade and ornamental 
litts, must be looked at, thought about, talked 
if, and planted everywhere. Teachers, School 
Directors and Superintendents may become 
iDost influential factors in directing attention to 
tills necessity of tree-planting, the kinds of trees 
to be planted in different locsilities, the manner 
in which the work should be done, and the re- 
solti that must follow, which are in every way 
profitable. 

, We call on the Schools and School authori- 
al therefore, to bestir themselves in this new 
<iitsade against ignorance, recklessness, selfish- 
^and the blind folly of procrastination and 
J^ect. Let the grounds about all School 
»*ses be planted with shade trees, and shrub- 
j^T.and vines. Let the subject of tree-plant- 
"% be discussed in evening meetings held in 
^School houses of the district. Let planting 
^ seeds and the transplanting of young trees; 
tbc wonderful arts of budding and grafting ; the 
number of trees of different kinds growing 
about the homes of individual pupils and the 
numbers that may yet be planted there; the 
nurseries or other places from which trees that 
are desired may be secured ; the prices at which 
^y may be had; and any other matters of 



I practical interest in this ccmnection, that sugpest 
themselves to the teacher, be made the subject 
of school- room or class-room consideration. 
The State comes to the Schools for help. Let 
that help be given, and thus in her increased 
material wealth alone, the Schools will return 
to the Commonwealth year by year, vastly more 
than the million and a half of dollars that have 
so recently been appropriated from the public 
treasury for the purposes of general education. 

From the record of work done and to be done, 
as presented in the individual reports of Super- 
intendents found in the last annual report from 
the Department of Public Instruction — extracts 
from which are given in the forthcoming issue of 
The Pennsylvania School Journal for October 
— the propriety of the appointment of a School 
Arbor Day by this Department, during the past 
two years, and the necessity for its continued 
observance, become clearly manifest. 

Therefore, to carry out more fully the intent 
of the proclamation of Arbor Day by His Ex- 
cellency Governor Beaver, through securing the 
united efforts of our schools — a very large pro- 
portion of which were not in session at the time 
of tree-planting in the Spring — we hereby ap- 
point 

Friday, October 2ISt, 

as an Autumn School Arbor Day, and earn- 
estly urge upon Superintendents, Teachers and 
School Officers throughout the State, the pro- 
priety of using every effort to forward this im- 
portant work, employing such means as their 
good judgment may direct. We further request 
that they secure a full report of work done, in 
order that the record thereof may be preserved 
permanently among the School documents of 
the Commonwealth. £. E. Higbee, 

Supt, Publie Instruction, 



IN a letter to the Junior editor from Hon. 
B. G. Northrop, of Connecticut, who is 
specially interested in the work of Arbor 
Day, he says: "This movement, for which 
Supt. Higbee and The Pennsylvania School 
Journal have done so much, is steadily ad- 
vancing over the country. Six more States 
are now to be added to the list of seventeen 
Arbor States given in the April number of 
The School Journal, In a recent lecture 
trip through the Gulf States, the Governors 
of Mississippi and Texas expressed to me a 
desire for its adoption in their respective 
States. The interest shown in its observ- 
ance this year in Florida and Alabama was 
most encouraging. The question of its 
legal sanction is now pending in several 
legislatures. There is a good prospect of 
its early adoption by all the States. No new 
measure of equal importance has so soon se- 



154 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct., 



cured such general approval and adoption. 
The only objection I have encountered — 
and that from two States — is their size. 
The Governor of Illinois, for example, said, 
* No one day will answer for our State, ex- 
tending north and south through five and a 
half degrees of latitude, or from the latitude 
of Salem, Massachusetts, to a point farther 
south than Petersburg, Virginia, with great 
variation in climate and season.' To this 
my reply is. ' I^t there be two days desig- 
nated by the Governor, an early day for the 
southern portion, and later for the northern 
half, as is so successfully done in Canada. ' 
It is a striking fact that the climatic ex- 
tremes of Canada and Florida should be 
rivals in their interest, not to say enthusiasm, 
in observing Arbor Day." 

The annual State convention of the Young 
Men's Christian Associations of Pennsylva- 
nia was in session at Lancaster for four days 
during the latter part of Septenber. Among 
the three hundred or more delegates in at- 
tendance were the representatives of seven- 
teen colleges of the State. Ten young men 
represented Captain Pratt's Indian school at 
Carlisle. It was our pleasure and our privi- 
lege to attend a part of the sessions. We 
have never been more impressed with the 
reverent bearing and earnest purpose of any 
body of men. ** The glory of young men is 
in their strength," and, when that strength 
is directed only in the way of righteousness, 
how great is that glory ! This association 
now extends throughout the civilized world. 
Only the arithmetic of the angels can estimate 
the good it has done and is yet, in the 
providence of God, destined to accomplish. 



CENTENNIAL OF THE CONSTITU- 
TION. 

THE celebration of the centennial of the 
Constitution has been as brilliant and 
successful in its way as the centennial of In- 
dependence in 1876. What more therefore 
need be said ? To attempt any detailed de- 
scription would be futile. There would not 
be room in our columns for a tithe of the 
masterly accounts of the pageantry, and 
ceremonials, and memorable incidents, that 
have already appeared in the daily issues of 
the newspaper press, and been read with ab- 
sorbing interest by so many tens of thou- 
sands. To our mind, by far the most impres- 
sive feature was the people themselves. On 
the opening day — that of the great Industrial 
parade — one million people, men, women 
and children, were massed on Broad Street, 



to which the display was confined, within 
a range of five miles along that wide avenue, 
which on that day seemed much too narrow 
for the special uses of the occasion. They 
symbolized for themselves and for the th^e^ 
score millions who could not be there, tbe 
undisputed sovereignty of the people, is 
such, over both Army and Navy and thoK 
public servants in civil life who hold thdi 
offices for the time being only in pursuance 
of |>opular suffrage, exercised under and 
protected by the Constitution and the laws, 
with no power on earth to subvert or destroy 
that sovereignty or reduce them to the rank of 
subjects again, '*We, the People," were there 
in force in their own right, not by permission 
of any authority higher than themselves. 

Aside also from the entertainment fur- 
nished by the evanescent spectacular dis* 
play, this centennial has not only rekindled 
the fires of patriotism and stirred the emo- 
tional nature to its profoundest depths, but 
more than all, it has already exerted, and for 
a long time to come must continue to exert, 
an immense Educational influence that will 
be felt as a re-creative power to the remot- 
est borders of the Union. And herein liei 
the greatest value of the immense demon- 
stration. It has flashed upon the public 
mind a vivid retrospection of the anteced* 
ents of our form of government and t' 
perilous conditions, lx)th of divided pu 
opinion, and financial, commercial, 
governmental chaos, out of which the Cob- 
stitution came into being and created and 
saved us as a nation. We know better now 
what it cost, and the impending and remedi* 
less catastrophe from which it rescued this 
fair land, and can better appreciate the 
wisdom of the master minds that framed it. 

And in the clearer perspective which time 
and distance give, we can recognize, with 
devout and profoundest gratitude, the guid- 
ing hand of an overruling Providence from 
which all our prosperity comes. We have 
been so accustomed to taking all our bless- 
ings as a free people as a matter of course, 
that, like certain well-known quadrupeds 
munching acorns under an oak-tree, we 
have never thought to look up to sec where 
they came from. The Union is stronger to- 
day because of this centennial, and will con- 
tinue to be stronger in exact proportion to 
the extent and thoroughness with which thf 
rising generation shall be educated intoi 
knowledge of our country's history, and its 
logical connection and outgrowth from pre- 
ceding forms of government. There is in 
this direction a greater work for our coinroon 
schools to do than they have yet attempted. 



I887.J 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT, 



»55 




They want something more than the husks 
of dry dates and meagre facts that have too 
often been furnished them — more of the life, 
and causes, and philosophy of history. 

Looking beneath the surface foam to the 
utterances brought out by this national 
festival, the brief remarks of Judge £. M. 
PiBon, of our own Supreme Court, at the 
bittkfast given by the Bar to the Judges of 
tivSapreme Court of the United States, are 
tnuDgst the most significant. His admoni- 
hoos with regard to the growing tendency 
toward centralization and the stealthy en- 
croachments of corporate power were timely 
and well-founded, though they have not at- 
tracted as much attention as they deserve. 
They should be republished in every news- 
paper in the Union for the consideration of 
the mass of the people, whose rights and in- 
terests are involved and with whom rests the 
iltimate remedy. Sappers and miners, whose 
lioDOQS workings escape attention, are more 

Rgerous by far than a stronger enemy in 
open field, 
lie military display was brilliant and in- 
spiring. Our Pennsylvania National Guard 
to the number of six thousand seven hun- 
, with Governor "Beaver at their head, 
e soldiers ready for active service in the 
d. They are the troops whom the high- 
Bt military authority in the country pro- 
loonces the best organized and best equipped 
State militia on the continent, not indeed in 
k most showy uniform, but most ready of 
Hand that in largest force, for the ''seri- 
Ifcs work of war which is no playing. * * The 
Cirard College cadets and the Soldiers' Or- 
|i)ans attracted much attention ; while the 
Werans of the Grand Army were present in 
l)rce to do honor to the sacred instrument 
^hich their valor preserved intact, not only 
in its every feature, but strengthened and 
improved through the addition of amend- 
tnentsthat have rid the flag Of every stain, 
*&d the instrument itself of its one poison- 
wot of evil. 
The exercises in Independence Square, to 
fttrcar of Independence Hall, on Saturday, 
September 17th, the anniversary of the day 
^ the signing, were witnessed by an im- 
™Q* concourse of people. . An address by 
^President of the United States; the 
^oorial oration by the Senior Justice of 
'^ U. S. Supreme Court ; the singing by a 
choir of two thousand, of the new *'Hail 
Colombia," written for them by Dr. O. W. 
Hohncs, the Marine Band playing the ac- 
^coropaniment ; and, grander yet, the "Star 
Spangled Banner," by a chorus of two hun- 
dred selected male voices, with the Marine 



Band in accompaniment — ^all this made a 
fittitig programme for the last of this triad 
of noemorable days of rejoicing. 



BOTANICAL GARDENS. 



THE recent aggressive movement against 
our State Normal Schools should, and no 
doubt will, be followed by a waking up to 
tlie full capabilities and ultimate possibilities 
of these most im|>ortant public institutions, 
as foreshadowed in the comprehensive law 
which created them, and which, independ- 
dent of the law, the progress of the times 
demands. We alluded, in a recent article, 
to dormant features of the Normal School 
law that have not yet been called into ac- 
tion, and should have said that at least in one 
of the schools, an initial movement has been 
made which opens a door to further com- 
ment in that direction. After thirty years 
of arduous but successful experience, it is 
surely time that some advance should be 
made upon the bald utilitarianism of their 
early days, so heavily weighted by limited 
means, and the pressure of physical wants, 
beyond dry text-book drills in the merest 
rudiments, into the broader realms of men- 
tal effort and the wider culture that takes in 
auxiliary agencies reaching the semi-intel- 
lectual faculties and the imagination. These 
latter need to be fed and nourished and en- 
lightened simultaneously with the direct 
reasoning powers, and memory, and the 
analytical intellect. 

Large grounds were required by the law 
— but it is already discovered not large 
enough for the required purposes — not merely 
as a spot for the location of buildings, but 
to afford opportunity for embellishment by 
the hand of art that should beautify and 
adorn these homes of so many eager and 
ambitious students during those transforming 
educational years in which impressions of 
life-long permanence must be made. These 
surroundings, promptly utilized, will lead 
the student up to high ideals in nature and 
art, but in the absence of such accessories 
he must be left under the influence of the 
commonplace and the uncultivated. 

The 6th section of the Normal School 
law provides that a portion of the grounds 
shall be occupied by ^^ botanical and other 
gar dens y^ and "such other purposes as shall 
be plainly promotive of the great objects of 
the institution," plainly showing that it was 
the object of the law to go beyond the con- 
crete drills in text-book lessons, into appli- 
ances that should reach illustrative instruc- 



XS6 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Oct., 



tion direct from nature, whose tendency j 
would be to enlarge the students' range of 
information and broaden the understanding. 
No one of these schools seems yet to have 
thought of establishing gardens for the study 
of horticulture, or of planting grounds for 
the kindred subject, arboriculture, with both 
of which all teachers who claim to be truly 
accomplished ought to be technically and 
thoroughly familiar. They are studies that 
for all inquiring minds thirsting far knowl- 
edge, have an attraction in themselves, and 
it would be an enthusiastic labor of love 
with many students to master them if they 
had the opportunity. Such studies when 
pursued in the open air under intelligent 
guidance would be a great relief at intervals 
from close text-book study in other and 
drier branches, and would impart a freshness 
to the routine of Normal School training 
that would make all studies clearer to the 
mind, insuring mental freshness and elasti- 
city where weariness and discouragement 
might otherwise supervene. There is a 
charm in nature when acquaintance with her 
fascinations is rightly cultivated and under- 
stood, that can come from no other source. 
While waiting for the formal opening of 
botanical gardens in the early future, there 
is an intermediate step of almost equal 
importance that can be taken at once 
without waiting for another season to realize 
its accomplishment ; and that is the laying 
out and adornment of the Normal School 
grounds by the trained hand of the profes- 
sional landscape gardener into avenues and 
paths, greensward and ornamental flower- 
beds, with such additional shrubbery as 
shall give a finish and attractiveness to the 
whole. The State Normal School at Mans- 
field, Tioga county, has been the first to 
employ a professional gardener to take care 
of its grounds, and its managers are entitled 
to the highest credit for this evidence of cul- 
tivated good taste, enterprise, and liberality 
— a liberality that, in this case, was the 
truest economy, the improvements made be- 
ing worth tenfold more to the institution 
than the expenditure amounted to, for it 
will make the school vastly more attractive 
than before. Even without direct instruc- 
tion in botany, the students, by watching 
and occasionally interrogating the gardener 
out of school hours, may gain a knowledge 
of plants that will create both a desire and 
a demand for their more systematic study in 
the regular normal classes. This example will 
not be lost upon the other Normal Schools, 
and, if they cannot all keep step in a simul- 
taneous movement, then let it begin with 



the oldest of these institutions, which, by 
virtue of its resources and of its long exper- 
ience, ought to set the brightest and best 
example in this respect also. It ought to | 
have been done this years ago, but now or | 
soon is the best time yet available. \ 

Such improvements are essentially a mat- 
ter of both science and art, and the woik 
can only be entrusted to those who are mas- 
ters of both. The time has gone by when 
unskilled labor can be entrusted with the ac- 
complishment of duties that can only be 
properly performed by educated and skilled 
experts in their profession, and it is the < 
truest economy to employ no others. Mans- 
field did the right thing, in exactly the right 
way, and the other Normal Schools should 
profit by her example and do still better, if 
they can. Let there be a generous rivalry 
among them as to which can excel in this 
most inviting and useful field of aesthetic 
culture. The unconscious tuition of such 
pleasant and attractive surroundings in the 
formative period of life is itself an education 
that will be felt as a moulding and positive 
influence for good through all after years. 
Life will be better and happier because of it. 



GOV. BIGLER AND THE SCHOOLS. 



THE thirty-third annual session of tk 
State Teachers' Association at Clear'! 
field, the former home of the late Governor 
fiigler, recalls the first meeting of the Asso- 
ciation at Harrisburg in 1852, at which 
Gov. Wm. Bigler and Secretary F. W. 
Hughes were both present by special invita- 
tion and addressed the meeting. We take 
the following extracts from the minutes of 
the Association, as reported in Vol. I, page 
296, of The Pennsylvania School Journal: 

When the examination of teachers was under 
discussion, Governor Bigler made a short but 
able address upon that subject, and upon the 
system of public education generally. The Su- 
perintendent of Common Schools also spoke on 
the same and various other points clearly and 
forcibly, and expressed the opinion that an ex- 
tension of the time of teaching in all the schools 
of the State, by law, would materially improve 
the teachers, inasmuch as longer employment 
would naturally attract better qualified persons 
into the profession. 

That was the dawning of a new era in oor 
Common School affairs, an era of concerted 
and determined efforts, on the part of many 
leading friends of education in the State, to 
secure some much-needed legislation to wake 
up the common schools and make them 
more worthy of the purpose for which they 



1887.] 



hDHORIAL DEPARTMENT,. 



157 



were established, as well as to give greater 
efficiency to their administration. Though 
what has since been accomplished in that 
direction in the way of practical results was 
then only looming up as vague and shadowy 
theory on the horizon of the uncertain 
future, and did not crystallize into well-de- 
fined statute law until the spring of 1854, 
w\ien — through the combined efforts and 
wfloence of able and progressive men in 
the legislature — Gov. Bigler was afforded 
the opportunity of giving his official ap- 
proval to what has since become famous as 
(iie general school law of May 8, 1854. 

It was a responsible and courageous thing 
to do, for its unprecedented grants of power 
; and the new executive agencies which it cre- 
! ated were sure to awaken hostility and cre- 
ate a tidal wave of opposition to its best and 
most important provisions. Governor Bigler 
signed the bill with the full knowledge that 
it might be his political death-warrant at the 
dection for Governor in the fall of that 
year. It did contribute very materially to 
his defeat, although it was perhaps the most 
meritorious act of his administration, one 
that which will carry his name down to pos- 
terity when almost everything else in con- 
section with his gubernatorial term shall 
kave passed into oblivion. 

This enactment, in its scope and compre- 
iliensiveness, has been to the educational in- 
terests of Pennsylvania what the Constitu- 
tion has been to the United States, giving 
Id our school system the energy, resources 
nd generic power so much needed to ac- 
complish results. Of course, it was not per- 
fect and finished in all its details — for the 
organic structure of our school systerti is 
'«»en yet incomplete, though still growing — 
bat it was such an immense stride in the di- 
rection of progress that it marks, and was the 
motive power of, the most remarkable era in 
onr common school history ; and those who 
would turn it upside down and inside out in 
order to cure mere verbal defects, might be 
skillful in tearing to pieces, but find them- 
selves utter failures in the practical work of 
reconstruction. 

This subject opens up a wider field of dis- 
cission than we can conveniently occupy at 
tbis present writing, but we may remark that 
a potential factor in the preparatory work of 
lit school legislation of that year, was the 
school clerk, Hon. Henrv L. Diffenbach, of 
Clinton county, a journalist of great ability 
and force and an uncompromising champion 
of the cause. He became the first Deputy 
State Superintendent under the act of 1854 
which changed the title and functions of 



that Department clerkship, and he still lives 
to rejoice in the permanent results of the 
aggressive and progressive policy to which 
he so materially contributed. 



SEED PLANTING. 



DEPRIVED of the pleasure of planting a 
tree on last Arbor Day — always a blunder 
on his own part or that of somebody else — 
but yet enthusiastic upon the subject, and 
desirous that his children might get into 
friendly familiarity with the half-hidden 
glory of vegetable life, by good fortune a 
gentleman of our personal acquaintance se- 
cured a tiny pumpkin plant. A gift it was, 
and just lifting its little flat hands out of the 
earth, rejoicing for a race. What anxieties, 
what daily inspections, what wondrous sur- 
mises the little creature was the source of! 
Day by day, delightfully recognized by the 
children, it crept on farther and farther 
through the grass, and blossoms upon blos- 
soms opened, and bee upon bee plunged 
into their yellow depths: and now at this 
writing there are over seventy (70) feet of 
vine, and one monster pumpkin already well 
ripened — material for more than a score of 
pumpkin pies — and several more are ripen- 
ing, carefully carpeted at evening against the 
threatening frost. 

How many lessons this pumpkin vine has 
taught we know not ; we only know that this 
will be remembered through years to come, 
and retaught to children's children. What 
amusement and profit withal there is in 
planting a single seed, watching and guard- 
ing it in its growth, wondering at its mys- 
terious powers of lifting out of the crude, 
crass earth such richness of beauty in form 
and color, such delicate fabrics as no hand- 
made loom ever wove, and reproducing it- 
self beneath the genial sun some thirty, 
sixty, a hundred, yea a thousand-fold. 

A wonderful thing is a seed — 

The one thing deathless forever ! 
The one thing changeless, utterly true, 
Forever old, forever new. 

And fickle and faithless never. 
Plant blessings and blessings will bloom ! 

Plant hate, and hate will grow. 
Vou can sow to day, to-morrow shall bring 
The blossoms that prove what sort of thing 

Is the seed — the seed that you sow. 

Would that the true seed of life, the 
Divine Word, might sink into every youth- 
ful soul, and out of the crude, crass material 
of a sin stained life, bring beauty, and 
strength, and glory forever. 



^ 



158 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct., 



ORGANIZED EFFORT. 



THE wholesale destruction of our forests, 
and the necessity for replanting or other- 
wise encouraging the re- foresting of waste 
lands, are pressing themselves upon the atten- 
tion of thoughtful people. Far-sighted men 
are associating themselves together with the 
purpose of organized effort to this end. They 
bring to the difficult task of arousing the 
Commonwealth in this important direction 
a very broad knowledge of the field. Among 
them are scientists, political economists, and 
philanthropists, and the State should heed 
their words of warning and advice. From 
recent issues of Philadelphia newspapers we 
take the following notices of such a meeting 
of public-spirited citizens. The first is from 
the Ledger y the second from the Times, 

A meeting is to be held this evening, at the 
Hall of the Historical Society, Thirteenth and 
Locust streets, to discuss the question of protect- 
ing and increasing our trees. Among the 
speakers to-night. Professor Rothrock, the well- 
known botanist, and Dr. Akers have expressed 
their opinions, as scientific experts, that here in 
Pennsylvania organized effort ought to be made 
to guard against the destruction of what remains 
of our forests. The General Government has 
legislated with some success in order to secure 
the planting of trees in the Western plains, and 
many States and Territories in that region have 
seconded these efforts. In the Blast, however, 
men have been too busy with their daily press- 
ing needs to make much of an effort to guard 
against further destruction. 

It is not only the economical question of the 
loss of our supply of timber, but it is a matter in 
which the health and comfort of our population, 
and many of their industries, are largely con- 
cerned. Prof. J. P. Lesley, Pennsylvania State 
Geologist, has pointed out the baneful effects of 
cutting down the trees in different sections of 
this country, as well as on other continents, and 
is an earnest advocate for some method of re- 
pairing our old neglect and g^uarding against the 
evil in the future. Regions that were once rich 
and fruitful have become waste and unwhole- 
some, just because stretches of forest wood and 
grove that retained the moisture were destroyed. 
Abroad, fertilizing forestry has become a science. 
Germany sets an example of a country with a 
large force of men, scientifically trained in the 
care of their trees and in keeping up the supply 
for the future. 

Our wealth of timber and our abundant facil- 
ities for getting it to market have both been 
abused. Governor Hartranft, in repeated mes- 
sages, urged on the Legislature during his terms 
of ofHce the necessity of taking action to pre- 
vent the reckless injury and destruction of both 
forests and streams. Unfortunately nothing has 
yet been done in the matter by the State. Now 
we have a few public-spirited men and women 
inviting the attendance. of all in order to make 
to-night's meeting the initial point for starting an 



organized effort to secure public attention to, 
the subject, and thus awakening the people and 
their representatives to what can and ought to \ 
be done in the way of protecting our tree sup- 
ply. Our own city furnishes an example, and 
It IS but one of many like instances of the cair-- 
lessness which has cost us the delight and the 
advantages of fine trees as a source of boA 
health and pleasure in a great town. Peqik 
far from being old can well remember the tiac 
when certain Philadelphia streets, now ratha 
naked, were full of long rows of beautiful shade 
trees, where what remain are few and far be- 
tween. The success of the Park authorities 
with their trees shows what can be done by in- 
telligent experts ; and all around the city pri- 
rate owners have gone to work to repair the de> 
struction of the old fanners who grudged the 
space occupied by a few old forest trees. To- 
night's meeting ought to be well attended, as an 
expression of acknowledgment to those who 
have organized it, and as an opportunity of 
joining in a public demonstration in support of 
a public-spirited enterprise, in which there can 
be no selfish interest, and to which every man 
and woman can give approval. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA FORESTS. 

The meeting held last evening at the His- 
torical Society s hall for the purpose of discuss- 
ing the subject of forestry and arousing public 
interest in it ought to be the point of departure 
for an organized movement for the restoration 
and the preservation of the forests of Pennsyl- 
vania. No other Eastern State was originalif 
richer in timber than Pennsylvania, and ber 
lumber trade has brought many thousands cf 
dollars into her banks and given employment 
to multitudes of her citizens. It is quite time 
that some effort was made to check the progress 
of forest exhaustion for protection against com- 
mercial decay, as well as the disasters of drought, 
flood and malarial trouble that follow the Ink- 
ing of the soil and the decrease in volume of 
the streams. 

The once vast hemlock forests of Wayne 
county, where more leather was tanned fifteen 
years ago than in any other county in the 
United States, are just about exhausted, and it 
is said that the last log that will ever be nin 
down the stream from Wayne county's forests 
to the mills came down last week. The lum- 
bermen who got rich on Wayne county hem- 
lock in past years are now denuding tne hills 
of Elk, Forest and other counties farther west 
in the same way, and it is only a question of 
time when they too will be exhausted, unless 
measures are taken for their renewal. 

There is no reason why the forests of Wayne 
county or any other county should be said to 
be " permanently" exhausted, any more than 
there is for regarding a wheat field or an 
orchard as permanentiy exhausted when one 
year's crop is eathered. The farmer plants 
more wheat, and the fruit-grower sets out more 
trees in the place of those that have died or 
ceased to bear. It is time that timber was 
looked upon as a crop, capable of indefinite 
renewal, instead of being treated as if it were 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



159 



a mineral deposit, which would be gone for 
all time when nature's original bounty was ex- 
hausted. 

Owners of timber lands which are under- 
roing exhaustion could continue |his source of 
income indefinitely by planting new trees as 
the old ones are cut down from time to time. 
Other land-holders, by a judicious selection of 
dK kinds of timber to be cultivated, can in this 
wiy make an investment that is reasonably 
■ sac to yield them a handsome return in their 
dd age. It is to be hoped that science and 
practical experience will unite in the thorough 
investigation of the subject of forestry renewal, 
and that some well-digested plan for its en- 
couragement on a Isirge scale will result before 
Fenosylvania's natural lumber supply is ex- 
hausted. 



-«> 



ARBOR DAY WORK. 



EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS OF SUPERIN- 
TENDENTS. 



^HE net results of Arbor Day work in 
Pennsylvania are highly encouraging. 
It is missionary effort of no mean import- 
ance that results in pleasanter surroundings 
for the schools, where so many of the chil- 
dren of the State spend a large part of their 
earlier years. The necessity for this work 
is very apparent from the reports of the 
local school officers. It has been much too 
long delayed. Let us make amends for 

I negligence, especially in the matter of 
ODfenced, inadequate, and unattractive 
grounds. The following extracts from the 
local reports of Superintendents, to which 
itference has just been made, tell their own 

: story. We know of nothing in this connec- 
tion more timely, or of greater practical in- 
terest to the .reader. 

Adams.-^Co. Supt. Sheely says: Within a 
year or two the spacious grouncls embraced in 
the school property at New Oxford have been 
greatly improved by grading, paving and fenc- 
ing, as also by tree-plantine. 

Allegheny. — Co. Supt. Johnson : Arbor Day 
vas observed in several districts, and may re- 
sult in awakening a general demand for more 
suitable and more beautiful school grounds. 

Armstrong.— <^o. Supt. Stockdill: A few 
^nds have nice trees planted in them ; this 
ttthe way all of them should be. 

Bedford. — Co. Supt. Cessna : The grounds 
liave undergone some improvement in fencing 
and tree- planting; but in a general way they 
Me neglected. 

Berks. — Co. Supt. Keck : Although nearly 
all our schools are closed when the Spring Ar- 
bor Day occurs, yet I am safe in saying that 
trees, shrubbery, etc., have been planted at two- 
thirds of our school-houses. One trouble we 
have to contend with is the fact that very few of 



our school grounds are enclosed by fences, and 
consequently, the young trees planted are often 
destroyed ; yet we feel greatly encouraged by 
the work thus far done. 

Bradford. — Co. Supt. Ryan: As Arbor 
Day appointed by the Department in April and 
October, could not be observed, owing to many 
schools not beginning until May ist and De- 
cember 1st, at request of the Teachers' Insti- 
tute, a special Arbor Day was appointed, and 
extensively observed, a few schools only fail- 
ing to plant several trees. 

Cambria. — Co. Supt. Strayer: A number of 
trees have been planted in borough school 
properties. 

Cameron. — Co. Supt. Pearsall: Trees were 
planted in a number of our school grounds on 
the Arbor Days of the past year, and are now 
in foHage. There are several school grounds 
in which trees of the original forest were wisely 
allowed to grow when the ground was cleared 
for the school. Only a few grounds are wholly 
without trees. Arbor Day has already had a 
beneficent influence, and we believe the day is 
not far distant when all school grounds in the 
county will be adorned with trees, shrubs and 
flowers. 

Centre. — Co. Supt. Wolf: In a number of 
places the grounds have been enclosed and 
trees planted; in some localities where they did 
not succeed in securing fences, teachers and 
pupils set out trees and otherwise improved the 
grounds. We might add here that, in the early 
days of the superintendency, and even before, 
some of our schools were neatly fenced and 
trees were planted. Unfortunately these were 
afterwards neglected, though a few houses enjoy 
the grateful shade provided by the happy fore- 
thought of these anticipators of our present 
Arbor Day. 

Clearfield. — Co. Supt. Savage : Last year 
considerable interest was awakened by the Ar- 
bor Day movement. Over three hundred fine 
trees were planted and named amid inspiring 
•exercises. The day was celebrated at Houtz- 
dale. Woodward, Bumside and Goshen, with 
as much pomp and ceremony as usually com- 
memorates the birth of American liberty^ or re- 
kindles the camp-fire of "the boys in blue." 
Owing to the frigid condition of things, we were 
granted a special Arbor Day, and sdl our work 
was done upon that day. Houses were papered, 
walls decorated with pictures and evergreens, 
and every means contributed to make the rooms 
cheerful and inviting. 

Clinton. — Co. Supt. McCloskey : The play- 
grounds, shade trees and other improvements 
that have a tendency to make the school house 
and its surroundings pleasing and attractive, 
receive but little attention. I have urged upon 
directors the necessity of improving grounds 
and planting trees, but I believe Renovo and 
Westport are the only districts that observed 
Arbor Day with appropriate exercises. 

Columbia. — Co. Supt. Grimes . About four 
hundred trees were planted last year in this 
county, in consequence of the appointment of 
Arbor Day. Quite a number of the schools had 
public exercises, and were honored with the 



i6o 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Oct., 



presence of many of the patrons. But many of 
the trees are unprotected. The grounds should 
be fenced, or the trees boxed, so that they be 
properly protected. 

Crawford. — Co. Supt. Sturdevant: It is 
gratifying to be able to report that the school- 
grounds in a large number of districts are being 
planted with shade trees and ornamental shrub- 
bery. Directors, teachers, pupils and patrons 
are alike interested, and they give freely of their 
time and labor to this cause. It is safe to pre- 
dict that in a few years no school-grounds will 
be found in this county which are not planted 
with shade and ornamental trees. 

Cumberland. — Co. Supt. Shearer : We heart- 
ily accord with the views of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction in recommending and in- 
troducing the general observance of an Arbor 
Day by the children of the public schools. The 
judicious planting of choice trees and shrubbery 
about the school premises, and the planting of 
valuable fruit and ornamental trees in the 
grounds attached to their homes, are habits 
worthy of the commendation and encourage- 
ment of all educators. Our rural schools hav- 
ing closed April ist, only the borough schools 
could properly utilize April i6th. Special efforts 
were made to arouse the enthusiasm of directors, 
patrons, teachers and pupils, on the approach 
of October 29th. As a result, one hundred and 
ten districts commemorated the day, their record 
varying from the planting of a single tree to the 
placing of forty- seven, as accomplished by the 
banner district in the county — Bnndle's School, 
Monroe township, W. S. Jacobs, teacher. 

Dauphin. — Co. Supt. McNeal: The condi- 
tion of our school-grounds has been greatly im- 
proved since my last report, which is due mainly 
to the establishment of Arbor Day. The gen- 
eral Arbor Day fixed by the Governor, and the 
School Arbor Day named by Superintendent 
Higbee, were both generally observed. All the 
towns and many of the country districts have 
planted trees, and in other ways improved and 
oeautified their school-yards. The directors 
should fence all lots not already enclosed, so as 
to protect trees and shrubbery that have been 

Slanted, and encourage teachers and pupils to 
eautify the grounds. 

Fayette. — Co. Supt. Ritenour: As a rule, 
directors exercise too little care in selecting and 
improving school-grounds. Outside of the larger 
boroughs comparatively nothing has been done 
in the way of grading, fencing and ornament- 
ing school premises. Very few of our grounds 
are even fenced. We regret that directors man- 
ifest so little interest in this matter, and hope 
they will awaken to its importance. The sooner 
people realize and appreciate the importance of 
pleasant and attractive school-houses, with suit- 
able surroundings for their children, the better 
it will be for them. 

Forest. — Co. Supt. Hillard : Not very much 
has been done lately to improve grounds. The 
citizens of East Hickory expended in labor, 
probably one hundred dollars, in improving 
their school-grounds. It was a free gift — a labor 
of love. The Watson School, in Howe, is the 
only one where Arbor Day was observed. Last 



October, Mr. Hayes and Mr. Kuhns, assisted 
by the teacher, Mrs. De Lacy, and the school, 
planted thirteen fine maples. 

Fkanklin. — Co. Supt. Disert: Arbor Day 
was not as generally observed as could have 
been desired. A number of districts planted 
trees, and very appropriate exercises were hefaf 
by the New Franklin, Bridgeport, Mercersbing 
and Greencastle schools. It is to be hoped 
that more general interest will be manifested 
next year. We are glad that directors and 
patrons are beginning to recognize the impoit- 
ance of beautifying school property as a moral 
factor in the education of children. 

Fulton. — Co. Supt. Barton: It is time that 
we paid some attention to the improvement of 
our school-grounds. There is not a school- 
house in the county that has a fence around it, 
except in McConnellsburg, and that is a veiy 
ragged -looking affair. School-houses and their 
surroundings largely form the basis upon which 
to estimate the advancement and prosperity of 
a community. There is nothing in our school 
affairs that deserves more active consideration. 

Greene. — Co. Supt. Herrington: Too little 
attention is paid to the selection of ample and 
pleasant school-grounds. The desire for athletic 
sport is one natural to every healthy boy, and 
to provide no suitable place or opportunity 
for these exercises, in the selection of school 
sites, is to offer a premium for trespassing upon 
farms or the public highway. No school- house 
should be provided with less than one acre of 
ground, substantially and neatly fenced, and 
selected with reference to health and favotabk 
for the planting of shrubs, trees, etc. 

Huntingdon. — Co. Supt. Brumbaugh: Ar- 
bor Day was well observed in our county, more 
than one thousand trees and shrubs were planted 
on the school-grounds. There is much yet to 
be done in this work, but it will remain undone 
until directors fence and grade the grounds, and 
in some cases, enlarge them. It is to be hoped 
that not forty, but two hundred, school-grounds 
will next year be suitably improved. 

Juniata. — Co. Supt. Auman : Very little has 
been done toward improving the school-grounds. 
Some trees were planted in several' districts on 
Arbor Day. Every school site should be cleared 
of all rubbish, enclosed with a neat fence, and 
made comfortable for the plays of children. 

Lackawanna. — Co. Supt. Davis: The im- 
provement of school-grounds has not been 
^eat. Lackawanna township leads all others 
m the number of shade trees planted. Seven 
of the nine school buildings are surrounded by 
an abundance of shade trees, and most of the 
grounds are fenced. The grounds have been 
improved and shade trees planted in Old 
Forge, Dickson City, Olyphant, Jermyn, and 
Blakely. Over one hundred of our school* 
houses are unfenced and innocent of shade trees. 

Lancaster.— Co. Supt. Brecht : Arbor Day 
has, upon the whole, been favorably received, 
and the opportunity it offers fairly appreciated 
by our people. Since its introduction, four 
thousand trees have added their sylvan beauty 
to our school-grounds. The principal portion 
of this number were planted upon the "Fall 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



i6i 



Arbor Day" specified by the State Superin- 
tendent. In town and country, the transplant- 
ing was made an occasion of song and exercises 
appropriate to the work in hand. An encourag- 
ing feature in the observance of the day has 
been the great care exercised in the arrange- 
ment, setting-out, and protection of the trees, 
establishing the wholesome truth that the cause 
shall continue to live in our midst, and not die 
irvth the occasion. Perhaps the most direct 
result of the planting is the enclosing, and in 
some cases the enlarging of the school-grounds. 
Besides aiding in bringing the community into 
doser relation with the life of the school in 

g)int of support and friendly assistance, Arbor 
ay certainly has created a positive sentiment 
in favor of improving and beautifying our 
school grounds. 

Lawrence. — Co. Supt. Sherrard: While it 
is a source of gratification that the directors are 
building good, substantial and comfortable 
school-nouses, yet it is to be regretted that they 
neglect the surroundings as they do. Compar- 
atively few of the grounds are fenced, and less 
are planted with shade trees. However, the 
matter is being discussed, and it is to be hoped 
that something may soon be accomplished in 
that direction. 

Lehigh. — Co. Supt. Knauss: On two occa- 
sions during last year, we made special effort 
to do justice to Arbor Day, and hundreds of 
trees were planted on school-grounds, and 
siany more at the homes of the pupils ; but we 
learned with sorrow that merely planting trees is 
not sufficient — they require care and protection 
afterwards. Many of the grounds not being 
fenced, some of the trees were suffered to be 
iDjured. Let directors, teachers, pupils, and 
dtizens generally unite and ornament their 
school-grounds with suitable shade trees, and 
vith proper care and attention, our school- 
grounds can be made the most beautiful places 
in every district. 

Luzerne. — Co. Supt. Coughlin : Arbor Day 
was generally observed where the schools were 
in operation at the time. Two hundred and 
four schools took part in appropriate exercises. 
In the districts where the grounds were already 
improved, the exercises were of a literary char- 
acter. At other places the grounds were cleared 
off, trees planted, shrubs and flowers set out, 
and exercises relating to forestry and home 
decoration completed the work of the day. 
Nearly one thousand trees were planted by the 
children, and great interest was manifested 
upon the part of all. I believe much good will 
g^ow out of the continuance of Arbor Day and 
its accompany in g teachi ngs. 

Lycoming. — Co. Supt. Lose : With regard to 
ITounds and out-buildings, our directors are 
culpably negligent. Only thirty- four schools in 
the county can be marked as having suitably 
improved grounds. Most of the grounds are of 
sufficient size, and have been planted with trees, 
but nearly all are unfenced. 

Merger. — Co. Supt. McCleery : Houses are 
generally well-located ; many of them are beau- 
tifully situated. With few exceptions, the grounds 
are large enough, but as a rule, are not suitably 



improved. Some activity has been displayed 
in tree planting. More success would have ac- 
companied our efforts in this direction had 
Arbor Day occurred when the country schools 
were in session. 

Mifflin. — Co. Supt. Owens: Many of the 
teachers, with their pupils, and in some instances 
the patrons of the schools, caught the inspiration 
infused by the Arbor Day proclamations issued 
by Governor Pattison ana Dr. E. E. Higbee, 
and have done much toward beautifying the 
grounds and school buildings.' Grounds have 
been enclosed, a large number of shade and 
ornamental trees have been planted, the walls 
of the school-rooms papered and decorated, 
thus surrounding the pupils with an air of home 
comfort and refinement that cannot fail to pro- 
duce good effects in the formation of character. 

Monroe. — Co. Supt. Dinsmore : Arbor Day, 
as such, has not been regularly observed m 
this county, principally because it comes too 
early for this mountainous region ; as our term 
is for but five months, nearly all of the schools 
are closed. This year, however, there was quite 
a large number of trees planted, and it will not 
be many years before every school-house, not 
already provided (as many now are by native 
forest trees), will be surrounded by shade trees, 
set out by willing hands. 

Montgomery.— Co. Supt. Hoffecker: The 
grounds are mostly well-shaded, and Arbor 
Day is adding to our collection of trees and 
shrubbery. In Springfield township the presi- 
dent of the School Board, aided by the teachers 
and pupils of Flourtown School, planted about 
twenty trees. Conshohocken also had Arbor 
Day exercises and planted fourteen trees. Many 
other districts observed the day. 

Montour. — Co. Supt. Ream : Spring Arbor 
Day was appropriately observed by the schools 
of Danville. Exercises were held in three of 
the wards, and a number of trees planted on the 
school-grounds, by the pupils. In a number of 
rural districts, the directors and citizens turned 
out and planted trees. The total number reported 
as having been planted upon school-grounds and 
elsewhere in the county was nine hundred and 
twenty- one. These, together with those not 
reported, would aggregate about fifteen hundred 
or two thousand. 

Perry. — Co. Supt. Aumiller: Arbor Day, 
last fall, was most faithfully observed. I is- 
sued a circular to every teacher and director 
urging the observance of this day, also request- 
ing a report from every teacher. The results 
were most satisfactory. I cannot tell the exact 
number of trees planted, but there were few 
schools that did not plant some. Poets, gen- 
erals and statesmen will have their memories 
perpetuated by trees bearing their respective 
names. Not less than a dozen were named in 
honor of the State Superintendent, while the 
County Superintendents, from the present in- 
cumbent back to Rev. A. R. Height, were not 
forgotten. 

Potter. — Co. Supt. Anna Buckbee : Arbor 
Day, I fear, has not been so generally observed 
here as in counties farther south. The chief 
reasons are that the day is too early for us and 



1 62 



Pennsylvania school journal. 



[Oct. 



our schools are not generally open, there hav- 
ing been but eighteen in session last Spring on 
the day appointed ; consequently, people do not 
take so much interest in the subject as they 
would were there an active teacher in the 
neighborhood to take the lead ; yet a beginning 
was made and trees planted at suitable times. 
We trust much more may be done in the future. 
The districts that did most in this direction are 
Portage, Stewardson, Clara, Sweden, Ulysses, 
Hebron, Summit, and Keating. 

Schuylkill. — Co. Supt. Weiss : In connec- 
tion with the matter of houses, it is proper to 
state that many of the teachers improve the 
appearance of their rooms by adorning the walls 
with pictures and mottoes, and by the addition 
of flowering plants. The school-grounds have 
also been much beautified by planting shade 
trees. Arbor Day is being pretty generally ob- 
served. At GirardviUe, Port Carbon, Tremont, 
and elsewhere, appropriate exercises, partici- 
pated in by the schools and citizens, marked 
the day. 

Somerset.— Co. Supt. Wcller: Ours being 
a mountainous county and generally well sup- 
plied with timber, the people are slow to observe 
Arbor Day, yet the first year of its observance, 
several hundred trees were planted by those 
connected with school- work, the greatest num- 
ber being planted upon the school-grounds of 
Somerset borough. The trees planted by the 
direction of this school board oeing different 
varieties of ornamental trees, it is only a ques- 
tion of time for these grounds to become the 
handsomest in the county. 

Sullivan. — Co. Supt. Little : Very little has 
been done toward improving school-grounds. 
Some shade trees have been planted by the 
pupils, on Arbor Day and at other times, but so far 
as I know, nothing has been done by dir^ors. 

Susquehanna. — Co. Supt. James: Forty 
teachers report trees planted, and, in manv 
cases, other improvements made about school- 
grounds last Arbor Day. If teachers and di- 
rectors will but continue the energy manifested 
the present year, 1890 will see the school- 
grounds of the county with margins of beautiful 
maples and evergreens instead of brier hedges 
or heaps of rubbish. There has been no greater 
opportunity, moreover, in the school history of 
the county for elevating the moral tone and 
"life ideal" of the children than this work of 
planting and protecting trees and shrubbery 
upon public property. The educational value 
of the work is of^ the highest order, well repay- 
ing the trouble and expense incurred, if no other 
b^eflt resulted from it 

Tioga. — Co. Supt. Cass: There has been 
much attention given to the matter of ornamen- 
tation. Many trees have been planted, and 
very few rooms are devoid of pictures, ever- 
greens, flowers, or plants to make them pleasant 
and homelike. I would extend an invitation to 
those teachers who have made no effort in this 
direction to visit those rooms which have been 
made pleasant, and witness the contrast. 

Wayne. — Co. Supt. Kennedy: Many trees 
were planted in front of school- houses by teach- 
ers and pupils, but in some cases with indiffer- 



ent results, as the grounds were not fenced, and, 
in consequence the trees were not protected. 

Westmoreland. — Co. Supt. Hugus: Very 
little attention has been paid to the fencing and 
grading of school -grounds. This subject has 
been brought frequently before the minds of 
the patrons of the schools, but with little effect 
At the beginning of the next school term, an- 
other effort will be made in this direction. A 
letter having special reference to the care of the 
school-grounds and the planting of trees thereon, 
will be sent to each teacher and school. We 
trust that we may be able to report progress in 
this direction also. 

Wyoming. — Co, Supt. Keeler: A large num- 
ber of the school-grounds have been improved. 

West Chester. — Supt. Sarah A. Stark- 
weather : Arbor Day received due notice, but 1 
as our borough and grounds are in no way defi- 1 
cient in shade, the planting was confined to vines 
and roses where suitable for ornamental growth. 

Bethlehem. — Supt. Desh : Arbor Days 
were duly observed in Bethlehem. Although 
our borough is noted for being as lovely a town 
and as well shaded as any found in the State, 
yet we were determined not to let the occasions 
pass bv without some exercises calculated to 
draw tne attention of the pupils to the cause 
and object of Arbor Day, and to cultivate a love 
in them for the beautiful in nature. Exercises 
suitable to the occasion were held in the schools, 
consisting of song§, such as " The Maple Tree." 
"Woodman, Spare that Tree," and "Swinging j 
'neath the Old Apple Tree," etc., declamations, i 
recitations, and talks concerning the object ofi 
the day. Where it was not practicable to plant ^ 
trees in the yard, pupils were encouraged to 
plant seeds and plants in boxes and pots filial < 
with soil for the purpose, which afterwards oc- 
cupied the window-sills in the school-rooms, ; 
where they were watched and cared for by 
teacher and pupils, and many a practical object 
lesson drawn from their growth. 

Bristol. — Supt. LillieS. Booz: The grounds 
are ornamentea with flowers. All are well 
shaded. 

Carbondale City. — Supt Forbes: All 
our grounds need to be fenced and otherwise 
improved, and all our out- buildings thoroughly , 
renovated, enlarged, and furnished with modem i 
improvements. In department No. i Arbor 
Day was duly observed by tree planting and 
other appropriate exercises. 

New Castle. — Supt. Aiken: Over thirty 
maple trees were planted on the school-grounds 
by the teachers and pupils. Arbor Day was 
observed at all the buildings with appropriate 
exercises. A commendable spirit was mani- 
fested in all the schools in this exercise. 

Shamokin. — Supt Harpel : Arbor Days 
were appropriately observed. The first of these 
days was one of special interest — a day ever to 
be remembered oy our boys and girls. On 
that occasion, the schools of the various build- 
ings vied with one another in the preparation of 
attractive and pleasing exercises. Beautiful 
Norway maples were planted by each school 
and dedicated to the memory of some of our 
great authors, statesmen, and educators. 



1887.] 



EDITORIAL DBPARTMENT. 



163 



NOTES FROM HISTORY CLASS— XI. 



w 



£ find in our note-book a number of 
items relating to the introduction of 
railroads into the United States, which will 
be of interest to the history class. 

One of the first cares of the several State 
governments, after the adoption of the con- 
sdtQtion, was to establish ready means of 
communication with the unsettled West. 

From time to time examinations of the 
coarses of the Schuylkill, the Delaware, the 
Sosquehanna, the Juniata, and their tributa- 
lies were made under authority granted by 
the general assembly of Pennsylvania, and 
reports we^e submitted. Similar explora- 
tions were made by the States of New York, 
Maryland and the Carolinas. All of these 
investigations had in view the construction 
of water communication by slack water and 
canal— the waters of the East and those of 
the West to be connected by means of 
roads over the Allegheny mountains. As 
steam power had not then been applied to 
locomotive purposes, these connecting roads 
were merely turnpikes, and the desideratum 
vas to find the shortest possible portage 
dividing the streams that could be utilized. 

Pennsylvania was the first State to begin 
Aese improvements. Albert Gallatin, then 
Secretary of the Treasury, in a report to 
the Senate of the United States, in 1807, 
says: *' The Lancaster road, the first exten- 
sive turnpike that was completed in the 
United States — it was chartered in 1792 — is 
the first link of the great western communi- 
cation from Philadelphia . . . The State of 
Pennsylvania has also incorporated two com- 
panies in order to extend this road by two 
different routes as far as Pittsburgh, on the 
Ohio; the southern route, following the 
nuun post-road, passes by Bedford and Som- 
erset, the northern route, by Huntingdon 
and Frankstown." Both of these roads 
vere subsequently completed. In the same 
Kport Mr. Gallatin says that the State of 
New York had then a capital of 1 1,800, 000 
invested in completed turnpikes, and that the 
construction of three thousand miles more 
vas authorized in that Commonwealth. 

In the construction of canals the way was 
taby New York, the Erie canal being com- 
pleted in 1825. Pennsylvania was, however, 
not far behind. In fact this State is fairly en- 
titled to precedence in the commencement 
of this class of internal improvements, the 
Union canal, through the Lebanon Valley, 
connecting the Schuylkill with the Susque- 
l^na, having been incorporated in 179I9 
^though it was not completed until 1827 



This canal was intended as a part of a sys* 
tem to run to the Lakes, but the plan was 
finally abandoned. 

The subject of internal improvements 
early engaged the attention of theeeneral 
government. When the State of Ohio was 
admitted into the Union, in 1802, there 
were very few roads there and the federal 
government was the chief proprietor of the 
land. It was agreed, therefore, that two 
per cent, of the proceeds of the land sold 
should be applied to the making of a road 
leading to the State. The same condition 
was made when Indiana, Illinois and Mis* 
souri were admitted. The Cumberland 
road, which resulted from this action of 
Congress, was a magnificent turnpike, built 
in the very best style of macadamized roads, 
beginning at the city of Washington and ex- 
tending eventually to St. Louis. It passed 
through Rockville, Frederick, Hagerstown 
and Cumberland, in Maryland ; Union- 
town and Washington, in Pennsylvania; 
Wheeling, in Virginia, crossing the Ohio at 
that point ; Columbus, in Ohio ; Indianap- 
olis and Terre Haute, in Indiana, and Van- 
dalia, in Illinois, the former capital of that 
state. The influence of this road was very 
great. Villages and towns sprang up along 
its course. Travelers were conveyed over it 
in four-horse coaches, which carried from 
six to nine passengers with their baggage ; 
and as late as 1850 it continued to be a great 
thoroughfare between the East and West. 

In the meantime a new kind of road 
had been successfully introduced into the 
country, which was destined to super- 
sede almost entirely the turnpike and the 
canal. Railroads, or tramways, as they 
were at first called, were first employed 
late in the last century, at the collieries in 
England and Wales, for the transportation 
ot coal from the mines to the point of ship- 
ment. In 1825 the first railroad for the 
conveyance of passengers was established. 
It was the Stockton and Darlington road, 
was thirty-seven miles long, and consisted 
of a single track with sidings. The coaches 
employed upon it carried six passengers in- 
side and twenty outside. Each carriage 
was drawn by one horse, and the speed was 
ten miles an hour. In 1826 the English 
Parliament authorized the construction of a 
railroad between Liverpool and Manchester. 
As the time of the completion of this road 
drew near, the question of the motive power 
to be used became an important one for the 
directors to decide. 

Steam locomotives were already in use at 
the collieries in Northumberland and at 



164 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Oct., 



Myrthr Tydvale, but the practicability of this 
motive power for general passenger and 
freight service was still an open question. 
A prize of ;^Soo was accordingly offered 
for a locomotive which should perform the 
most satisfactorily, subject to the following 
conditions: It should consume its own 
smoke, should draw three times its own 
weight at a speed of ten miles an hour, 
should not weigh more than four and a half 
tons, and should not cost more than ;;^55o. 
A trial of competing engines was made in 
October, 1829. Three were entered for the 
trial, and the prize was awarded to the 
Rocket, built by George Stephenson, which 
was a little under the specified weight and 
ran with an average speed of fourteen miles 
an hour, drawing a freight of seventeen tons. 
Under some conditions it more than doubled 
that speed. In September of the following 
year, the road was formally opened and the 
locomotive engine entered upon its useful 
and wonderful career. 

The subject of railroads had already for 
some years been agitated in the United 
States, and, indeed, at the time of the open- 
ing of the Liverpool and Manchester road 
there were several short railroads in success- 
ful operation in this country and others 
were projected. As early as 181 6, when the 
construction of the Erie canal was under dis- 
cussion in the New York legislature, Colonel 
John Stevens, of Hoboken, proposed in 
place of a canal to build a railroad, the mo- 
tive power to be furnished by horses, but 
the project was generally ridiculed as ex- 
pensive and visionary. In the previous 
year Stevens had obtained from the legisla- 
ture of New Jersey a charter incorporating 
•* The New Jersey Railroad Company/' 
granting it authority to build a railroad from 
Trenton to New Brunswick, which, however, 
was never built. But in 1820 he built at 
Hoboken a short road for experimental pur- 
poses. Three years later — in 1823 — this 
indefatigable experimenter and "visionary," 
who expended a fortune in experiments upon 
steamboats and railroads, applied success- 
fully to the legislature of Pennsylvania for a 
charter authorizing the construction of a 
railroad from Philadelphia to Columbia. 
Among the corporators named were Horace 
Binney and Stephen Girard. But it does 
not appear that any serious effort was made 
to build a road under the authority thus ob- 
tained. 

The first railroad built in the United 
States for actual use was at Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts ; it extended from the granite quar- 
ries to the Neponset river, a distance of 



three miles. This short road was completed 
in 1827. In the same year a gravity road, 
which with its connections was 13 miles in 
length, was completed at Mauch Chunk. 
During the year 1828 several railroads were 
begun. Among them were that of the Del- 
aware and Hudson Canal Company, extend- 
ing from the mines to the termination of 
their canal at Honesdale, and the Baltimore 
and Ohio, the first stone of which structure 
was laid on the 4th of July of that year 
by Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Upon 
the former of these roads it is claimed that 
the locomotive was for the first time used in 
this country. The engine was the ** Stour- 
bridge Lion," imported from England. It 
was run experimentally over a portion of the 
road by Horatio Allen, in August, 18291 
three months before the famous trial of en- I 
gines on the Liverpool and Manchester , 
road. It proved, however, to be too heavy | 
for the track, and it was therefore con- \ 
demned to be dismantled of its wheels and ' 
to serve as a stationary engine. The first 
American locomotive was built at New 
York, in 1829, for the Charleston and Ham- 
burg railroad, in South Carolina. It was a 
small four-wheeled engine with an upright 
boiler, in which were water-flues closed at 
the bottom, the fires circling around them. 
This engine, known as the "Best Friend/'! 
was put upon the track late in the summer 
of 1 830 and began running regularly in the 
following January. It worked satisfactory 
for about two years, when it exploded ; but 
as the machinery was uninjured, it was re- 
built with a tubular boiler. Upon this road, 
in 1 83 1, was first employed the four-wheeled 
truck for locomotives and long cars, the in- 
vention of Mr. Horatio Allen. The second 
railroad in the United States to employ 
steam was the Hudson and Mohawk, now a 
part of the New York Central, which was 
opened in 1831. The engines for this road 
were built at the Novelty Iron Works, in 
New York. 

The first section of the Baltimore and 
Ohio road, a length of 13 miles, from Balti- 
more to Ellicott's Mills, was opened to the 
public with horse-cars in May, 1830. A 
small engine, built in Baltimore by Peter 
Cooper, was run on this road in the same 
year, but it seems not to have been altogether 
satisfactory in its performance. Steam was 
not regularly used on this road until 1834- 

In the month of April, 1834, the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad was opened from Philadel- 
phia to Columbia. A sketch of the early his- 
tory of this road will be given in a subse- 
quent article. 



1887.] 



OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. 



I6S 



Official Department. 



THE Annual Session of the County Teachers' 
Institutes will be held this year at the places 
and on the dates here given for the several 
counties named, which with one or two excep- 
tions of counties that have not yet reported to 
Ik Department of Public Instruction — includes 
the entire list of these conventions. The new 
law in reference to attendance at Institutes 
authorizes and requires payment of teachers at 
irate not to exceed two dollars per day. The 
common schools of the county must be closed 
during the week of institute, and the time can- 
not be regarded as any part of the school term 
of any School^istrict. 



WsiTcn . 
Cambria 
Greene . 
Berks . 
Potter . 
Cameron 
McKean 
Tioga . 
Allegheny 
Susqaehanna 
Washington 
Adams . . 
Backs . . 
Erie . . . 
Chester. . 
Dauphin . 
Delaware . 
Montgomery 
Lancaster. 
Lawreace . 
Lebanon . 
Northamptoi 
Lehigh . . 
Mifflm . . 
i ?tny . . . 
Elk . . . 
Franklin . 
Huntingdon 
Bedfoid . 
Carbon . . 
Cumberland 
Juniata . • 
Annstronff 
Clinton . . 
Indiana. . 
Lackawanna 
Luzerne 



Pike 
Schnylkill 
Vnion . , 
fcaver . . 
fihur . . . 
Bradford , 
BuUer . , 
Centre . , 
Clarion. . 
Clearfield 
Columbia 
Crawford 
Fayette. 
Torest . , 



. Sngar Grove . 

. Ebensburg . . 

. Waynesburg . . 

. Reading . . . 

Coudersport . . 

. Driftwood . . 

. Smethport . . 

. Wellsboro' . , 

. Pittsburgh . . . 

. Montrose . . . 

. Washington . . 

. Gettysburg . . 

. Doylestown . . 

. Waterford . . 

. West Chester . 

. Harrisburg . . 

• Media . • . . 
. Norristown . , 
. Lancaster . . . 
. New Castle . . 
. Lebanon . . . 
. Easton .... 
. Allentown • • 
. Lewistown . . 
. New Bloomfield 
. Ridgway . . . 
. Chambersburg . 
. Huntingdon . . 

• Bedford . . . 
. Mauch Chuiik . 
. Carlisle .... 
. Mifflintown . . 
. Kittanning . . 
. Lock Haven . 
. Indiana . . . 
. Scranton . . . 
. Wilkes-Barre . 



NorthnmberlandSunbary 



Milford . , . . 
. Shenandoah . . 
• Lewisburg . . 
. Beaver . . . . 
. Hollidaysburg . 
. Towanda . . . 
. Butler . . . . 
. Bellefonte . . . 
. Clarion .... 
. Clearfield . .* . 
. Bloomsburg . . 
. Meadville. . . 
. Uniontown . . 
. Tlonesta • • • 



September 5. 
September 26. 
October 3. 
October xo. 
October 10. 
October 17. 
October 17. 
October 17. 
October 24. 
October 24. 
October 24. 
October 31. 
October 31. 
October 31. 
October 31. 
October 31. 
October 31. 
October 31. 
November 14. 
November 14. 
November 14. 
November 14. 
November 21. 
November 2X. 
.November 2X. 
November 28. 
November 28. 
November 28. 
December 5. 
December 5. 
December 5. 
December 12. 
December 19. 
December X9. 
December X9. 
December 19. 
December 19. 
December 19. 
December 19. 
December 19. 
December 19. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 
December 26. 



Fulton . . . 
Jefferson . . 
Lycoming . 
Mercer . . . 
Monroe . . 
Montour . . 
Snyder . . . 
Somerset . . 
Venango . . 
Wayne . . 
Westmoreland 
Wyoming . . 
York. . . . 
Sullivan . . 



McConnellsburg 
Brookville . . 
Muncy .... 
Mercer .... 
Stroudsburg . . 
Danville . . . 
Middleburg . . 
Somerset . . . 
Franklin . . . 
Honesdale . . 
Greensburg . 
Tunkhannock 
York. . . . 
Forksville . 



December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
December 
January 2, 



26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 
26. 

26.' 
26. 
1888. 



PERMANENT CERTIFICATES GRANTED. 



N0.I 




4x94 
4195 
4x96 

4197 
4198 

4»99 
4aoo 

4201 

4aoa 

4ao3 

4204 

4205 

4306 

4307 

4908 

4309 

4axo 

4211 

4a r a 

42x3 

42x4 

42x5 

4216 

42x7 

42x8 

4219 

4220 

4221 

4222 

4223 

4224 

4235 

4226 

4227 

4228 

4229 

4930 

4231 
4232 
4*33 
4*34 
423s 
4236 
4337 
4238 

4239 
4240 

424X 

4243 

4243 

4244 

4245 



. J. Breaenum . 
. L. Henry . . 



ftgnrt . . 
Moore . 



Mary E. Emerick. 
Ida M. Harley . 
J. W. Thoxnan . 

F. R. Coyne . . 
T. J. Coyne . . 
Kate Burke. . . 
Kate Rooney . . 
Wm. H. Krcmer 
Lizzie A. Flanigan 
Minnie E. Pierce 
W. L. CoUinz. . 

G. H. Martin . 
S. M. Turbett . 
J. B. Laubach . 
Will. S. Monroe 
P. H. Kearney . 
D. N. Dieiienbach 
S 

Viola kelu'. 
Laura E. Boice , 
M. R. Williamz 

D. K. Cooper . 

E. B. McRobertz 
Ella Tai 
EUaJ 
S. A. Kiskadden 

iosieSlaigh . . 
loUie Gibson . 
Elizabeth Newell 
Emma Mc El wain 
Lilian Everett 
Ella B. Milholland 
Cora West. . . 
M. W. Black . . 
B. K. Hall . . . 
Jos. F. Bixler. . 
M. A. Goodhart 
Rebecca Goodhart 
T. Grove Tritt . 
D. L. Kepner. . 
M. L. Keiser . . 
Wm. P. KendaU 
J. L. Hopton . . 
M. R. Travis. . 
Geoise C. Davis 
Deborah Thomas 
Lizzie Bair . . » 
Ida M. Lind 
M. K. McCreary 
Bertha C. Oberhn 
B. M. Weitzel . 
4246 Annie McComb . 
J. H. White . . 
A. J. Hennigan . 
M. B. Gleason . 
UllianCobb. . 
C Acta Stanton. 



4247 

4248 

4249 
4250 

4251 

4252MaryJ. McHale 

!M. a. McLane . 

John A. Hays . 

S. M. Croeby . . 



4253 
4254 
4255 



Post Office. 



Butler. . . 
Trapp . . . 
Abbottstown 
Minooka . . 



4€ 



Duxunore . . 
Summit . . . 
Girardville . . 
Carpenter . . 
Montoursville 
Doyle's Mills 
Port Royal . . 
Sandy Run . . 
Kingston . . . 
Avoca .... 
DantilU . . . 
Lisbum *. . . 
Rasselas ... 
Dagus Mines . 
Allegheny City 
Canonsburg . 
Sharpsbuii^. . 
Harmarsville . 
Mansfield Val 
Pittsbuxgh . . 

Etna 

Sharpsbuxj^ . 
Wilkinsburg . 



«f 



Lonn*s Ferry 

McKeesport . 
«f 

Newry .... 
Mechanicsburg 
Carlisle . . . 
Dickinson . , 
Newville . . . 
Dickinson . . 
East Salem . . 
Thompsontown 
Jefferson . . . 
Ceylon .... 
Dunkard . . . 
feffcison . . . 
Waynesbufg • 
Ktnzers . . . 
Lancaster . . 
IdaviUe . . . 
Columbia . . 
Lancaster . . 
Hubers . . . 
Archibald . . 
Mooftic .... 
Scranton . . . 
MUwaulde . • 
Olyphant • . 

Dunmore * . 
Don^al . . . 
Greensbuxg. . 




Butler . . . 
Montgom'ry 
Adams . 
Lack'wanna 



<f 



Schu^lkiU. . 

Lycoming 
(f 

Juniata 
«t 

Luzerne 

n 
ff 

Montour 
York . 
Elk . . 

. « - 

Allegheny 
«t 

tt 

** 
ff 
«( 
« 
ff 
ff 
ff 
« 

»t 
tt 

Blair . . . 

CumberiM 
<f 

tt 

tt 

tt % 

Juniata 
ff 

Greene 
tt 

tt 



tt 

Lancaster 
tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

tt 

Lackawaima 
f« 

« 

«f 

ff 

tt 

tt 



W< 



•d 



tt 



Date. 
X886-87 



Oct. a6 
Nov.a7 
Dec. 13 
Feb. 5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

7 

7 
xa 

la 

19 

la 



ff 
ff 
ff 
ff 
f« 
ff 
ff 
«< 
ff 
ff 
ff 
ff 
ff 



Mch 


I as 


Apr 


30 


<f 


30 


May 


97 


ff 


y> 


ff 


30 


f « 


30 


ff 


30 


ff 


30 


ff 


30 


tt 


.30 


*t 
It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 



June 
<f 



ff 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
It 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
*t 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



3 



iS 



Belle Chiitly . 
■-- B. Waru . 

CJ.'Cu'niBllBii \ 

Mulie FtpEKTmiin. 
ClimSuk . . . . 
U. W. Edii . . . 

I. H. EngUih . . 
W. M.Awry.. . 
W, W. Oiunpiop. 

Idi M. Chjinnei] '. 
M. R.Tbombufy. 
Mary £. WeU> . . 
NcUie Siricklind . 
K. Venic Ha»k». 
M. Jennie Wlighl. 



Si 



FiirScId CuUr, 
Oifprd 



WatWhiuUnil. 



H.C, Eni». . 

Sadie U. Irwin . 
Muile £>ton . . 

ciirrie'Er'rfiMo '. 
Muy A. Reo . 
luuL.Gehnun 
C- SpickcniaBLe 
".ri E. Uetn . 
□i^e Robert! ^ 
W. Fenuton 
...ice L. Dim . 
Harry T. WiUlan 
:;__.j Kline. . 
U*r* S^McCkanf 



. Middkuwn. 

Wwly , . 



Shoemakerto 
S^leraviJk'. 



I. C. Holloway , . 
Joteph S. HepMi 
A. S, Greenawald 
F. ll. Wagner . , 
FnnkllD S. Slumc 
leue P Bechiel 
^muel W. Seylci 
John F. Hafcr , , 
Junei.W.K1app 
taun M. HUti 

Kn^A. Dumn 
1. W. RenlKhler 
tdwin K. WeUer 

J.H. Fomwalt., 
loho A. MUI« . 

jUfE. Waller : 
E.L. HcCaiD . 
A, J- Thompten 
Uide Sunn . . 
W, G. Gam , . 
Leo Smith . . . 
[nN.Mca«ke) 
T. M. Gnmly . 
A. A. Pleiclwt . 
Z. D. Thoimui . 
Theo. Pletchet . 
H. L. Miller . . 
Ell* T. Moniion 
Lliile M. Jackaoc 
Haiiie V. Shun. 



» Kill Milb. 
kdsoT Cutk . 



Rebenburg . 



J, M. Camirii.', 
Emma B. How 



Sti 



Sadie McCoy . , 
Neiu Campbell 
E. E. Taylor . . 
'irael Nile . . 



^it;^^,.;^ieA.SDyde 
,y,^ -\|.]„M. Slouffer 



UcElwain . . 

■maM. Scoti . 
Lucy Moore . . . 
Elizabeth ScroEgi- 
RobetlM. Bryan. 
Edtin H, Watwn. 

~ Cbarlei P. Pomp. 



;S 



idBvlUe 
AbbottMown 
McKespon 






Hookiti 
idy'i' Hi 



kH. Nolf. . , . 
UeSchoen. . 
Jack K. Stouffer . 
A. B. Cior. . . . 

t9inie M. Cowen. 
ydaJooM . . 
l'G,"^Smiib. . . 
M.O.ShaujrtiDeuy 
Mary A. Hlaini . 
BoydTretcou. . 
Jennie A. WaLh . 
Madeline Hamai . 
10.. H. Jo«.. . . 
.W. Hivman.. 
kale F. Gillnrde . 
MaccleMcGinly. 
Manln Mulhall . . 

E.'j'^w;ifc"r''!' 



Meyeradale ^ 
WallacerUl*. 



JeaniTllle'! '. 
Ebervale 



.„.,,„irdS. HummeL 
^M.N.'CuUihm' 



Z\ 



3 



Ma trie L. lonci 
Hannah M. Jon. 
ManieJ. Small 
AdTM. Miller . 
R. I.Hendenon 
M. Van Horn , 
Mary Munsy . 
M. R. Han Ion . 



, E. Hwan . 

Mary E. Do^n . . 
Mildred Shefflei . 
Jennie W. Hiiely. 
U. B. Pennerty. . 



. Allcxheny . 
. Scitivlkill - 

: Alleihcny . 



W7J 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 



167 



0. 



Name. 



Post Office. 



40 Kate C. Kesiler . 
Kizfie £. Moore . 
^ Bfarv £. Sheppard 
|}|Annk £. Newdl . 
Ida Schuck .... 
Utse Kennedy. . 
ICary E. Davis . . 
Huston . . . 
. Henhnun . 
£. Benton . . 
raColdron . . 
inieR. Loury . 
_Ja Conlin .... 
lEouna F. Roberts. 
^i3as FiamptoD . . 
(CBnie Neff. . . . 
fcttie G. Diviney. 
A. B. Kennerson . 

tA. Keener . . . 
Elder Pedor . . 
. L. Widdouson. 
S. L. Barr . . . 
WOlani M. Laqg . 
diaries A. Kram . 
J. A. Bartholomew 
, A. K. Erdman . . 

Scffenon Shipmmn 
I. Uzde Steltz. . 
Marniec Sykes . 
WiOkmS.Erney 
^ Annies. Ward. - 
ft MiT diaries. . . . 
^LdUFrey . . . . 

RG. A. Qeveland . 
,C.D.H«by. . . 
'O.C Thompson . 
MeanieMartm . . 
Jzie R. Difl' . . 
Benry S. Stetler . 
|M. J. Potter . . . 
John P. Hervey . 



PitUburiK^. 



« 
tt 



Glen Hope . 
Qearfield . 
AUport . . 
Houcsdale . 
Indiana . . 
Parkwood . 
Ord . . . . 
Grant . . . 
Indiana . . 
Milton . . . 
Shamokin . 
Cabel . . . 
Shamokin . 
AUentown . 



«f 



Limeport . . 
Pittsburgh . 

MeadviUe \ 
tt 

■tf 

• 

Lawrence . 
Allegheny . 
Freeburg . . 
Middleboii; 
Selinsmrove 



nunroi 
¥Cast 



New Castle 



Connty. 



Allegheny 



tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 
tt 

Qearfidd 
*t 

tt 

tt 

Indiana . 
tt 

m 
tt 

tt 

tt 

Northumb'd 
tt 



Lehigh . . 
tt 

tt 
AUei 



« ■ 



igheny 



Crawford . 
tt 

« 

t€ 

New Castle*. 

Pittoburgh. 

Snyder . . 



tt 



a . 



Lawrence . 



Date. 
X887. 



Au,. 8 



8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

30 

30 

30 

3« 

3» 

3* 

3» 

3« 

31 

3» 

3« 

3« 

3« 

3« 

3« 

3« 

3« 

3» 
Sept. a 

a 



(( 
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30 
90 
90 

33 



ITEMS FROM REPORTS, 



Berks — Supt. Keck : Our classes of appli- 
Its were unusually large ; there were many 
teachers than schools. There appears to 
very little opposition to the six months* law. 
idelberg changed its school term to seven 
pths. Muhlenberg decided to furnish six of 
bdr rooms with patent furniture. Robeson 
Its again built two new school-houses. 
Cumberland —Supt. Beitzel : One new school- 
IpDse has been erected in East Pennsboro, near 
^amp Hill. Improvements have been made in 
tiiool buildings in Newton, N. Middleton, and 
(.Middleton, Hopewell, Mifflin. Frankford, N. 
iid S. Middleton, Monroe and £. Pennsboro' 
Itdi furnish one house with latest improved 
■niture ; the Newton Board furnishes its eleven 
looses with patent furniture. S. Middleton has 
i^pted a course of study for its primary schools, 
^ completed and tested by an examination 
p^ promotion to the secondary grade. A 
Mbcr of districts have provided either physi- 
P<lpcal charts or manikins for use in the schools 
■ing the coming term. 

Delaware— Supt. Smith: The directors of 
(ediahave had the steam heating apparatus 
*>nranged during the vacation, and have such 
'guarantee from the contracting parties that 
^y feel sure the children will not suffler from 
w cold as they have done for the past three 
njters. Lower Chichester has remodeled the 
chool-bouse at Frainer. It is now a two- 
^ building, and will alTord much better ac- 



commodations to the increased number of pupils. 
In Upper Chichester one of the schools had to 
be dosed for the year just opening because of 
an insufficient number of pupils. 

Franklin — Supt. Slyder: Three new school- 
houses are being built this season — ^two in Guil- 
ford and one in Lurgan. The latest improved 
furniture will be placed in these buildings. In 
the Waynesboro school improvements have 
been made in the way of ventilating and heating. 
The Ruttan system is beinc^ tried. The new 
laws relative to institutes and length of school- 
term are being looked upon as the proper 
thing. ^ 

FtJLTON — Supt. Peck : A County Normal was 
held at the county seat, at which a number of 
teachers were in attendance, earnestly striving 
to better fit themselves for the work 0/ the com- 
ing winter. I notice a tendency to make the 
already low salaries of teachers still lower. 
Fourteen dollars a month seems to be the min- 
imum. A one-third property valuation in this 
countv is detrimental to the interests of our 
schools. It siniply ^makes four and one-third 
mills the limit of tax for school purposes. 

Greene — Supt. Waychoff": Centre district has 
established a graded school at Holbrook and is 
erectine a new building for that purpose. Jef- 
ferson borough is building a fine school-house, 
which is constructed and located with good 
judgment. 

Indiana — Supt. Cochran : Large new houses 
have been erected in Brush Valley, Conemaugh, 
Rayne, Canoe, Green, Montgomery. These 
buildings are supplied with the best patent fur- 
niture, and everything is being done to add to 
the comfort of the pupils. The McQuown 
school in Canoe township will be e^raded this 
year. Although some of our people feel that 
they can scarcely afford to have six months 
school, yet in very few districts have the wages 
been lowered; in several they have been in- 
creased. The prospects at present are that our 
State Normal School will be full this winter. 
Our teachers know the great advantage of good 
training and are trying to improve the opportu- 
nity afi&rded by these schools. The directors 
of Washington are having a new house erected 
in the Lucas district. We believe that our 
teachers will compare favorably with those of 
other counties in the State ; but many of our 
best teachers are leaving us to teach elsewhere. 
Why ? Because they can get better wages be- 
yond our county limits. 

Juniata — Supt. Auman : At the thirteen ex- 
aminations hela, 141 applicants presented them- 
selves, of whom 125 received certificates. The 
greater number of our teachers passed a very 
creditable examination. Notwithstanding the 
fact that most of the districts in this county have 
heretofore had only five months school, I hear 
very little dissatisfaction with the law increasing 
the minimum term to six months. 

Lawrence — Supt. Sherrard: Most of our 
schools opened in the first or second week of 
September, and very many of them will be con- 
tinuous for six to eight months under the same 
teacher. Public sentiment in favor of the single 
term is gradually growing stronger. There 



i68 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, 



[Oct., 



were only four districts in the county which had 
a summer school, ^ew Bedford has built a 
new two-room house, which is a very satisfac- 
tory structure. 

Lehigh — Sunt. Knauss : Heidelberg town- 
ship has torn aown the remaining four of its 
old frame buildin^^ and erected substantial 
brick houses in their stead. It can now boast 
of having rebuilt all its school-houses, nine in 
number, within seven years, and of haying as 
good and comfortable school buildings as any 
other district in the county. On the 26th of 
August in response to a call issued by the 
County Superintendent, the principals of the 
town and oorough schools met in the court 
house at Allentown. The object of the meet- 
ing was to discuss topics pertaining to the 
work of Principals in their connection with 
a system of graded schools. The following 
are a few of the topics presented for con- 
sideration : I. The duties of the principal in 
general. 2. Course of study for graded schools. 

3. Manner of organizing the teaching forces. 

4. Gradation and promotions. 5. Higher 
branches. These topics were discussed briefly, 
aU present taking an active part. This was the 
first meeting of the kind held in the county, 
and the principals were so well pleased with it, 
that they decided to meet again at the call of 
the County Superintendent. 

Luzerne — Supt. Coughlin: The following 
districts are each building a new school-house : 
Luzerne borough, Hughestown, Pittston town- 
ship, Marcy township, and Parsons borough. 
West Pittson is reseating the High School. 

Lycoming— Supt. Lose: Dunng the month 
of July, I visited all the schools open in the Pine 
Creek region. I was very much encouraged 
by the progress that this section of the county 
has been making. The houses are being sup- 
plied with patent furniture, outline maps, read- 
ing charts, etc., and |the directors are making 
earnest efforts to secure a better class of teach- 
ers. The directors in our country districts have 
taken a very wise course in arranging the six 
months' term. Instead of dividing it into a 
summer and winter term, they will open the 
schools about October 3d, take a week's vaca- 
tion during institute meeting, and close the 
schools about April ist. There has also been 
an agreeable surprise in the matter of teachers' 
salaries, a number of districts increasing them, 
against two or three decreasing, making the 
average salary higher this year than last. This 
year I look for the best work ever done in our 
schools. 

McKean — Supt. Eckles : Wetmore township 
has built two new school-houses during the past 
month. Norwich township is agitating the cjues- 
tion of furnishing the school books at public ex- 
pense. Foster township demanded a certifi- 
cate averaging one and one-half from all appli- 
cants for her schools. 

Monroe — Supt. Paul : The directors of Jack- 
son township have purchased new furniture for 
the school-houses. This township now has first- 
class furniture in all its houses. Pleasant Val- 
ley and Fair View Academies have been in 
session during the summer, and many of our 



teachers have availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity afforded by these institutions to prepare 
themselves better for the school-room w(M-k. 

Perry — Supt. Aumiller : I consider it iitdn^ 
to note the death of Dr. G. W. Eppley, of Marys- 
ville. He was killed on the night of the 27^1 
July by an engine on the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Through his death the town of Marysville loses 
an able physician and a good citizen. Boll 
mention his death because of the interest he al- 
ways took in the advancement of the public 
schools. He was for a number of years die 
moving spirit in the Marysville school board, 
and the progress made in the schools of that 
town is due, in the main, to his untiring zeal and 
progressive spirit. He was always a friend of 
the teacher, and his open, honest heart pos* 
sessed a charm that won the love and esteem 
of all. 

Snyder — Supt Herman : The Missionary In- 
stitute, located at Selinsgrove, under its present 
efficient management, is widening its innuence, 
and the county is especially fortunate in havine 
the means of intellectual training which it af- 
fords. Successful academic terms were had at 
Freeburg, Middleburg, and Adamsburg. The 
educational facilities of the county {iregood, and 
we confidently look for a highergrade of teach- 
ers the coming school year. Tne *' Free Nor- 
mal" conducts! by the County Superintendent, 
was not held this year. There are now four 
schools in the county that have courses suit* 
able for teachers. A large per cent of teadi* 
ers are preparing for their work in these schook 
I assist in three of them, devoting my time 
the science of teaching. 

Somerset — Supt. Berkey : Evidences of edu- 
cational progress are apparent in nearly every 
distnct of the county. Quite a number of nevi 
houses'have been built this summer, and tht 
old line of school furniture is rapi(Uy giving 
place to the more approved modern style. Sooi* 
erset borough has taken a step forward by elect* 
in^ an additional teacher, thus allowing the 
principal to do general work in all the schools. 
The Board has also adopted a course of study. 
Berlin and Rockwood have also employed a 
full corps of teachers each. The locai normal 
schools were well attended and did good work. 
Eighteen local normal and select schools were 
in operation within the county, some of then 
largely attended by teachers. The term ranges 
from eight to ten weeks, closing with the public 
examination of teachers, which was held auriog 
the month of September. 

Sullivan— Supt. Black: Fox township has 
supplied each of its schools with Webster s Un- 
abridged Dictionary. I have held the annual 
session of the Teachers* Normal Institute at Do- 
shore. The term was one of six weeks. The 
attendance was large and great interest maBt* 
fested in the work. 

Venango — ^Supt. Lord : A new house is bfr 
ing built in Jackson township ; Sandy Creek has 
furnished each of her six schools with outline 
maps and primary charts. The new houses in 
Siverly ana Utica, to replace those burned du^ 
ing the winter, are models in every respect 
Our schools start out this fall better equipped than 



1887.] 



LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 



169 



ever before, and we confidently look forward to 
a very prosperous term. 

BuTLER—Supt. Mackey : The school board 
has fitted up two additional rooms for school, 
another for an of!ice, and a fourth as a class- 
room. The water pipes have also been ex- 
tended to each floor, and gas connection made 
at all the fire-places. 

Mahanoy City — Supt. Ballantine: The school 
board passed two important resolutions at its 
\wt, session, i. They resolved to pay teachers 
according to qualifications and no longer pay 
die same salary to the same grade regardless of 
qualifications, professional or scholastic. 2. They 
resolved to select from the applicants for schools 
for the next term, those best qualified without 
regard to their previous service in our schools. 
If these resolutions are realized, we expect to 
see, as a result, great improvement m the 
schools. If they are not realized now, they will 
be in the future, unless we are retrograding. The 
school board has greatly improved the appear- 
ance of one of its buildings, by having it pamted 
on the outside, the yard graded and enclosed bv 
an elegant iron fence, and a flag pavement laid. 
It improves both school building and neighbor- 
hood. 

Nanticoke — Supt. Monroe: Our directors buy 
fte readers, slates and pencils used by the 



pupils. They have also subscribed for The 
Pennsylvania School Journal for the coming 
year. 

Phgenixville — Supt. Leister: During the 
summer all the school builings had been thor- 
oughly cleansed. All, excepting the new one, 
were painted inside and outside, and properly 
repaired. Miss Lizzie A. Boorse has been ap- 
pointed by the Board to teach, principally, 
music, drawing and elocution. 

Shamokin — ^Supt. Harpel : Our school board 
has contracted for the erection of two brick school 
buildings. They are well planned, and will be 
completed by September 5th. 

South Easton — Supt. ShuU : Thanks to our 
directors for increasing the salaries, whereby 
two excellent teachers, who had not been teach- 
ing for sometime, were brought back to our fold. 
The directors have also established a new school, 
in an excellent room furnished in the latest im- 
proved style. The board has made a change 
m arithmetics, geographies, and spellers. The 
schools have opened with an increase of 95 
pupils. A number of repairs have been made 
which add greatly to the appearance of the rooms, 
grounds, etc. Our teachers began their Work 
with a de^ee of earnestness that has not marked 
the openmg of previous school terms. We have 
organized an Institute, which meets bi-weekly. 



Literary Department. 



THE Riverside Literature Series of Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., Boston, is one of the most ex- 
cellent and useful publications for educational 
purposes with which we are acquainted. It is a 

onthly issue of classic American literature, 

ch part containing entire, with carefully pre- 
~ Introductions, Notes, Historical and Bio- 
traphical Sketches, some standard American 
Iterary work, Longfellow's Evangeline, his 
Courtship of Miles Standish, the same drama- 
tzed for use in parlor or school entertain- 
ments, lVhtttter*s Snow-Bound, and Among 
6e Hills, his Mabel Martin, Maud MuUer, and 
other poems, specimens of the choicest poetry 
and prose from Holmes, Hawthorne, Lowell, 
Bayard Taylor, Benjamin Franklin, Washing- 
km, Thoreau, while the latest part, Number 28, 
consists of four exquisite sketches about Birds 
and Bees from the charming pen of John Bur- 
t9itgks. There are nine of these numbers 
tsKd every year, and the yearly subscription 
fnce is $1.25 ; or single numbers can be had at 
IS cents eacn. 

We need not here speak of the great cheap- 
aos of this sterling publication, nor refer to the 
Atcellent style in which it is presented, paper 
fod typography being first-class, as everything 
is that has the imprint of " The Riverside Press." 
I We rather would call attention to the excep- 
tional value of the series for use in our public 
schools. 

We feel quite safe in saying that for literature 
dasses there is nothing more convenient, cheap 
and better published anywhere. They supply 
a want that cannot but have been often and 



keenly felt by every teacher of literature, each 
number constituting as it were a complete text- 
book for the study of some representative work 
of some standard American author; and the 
whole series covering enough ground to serve 
as a very full and satisfactory introduction to 
the more specific and fuller study of our Utera- 
ture. For this purpose the Introductions and 
Notes, with Biographical and Historical Sketches 
are especially adapted, and extremely valuable 
to teacher and scholar. Moreover, in Number 
13 is given a systematic plan for the study of 
Longfellow, a full analysis, thirty-two topics of 
study, with a series of questions and references, 
which can be used as a reliable and helpful 
guide to the study of any other author, and 
must insure accuracy and thoroughness on the 
part of the student. We know it to have been 
so used by classes with much profit and eminent 
satisfaction. 

Another and still more general use to which 
we should like to see this series put, is as Sup- 
plementary Readers, or even as substitutes for 
the ordinary Reader in the upper evades of our 
schools. Indeed this has been done in very 
many schools already. For example Supt. 
Phillips says the " Riverside Literature Series 
will be used instead of Readers in oiu: erammar 
school grades.** Supt. Balliet writes, "We shall 
want Grandfather's Chair as a supplementary 
reader during the present year, or by the begin- 
ning of the next.*' Supt. Wilber says, " I never 
had pupils so interested in reading as since I 
have introduced the Riverside Literature Series 
into my school I shall not make the 



lyo 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Oct., 



series supplementary ^ but substitute them for 
the old Reader." Supt. MacAlister, of Phila- 
delphia, thinks the series " admirably adapted 
for readine books in the hieher grades of school 
work/* and adds, " I should be very glad to see 
them come into general use." 

Among the manifest advantages of such a use 
of these books is the fact that they at once make 
our scholars acquainted with the best American 
literature, and so cultivate correct literary taste 
as can be done by no other means. They do 
not give them only a collection of " scraps," but 
entire works, connected and complete, of the 
master-writers of our tongue. They arouse the 
interest of the pupils in what they are reading, 
as is not done by the perfunctory perusal of a 
book made up of heterogeneous " extracts " pf 
prose and poetry. They naturally lead up to 
nirther private reading and study of the stand- 
ard worKS of our literature. We should very 
much like to see them introduced very widely 
into the Secondary , Grammar and High Schools 
of our State. 

Two extra numbers are announced by the 
publishers as being nearly ready, one of which 
at least will be welcomed by thousands of teach- 
ers. It is to contain Programmes and Sugges- 
tions for the Celebration of the Birthdays of 
Authors, The other number will contain Por- 
traits and Biographical Sketches of twenty 
American authors. We shall probably have 
occasion to refer to these again. 

Entering on Life. A Book for Young Men. By 
Cunningham Geikie, D. D, New York: John 
B. Alden. i2mo., pp. 224. Price^ 40 cents. 
This neatly printed and bound volume needs no 
farther recommendation than to say that it is from 
the gifted pen of the learned author of " The Life 
and Words of Christ." and "Hours With the Bible," 
two works of such sterling character, and yet so pop- 
ular withal, as to have made Dr. Geikie' s name a 
household word among English-speaking Christians 
everywhere. The present volume consists of nine 
essays, on Youth, Character, Companions, Success, 
Christianity, Helps, Reading, Dreams, and Fare- 
well — subjects old yet ever new, and never more 
important for the consideration of young men than 
to-day. Dr. Geikie's treatment of these subjects is 
marked by freshness and clearness of thought, a 
frank and manly spirit, and a style of surpassing grace 
and elegance. His thoughts are those of a profound 
and original thinker ; his words are the words of an 
erudite scholar and eloquent preacher ; his counsel is 
always wise, earnest, and practical. The book is one 
no young man can read without receiving genuine 
help. We heartily wish every young man about 
entering on life would earnestly and carefully read 
it. It is an excellent book to have in the school 
library. 

Stories of Heroic Deeds, For Boys and Girls. 

By James Johonnot, New York : D. Appleton 6r* 

Co. /2mo.,pp. 148 1 illustrated. 

Judging by the books thus far issued in Appletons' 
^ Historical Series, of which this attractive little volume 
is Book Second, the set promises to be one not only , 
full of interest to young readers, an important con- 
sideration, but also full of intrinsic merit and value. 
We can scarcely imagine a book which live boys and 
girls will more eagerly read than this one with its 
collection of entertaining Myths, its Indian Stories, 



some of which strike us as more than half mythical 
themselves, its thrilling Stories of the Revolutioo ud 
Scottish Stories, and other miscellaneous htitoiial 
tales. The stories, moreover, have the merit of bebig 
well told, from a literary point of view ; and ire tUof 
them selected with a view to their moral influence as 
well, so as to awaken the higher sentiments ud lo- 
bier feelings and aspirations. Numerous illustniiou 
add to the interest and attractiveness of the vohat 

Health Lessons : A Primary Book. By Jtrm 
Walker, M. D. New York: D. Appletw b 
Co. t2mo.,pp. tg4, illustrated. 
Not the least valuable part of this book is the ini- 
tial chapter for teachers, with its sensible and ai- 
nently practical advice and instruction, gathered from 
the author's long experience as a ^ysiciin and 
teacher, to those who have in hand the teaching of 
young children, especially on health-subjects. If foi 
no other reason than this, that all teachers might lean, 
e. g., that children are not machines all made after 
one pattern, and all to be treated alike, that no teadte 
on health subjects should "ride hobbies," that "little 
stress should be laid on purely anatomical points," 
such as the names :f bones, muscles, etc. — ^if only for 
the good advice given on this subject, we should like 
all teachers of hygiene tb have this little book. Bat 
in all other respects, too, the book bears every mark 
of being the work of one more than ordinarily com{«' 
tent to prepare a text -book for primary classes. Dr. 
Walker has the double advantage of being a phja- 
cian, and having had long experience in hospitals 
and chlldreii's ** homes," and also as lecturer on hy- 
giene and physiology to children in the Brooklp 
Central Grammar School. The book conseanent]; 
is one of the very best of its kind. The pubtisho^ 
too, have done well to put it forth in such attnctitt 
style, with excellent illustrations, in large, clear tyfV 
and in very ornamental binding. 

The Practical Elements of Rhetoric, ffid 
Illustrative Examples. By /ohn F. GenuH* 
Ph.D. Boston : Ginm 6r* Co. i2mo., pp. ^ 
Price, $1.40. 

Good, practical, elementary books on Rhetoric are 
scarce. Every honest attempt to supplv the need of 
such a book, adapted for high school and college 
classes, is therefore to be warmly welcomed, eves 
though it does not fully realize our ideal of what sudi 
a book should be. The treatise of Dr. Genungseeos 
to us to be considerably in advance of most other 
attempts of the kind in more than one respect, and to 
merit the attention and careful examination of teach- 
ers of rhetoric. One of its chief merits is that it 
clearly realizes the necessary limitations of snch a 
book. It does not profess or attempt to do what do 
such treatise ever can do. We think Prof. Gennng 
is perfectly correct when he says on this point that 
** Literature is of course infinitely more than nechao- 
ism ; but in proportion as it becomes more, a text* 
book of rhetoric has less of business with it. It is as t 
mechanism that it must be taught ; the rest most be 
left to the student himself. To this sphere, then, the 
present work is restricted ; the literary art, so far as 
it is amenable to the precepts of a text-book, and 10 
the demands of a college course." In not appreciJ^ 
mg this limitation is where so many works on rhetoric 
have failed to realize their full measure of usefulnesti 
Regarding rhetoric exclusively in its art-phase, ProC 
Genung divides his work into two main parts, the order 
of treatment of which is exactly the reverse of that nsa- 
ally followed, Style, or the part relating to expres- 
sion, being made to precede Invention, or that relat- 
ing to thought. " For this corresponds to the logical 



i»7.] 



LITERAR Y DEPARTMENT. 



171 



order which al] arts, tA well as the art of discourse, 
most observe . . . just as the tnusidan begins with 
finger exercises, and the artist with drawing from 
iiMxiels/' Under " Part I., Style," are treated very 
foUy such matters as Diction, or the use of words in 
prose and poetry. Figures of Speech, and Composi- 
tion. Under "Part 11., Invention," are treated the 
nxions procedures involved in finding, sifting, and 
ofdering the material of discoune, two chapters being 
derated to the principles involved in all literary work, 
tad six more to the particular application of these in 
Description, Narration, Exposition, Argumentation, 
ftosaasion, etc. The treatment throughout is philoso- 
phical, the manner and arrangement eminently clear, 
vithmucb space very wisely devoted to the illustration 
of every important pointby copious examples from 
tfindaid literature. The publishers have done their 
work equally well; type, paper and binding are of the 
ray best. Altogether, we are more than pleased with 
the book. 

Applbton's Physical Geography. Prepared on 
a New and Original Plan, By John £>. Quack- 
enhn.John S.Newkerry, Ckas. H, Hitchcock, W, 
Le Qmie Stevens^ Henry Gannett, Wm, H. Ball, 
C Hart Merriam, NathU L, Britian, Geo. F. 
Awts, and Geo. M. Stoney, New York : D. Ap- 
fUton ^ Co., ^o.,pp. 140. 
If there is a more thorough and complete, as well as 
more interesting and attractive text-book of Physical 
Geography in existence than this one, we have never 
Ken it. It is a notable example of the immense 
tdnnce that has been made in recent years in the 
preparation of school books, and this is true also of the 
nechanical execution, the maps, tables, illustrations, 
ffid general make-up of the volume. The work is 
: Dot t mere compilanon, but embodies the results of 
die original labors of some of the most noted scien- 
tists in the country, each of whom writes so much of 
the whole as is concerned with that branch of the 
nbject of which he is a specialist and acknowledged 
iBtbority. Besides the other weighty advantages of 
ach a co-operative work, there is given a freshness to 
(he book seldom to be found in such treatises \ we, 
iM>reover, feel it to be thoroughly reliable in its state- 
Beats ; and it has the merit of giving us what is known 
«Lthe subject to-day, up to date. It is a Physical 
Geography that can safely be commended to teachers. 

The Franklin Elementary Algebra. By Ed- 
wm P, Seaver, A. M. and Geo. A. Walton, A.M. 
Philadelphia : J. H. Butler, tamo., pp. 2^7. 
Beginning with Simple Equations, the pupil is 
pUinly and rapidly led u]tto Logarithms. In a work 
of this kind there is of course no room nor call for 
peat novelty or originality. The authors have, how- 
r (w, succeeded in making a book that is commenda- 
■ % simple, clear, and practical in its arrangement, 
^ plenty of examples and problems, and as little 
tttccessary theorizing and explanation as possible, 
^e consider it a very good elementary text-book for 
i^Mttdy of Algebra. The Key, which may also be 
^ by teachers desiring it, simply contains the an- 
<vets to the examples and problems found in the book. 

The Pleasures of Life. By Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart, F. R. S. New York : yohn B. Alden. 
t2mo.,pp. toy. . Price, 2^ cents. 
Nearly all of the ten chapters comprising this very 
pleasant little book were originally delivered as ad- 
dresses at school commencements, at the giving of 
prizes, certificates, etc., and certain other like occa- 
sions. They are from the graceful pen of one of the 
greatest scientists and most scholarly writers of Eng- 
land, and are fullof beauty and wisdom, not only from 



the mind of Sir John Lubbock, but culled from the 
writings of the great authors and thinkers of all coun- 
tries and of ancient modem and times. The sentiments 
and counsel given on such subjects as the Duty of 
Happiness, the Happiness of Duty, a Sone of Books, 
the Choice of Books, the Blessing of FViends, Value of 
Time, Pleasures of Travel, of Home, Science and Ed- 
ucation, are true, wholesome and inspiring. In the 
chapter on 7%e Choice of Books is contained the fa- 
mous <* List of 100 Books,'* which caused so much 
discussion when it first appeared. The volume is 
well made and handsome. 

English Literature. — We have received from the 
author. Prof. Enoch Perrine, A. M., of Bucknell 
University, a specimen of the leaflets used by him at 
the Educational Assembly at Key East, New Jersey, 
in conducting the class in Enghsh Literature there. 
The Leaflet contains the outlines and analysts of a 
very thorough study of Chaucer, Addison, and Bry- 
ant, clearly and concisely arranged for the guidance 
of teacher and pupil. It can be commended to 
teachers of literature as a remarkably succinct, clear, 
and helpful aid in their work. The Leaflets can be 
had of the author at a merely nominal price. 

Irving s Life of Washington, — Some time ago we 
called attention to John B. Alden's beautiful four- 
volume edition of this standard American classic. 
The four volumes are now all out, the handsomest 
books ever made at so low a price, they costing only 
1 1 per volume fn half-morocco binding, fully illus- 
trated and excellently printed. They are a marvel 
of cheapness. The same is true of Alden's Ideal 
Shakspeare, in 12 volumes, at 60 cents each in half 
morocco. 

The Atlantic Monthly {%^ per year), published by 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, stands without a 
rival, as pre-eminently the literary magazine of the 
country. We call attention to it here b^use we be- 
lieve it to be just such a periodical as many of our 
teachers need, and would like to have. Indeed, 
scarcely a number comes to us but contains some 
article of special value and interest to educators, as can 
be seen from the articles of the kind that have from 
time to time been reprinted in The Journal. Besides 
such articles, the Atlantic contains every month 
the installments of two or more serials, always 
of the very highest literary merit and by world-re- 
nowned authors. The serials now running are Dr. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes's delightful journal of his 
recent trip to Europe, entitled, " Our Hundred Days 
in Europe.*' Dr. Holmes writes only for this maga- 
zine. ** The Second Son," is a novel written by 
Thos. Bailey Aldrich and Mrs. M. O. W. Oliphant ; 
while Marian Crawford writes " Paul PatofT,*' which 
is decidedly one of the very best novels this volum- 
inous author has ever produced. Then there are 
every month several short stories, poetry by Holmes, 
Whittier, Lowell, Stedman, Edith Thomas, and all 
the best poets of the land ; one or more historical 
articles by writers like Fiske, Scudder, Higgin- 
son, McMaster and others ; tales of travel ; and the 
fullest and best articles of literary criticism, history 
and review that can be found anywhere. The Atlan- 
tic is particularly rich in the productions of American 
authors, as indeed it has been the means of first intro- 
ducing to the public and to fame some of the fore- 
most writers in our national literature. As a means 
of the highest literary culture, and an indispensable 
record of literary life and work in our country, we 
unhesitatingly recommend The Atlantic Monthly as 
superior to all others. It is a literary education in 
itself regularly to read its pages. 



172 



PEN<VS VL VAN/ A :yCHOOL JO UAW A L. 



LOct.^ 



CAN music be disregarded when the programme of 
school duties is to be arranged? It should be held 
as equally essential with reading and penmanship, 
and ue day is coming when the local school authori- 
ties — wiser than many who are at present entrusted 
with these interests — ^will inquire of the teacher who 
seeks employment^ "Can yon sing?" "Can you 
play on any instrument ? " " Can you give instruc- 
tion in vocal music?" These have long been ques- 
tions familiar to applicants for positions in the public 
schools of Germany; and happy will be that era 
when they have grown equally familiar to the teach- 



ers of America. Horace liCann, an authority in edu- 
cational matters, once wrote, "If I were the &ther 
of a family, all Uie members of it should learn music. 
Almost all children have naturally good ears, and can 
catch tunes easily; and, strange to say, they axe aUe 
to master the mysteries of tune much better at an 
early age than they do later.*' The refining influence 
of music in the schoolroom and in the &mily dide 
none knew better than himself. Dr. Brooks sajs 
wisely : " A school song in the heart of a child wiU 
do as much for its character as a fact in its memoiy 
or a principle in its intellect." All leading edncatas 



HEARTS OF OAK. 



VaBIO CAMPAKa. 




1. Bold be your stroke. Swift as the light. Brave Hearts of Oak, On for the Right I\ 

2. Loy - al and brave, True as the sun — Heights that can save Yet to be won. 




Life is a field — Sol-diers are we; Ne'er let us yield! 
Conscience on guard, Hope in the rear; Faith as our ward. 



Dare to be free, 
God ev - er near. 




Free from the chains I - die -ness weaves; Free from the pains Cow-ard • ice leaves; 
On,'neathour flag, Fighting the wrong! Hill -top and crag Ech-o our song: 




' m X^L ' 



From foes that kill All we most prize. Free finom fierce will. Ha -tied and lies. 

"Bold be your stroke. Swift as the light. Brave Hearts of Oak, On for the Right!" 







agree as to the impoitance of this kind of instruction, 
and the universal love of music, manifested espe- 
cially by children, is the strongest evidence that their 
position here is not to be shaken. The wide world 
over, wherever human beings have hearts that pul- 
sate quicker to the sentiment of love or sympathy, or 
at thoughts of home or heaven, there the outgushing 
tenderness reveals itself in song. Travellers tell us 
that in the mountains of the Tyrol, it is the beautiful 
custom of the women and children to come out, when 
it is bed-time, and sing their national songs until they 
hear their husbands, fathers and brothers 



answer 



them from the hills on their return home. On the 
shores of the Adriatic, also, such a custom prevails. 
There the wives of the fishermen come down about 
sunset and sing a melody. After the first stanza, they 
listen awhUe for the answering strain from off the 
water, and continue to sing and listen till the weO- 
known voices come borne upon the tide. Aam 
sweet to the weary fisherman, as the shadows gadier 
round him, must be the song of these loved ones to 
cheer him on his way, and how they strengthen- 
as does music everywhere — the ties of affection that 
bind together these humble dwellers by the 



NOVEMBER, 1887. 



'HE time has come when the peopleshould 
insist that the public school education 
of Iheir children shall be committed to the 
cue of educators. Then the public mind 
vnld not be so likely to become confused 
in regard to the legitimate province of the 
fabltc common schools, nor concerning the 
■ethods by which they may be made to pro- 
liKc the truest and largest results. The 
questions that are now presenting thera- 
for an answer are — i. What shall the 
piblic school teach? a. By what method 
ibill the teaching be conducted ? 3. What 
itsults should the schools attempt to pro- 
duce? The firat two questions have refer- 
ace to the means to be employed ; the last 
to the ends to be attained. 
< It would be well for the cause of popular 
;edDcation to have these questions answered 
jbf those who have made popular education, 
'in all its phases, a careful study. The State 
;bs made provision for the employment of a 
tlass of leading educatore, who, by their 
•isdom, may be able to direct the processes 
of public instruction to the production of 
ilk best ends. — Seeretary J. W. Dickinson. 

This then, is the problem of pedagogy : 
Row to make life in all its parts, through all 
■Bigencies, and under all of its conditions, 
1 unity tending toward the education of the 
•hole people? The school has power, but 
it) power is slight unless it co-operates with 
other educating forces. And these other 
forces are all about us. A young barrister 
ODce said to the great Mason, " I keep my 
room to read Uw." Mason answered: 
" Read law t It is in the court room you 
miutread law." | Bulwer Lyt ton somewhere 



says practically the same thing: "A mao' 
on the whole is a better preceptor than & 
book." Let us have books and teachers 
and schools, but let us have churches and! 
homes, a pure journalism, libraries, pic- 
tures, laws, social customs, popular senti- 
ment — all ofwhich will combine to commend 
to our people " the True, the Beautiful, and 
the Good."— i?r. /. U. Vincent. 

The school does not exist for the purpose 
of relieving the home of any of its respon- 
sibilities to the child. The home, to the 
limit of its ability, is the natural and the best 
place to educate the child. That which the 
school has been created to do especially, 
and which the home cannot do adequately, 
is to give the child the necessary training- 
in intetligerue that he must have if he would 
not be driven to the wall in the battle of 
life. This intellectual training has been given 
up to the school by the general consent. 
But adequate intellectual training is impos- 
sible without a corresponding culture of the 
feelings and of the will. Adequate intellec- 
tual education involves adequate character- 
building. It is in this work, which we call 
character-building, that the school and the 
home must act together. Character is the 
grand result of all education, and intellec- 
tual training, which is the distinctive func- 
tion of the school, is an essential factor in 
it. Character cannot exist without intelli- 
gence. But character-building has never 
been delegated to the school in the sense 
and to the extent that intellectual training 
has been so delegated. The family cannot 
shift the burden of character-building from 
the home to the school. In this education 



174 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Nov., 



of the higher spiritual nature, the family 
and the school must unite, and it is here 
that the school and the home come upon 
common ground. — Iltinais School JaumaL 

1. Language lessons in reading and cor- 
recting sentences already prepared : i. Ex- 
change slates; pupils mark mistakes. 2. 
Pass slates to owners ; correct mistakes, read 
sentence as corrected. Time, 10 minutes. 

2. Oral work. Have pupils use the fol- 
lowing in sentences: hai^e with a form of 
lay. He, sit; A^^with a form oi lay^set^ He. 
Time, 5 minutes. 

3. Use ownership forms of the following 
in oral sentences: men, boys, lady, ladies, 
girl, houses. Time, 5 minutes. 

Many criticisms might be made on this 
plan as follows : Can not always be carried 
out. Will make the teacher mechanical, 
and thereby produce a stiffness in the reci- 
tation. It may take longer to carry out 
some parts of it than the teacher supposed. 
These and many more might be made, and 
we are willing to grant that there is truth in 
all of them; yet we say. Have a plan, and 
work to it as nearly as the circumstances 
will permit. Modify it when it seems nec- 
essary, and your lessons will have a com- 
pleteness about them that they can not have 
without a plan. The fact is that it was nol 
•carried out exactly. It took longer to get 
^through with the first part than the teacher 
•supposed. Then, of course, the other parts 
•were shortened, and there was a feeling when 
time was up that the points of the lesson had 
been made, and there were no regrets, 
expressed or understood. It seemed that 
•everybody was ready for the closing when 
the time came. — Indiana School Journal. 

Jefferson, in his letter to John Jay, 
ninety years ago, said : " Cultivators of the 
•earth are the most valuable citizens. They 
are the most vigorous, most independent, 
most virtuous, and they are tied to the country 
and wedded to it by its most lasting bonds." 

The witty scholar and literateur, Hein- 
rich Heine, speaking of his return to the 
Bible and its sources of consolation in the 
last years of his life, uses this language: 
'' The re-awakening of my religious feelings 
I owe to that holy book, the Bible. Aston- 
ishing ! that after I have whirled about all 
my life over all the dance-floors of phi- 
losophy, and yielded myself to all the orgies 
of the intellect, and paid my addresses to 
all possible systems, without satisfaction, 
like Messalina after a licentious night, I now 



find myself on the same standpoint where 
poor Uncle Tom stands — on that of the 
Bible. I kneel down by my black brother 
in the same prayer I What a humiliation ! 
With all my science I have come np fiuther 
Ihan the poor ignorant negro who has scarce 
learned to spell. Poor Tom, indeed, seems 
to have seen deeper things in the Holy Book 
than I. Tom, perhaps, understands them 
better than I, because more flogging occuis 
in them — that is to say, those ceaseless 
blows of the whip which have aesthetically 
disgusted me in reading the Gospels and 
Acts. But a poor negro slave reads with 
his back, and understands better than we da 
But I, who used to make citations from 
Homer, now begin to quote the Bible as 
Uncle Tom does." 



In the last German war, a captain of car- 
airy was commanded to go foraging. He 
set out at the head of his company, going to 
that section which was assigned him. It wis 
a secluded valley, where nothing could be 
seen save woods. He perceived at the door 
of an humble cabin an old hermit, with 
white beard. '' My father," said the officer, 
"show me a field where I can forage mj 
horses." "Directly," said the hermit 
This good old man, placing himself at their 
head, recrossed the valley. After a quarter 
of an hour's march, they found a b^utitl 
field of barley. "This is what I want,** 
said the captain. "Wait a moment," said 
his conductor; "you shall be satisfied." 
They continued to march, and arrived, 
about a quarter of a mile farther, at another 
field of barley. The troops immediately 
dismounted, reaped the grain, placed it 
upon their horses, and remounted. The 
cavalry officer then said to his guide: "My 
father, you have made us go too far un- 
necessarily; the first field was better than 
this." "That is true, sir," replied the old 
man, "but it was not mine." 



How many parents know the teacher who 
has charge of their children during the day? 
How many teachers know the parents of the 
pupils they instruct ? A small percentage, 
we think. One would suppose that oidi- 
nary interest on the parents' part would in- 
duce a change in such a state. It is hardly 
the teacher's fault. He can not be expectol 
to look up parents, nor may he desire tOw 
Precious little do parents care for the school 
work of their children, if their visits to the 
school may serve as an indication. We hold 
that the parent ought to visit the classes in 
which his child recites, at least once a year. 



I887.J 



POSSIBILITIES OF DEVELOPMENT, 



»7S 



Oftener as it may please, but at least that. 
It is good, for more reasons than one, for 
parents to have some idea of the school life 
of the children — usually they have not the 
slightest, save as they get the child's highly- 
colored descriptions. Many parents of our 
pupils have in the four years' course never 
been inside the school. We do not know 
them by sight even. Yet if a question about 
tk schools came up we are sure these same 
pirents would be the very ones who would 
he the first and loudest in criticism. Not 
long ago we asked a lady to visit the school. 
Her reply was : '< I did not think you wanted 
visitors." Well ! ! I ! ! Teachers, we can 
at least invite the patents when we meet 
them. If they do not come, there is no fur- 
ther concern for us in the matter. ^C/^ra/ 
School JaumaL 

That is the best governed school which 
is governed through its activities. The 
problem in school government is, how to 
keep the children busy, A busy school gov- 
erns itself, and an idle school nobody can 
govern. A frequent use of '' thou shalt not" 
is an unfailing sign of weakness on the part 
of the teacher. Remember that "substi- 
tution" is the only proper method of 
"elimination" in the problem of school 
government. Give the better method, the 
better thought, the better ideal, and the bad 
most give place. 

"If all the forests were removed," said 
Professor Edmund James at the Academy of 
Fine Arts, '' this country would be a howl- 
ing wilderness. In the interests of agricul- 
ture and good health, at least twenty-three 
percent, of the land ought to be wooded." 
There are but few persons who will deny the 
2bove statement, yet not more than one in 
a hundred gives the matter more than a 
passing notice. The demands of commerce, 
forest fires, the destruction of young trees 
by browsing animals, have so rapidly been 
^g up our timber supplies, that those ac- 
ftunted with what have been the results of 
tsimilar policy elsewhere tremble at the ul- 
^te consequences. Forests are admit- 
^y a commercial, a meteorological and a 
tuitary necessity. But how the existing 
^irests are to be preserved and forest culture 
is to be set on foot, nobody Sjeems to know. 
There can under our present laws be no 
State or National control over the private 
ownership of forest lands. How the work 
of preservation and of future forest cultiva- 
tion is to be done, is therefore the all- 
important problem. There are hundreds of 



men in this country, for instance, who own 
one, five or ten acres of timber land. How 
can they be prevented from utilizing this 
a6 their interests and wishes dictate ? That 
is the question no man has yet been able to 
answer satisfactorily. The Government 
could do something by putting a stop to the 
sale of its timber lands, by offering bounties 
to farmers for tree-planting, and State Gov- 
ernments could do likewise, but so far little 
effectual legislation has been had on this 
subject. — Lancaster New Era, 



No better proof of a teacher's mastership 
in the art of questioning was ever given than 
by a conceited little boy, who came home 
from school and said : '* I aint a-going to 
that school any more." "Why?" asked 
his mother. " 'Cause our teacher don't 
know anything. She asks us all the time. 
We must tell her everything. To-day she even 
wanted to know what I had my boots on for 1' ' 

When Shakespeare was born, and had 
been five hours in the cradle, he was Shake- 
speare; but he did not come to himself till a 
great while after that, nor did he come to 
the world — out of which he will never die 
— until a great while after that ; and when 
a man begins a Christian life he is far from 
having reached its complete development. 
If he begins with ever so much enthusiasm 
it will not bring him to the highest spiritual 
state immediately. It will inspire his cour- 
age and zeal, and intensify his purpose — 
that is all. Our Christian education and 
gfowth can take place only according to the 
law of nature, and according to the law of 
spiritual nature. Our unfolding is gradual 
all the way up; and anybody who thinks he 
has got through developing, and says, "I 
am perfect ; there is no direction in which 
I can unfold any more," is a poor, miserable, 
stupid creature, and is to be greatly pitied. 
I intend to unfold far beyond what I am or 
can attain to here — to develop forever and 
forever; and when the powers of my com- 
plex nature shall have expanded till I stand 
on what to me is now the horizon, I shall 
not have come to myself. There will then 
be another horizon far away; but when I 
have reached that I shall not have come to 
myself. There will then be another horizon, 
far, far away, on the bounds of the eternal 
world ; but when I have reached that radiant 
point I shall not have come to myself. 
There will be yet another horizon in the 
distance, beckoning me on; but when, 
having risen above principalities and powers 
and dominions, I reach that signal mark, I 



176 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Nov., 



shall not then have come to myself. Even 
there I shall not stop, but shall go on farther 
and farther, and eternity only shall know 
the outcome. Woe be to those miserable 
little folk that hold but half a pint, and say 
that this is the whole containing power of 
their nature. — H, W. Beecher, 



The trouble with many, especially women, 
teachers is that they do not '' magnify their 
office." They are even a little ashamed of 
their work. Such persons may hold the 
position of teachers, but they certainly do 
not ^// it. They can have no adequate con- 
ception of what teaching really means and 
is. It is possible to hear innumerable reci- 
tations, and yet never do any real teaching. 
True teaching involves something to learn, 
somebody to learn, and somebody to in- 
struct. It includes also the influence the 
teacher exerts upon the character of his 
pupils, the sympathy he has in their pur- 
suits, the love he feels for them and suc- 
ceeds in winning from them, and the spirit 
that he imparts to the school-room life. — 
Common School Education, 



** What I want is a man who is a Chris- 
tian, a gentleman, and one who has common 
sense and understands boys." So wrote 
Arnold of Rugby, in a letter of inquiry for 
a master. In his view "activity of mind," 
" interest in his work," were even more in- 
dispensable than scholarship, though he did 
care very much about that, and believed that 
'' even the elements are best taught by a 
man who has a thorough knowledge of the 
matter." These opinions of this great 
teacher contain food for reflection. We 
commend them to school boards. 



It is difficult to fix any definite limit of 
time which shall be sufficient for the in- 
struction of the young, but six months' 
schooling in every year seems to be about 
as short a period as the law should recog- 
nize as a school term. Without compul- 
sory provisions in the law, parents will send 
their children tp school as their appreciation 
of education, their convenience or their ca- 
price suggests. Whether there be many or 
few in attendance, the schools should be 
kept open at least six months. The length 
of the school term is a pretty reliable gauge 
of the intellectual and social status of the 
neighborhood. A long term and a crowded 
school house generally implies an active, 
advancing community. It is reasonable to 
expect that land will sell higher there, and 
that it is in all respects a more desirable 



place of residence than the district which 
has narrower ideas on the subject. There 
is a practical material side of this question 
which ii^ites atten tion . Taxation for school 
support is not a hardship ; it is a dividend- 
paying investment ; and Pennsylvania is to 
be congratulated that she has at length made 
six months, of twenty days each, her mini- 
mum term. 



" If I wanted my bow to become a black- 
smith, I would let him go through college. 
No man has a right to be merely a black- 
smith. He must be a man and a citi- 
zen." These words of Dr. J. H. Vincent 
ring out the true educational idea. The 
school or college training that does not make 
the man or the woman a better and more 
successful blacksmith or farmer, housekeeper 
or cook, or whatever the occupation may 
be, is not education proper. The name is 
a misnomer and the thing a fraud. But 
the same is true of the so-called education 
which does not carry the thoughts, sympa- 
thies, influence and aspirations of its posses- 
sor far beyond, and lift them high above, the 
petty round of his mechanical business or 
professional pursuits. — Canada Ed, Journal 



There is no spectacle, to our thinking, 
more sad and sorrowful than that of a younf 
woman entering upon life with all her fresh 
sympathies and untold capabilities, yet with 
no fixed aim or occupation, no ideal to 
which her energies and pure aspirations may 
be directed. In a sort of sheer idleness or 
despair, to fill the vague hunger of the heart, 
she takes to the reading of novels, to the 
drudgery of music lessons, or to outdoor 
sketching in such glorious days as we are 
now having, but with no special aptitude for 
art in any shape. The result cannot be en- 
couraging. What precious time is thus 
wasted I What noble talents may be lying 
unused I Meantime, habits are being ac- 
quired, character is being formed, day- 
dreams are being indulged, which, in the ] 
absence of a matured character or an active | 
industrial pursuit, may have the most an- 1 
happy, aye, miserable consequences. 

I TRUST that the time will come when the 
teacher's rights and feelings will be respected 
as highly as those of men in other profes- 
sions. No man interferes with the directions 
of his lawyer or his physician, for fear he 
will lose his suit on the one hand, or his 
life on the other. And yet there are many 
people who think that they can, with impu- 
nity, teach their children at home in what- 



1887] 



** LEARNING AND COMMON SENSED 



177 



soever way they desire — even when they 
know their teaching to be in direct opposi- 
tion to their children's teacher. The sui- 
cidal policy of such a course is almost too 
plain to be pointed out. A man who fol- 
lows implicitly the directions of his phy- 
sician or his lawyer, without complaint, 
will declare that his child ought to have a 
third reader when the teacher recommends 
the purchase of a second. I sincerely hope 
that the day will come when to the teacher 
tkre will be accorded the same amount of 
disinterestedness and conscientiousness as is 
DOW so freely and so properly extended to 
the physician and the lawyer. 



You were made for goodness, virtue, 
holiness, which m^ be called spiritual 
masic, or the music of the soul. Love, 
hope, fear, joy, grief, are the musical notes 
within you. If your will is suffered to strike 
those notes in a violent and careless and 
oninstructed manner, discord and sin will 
ve7 likely be the consequence. But if you 
ue rightly instructed in your duty, and you 
pay continual attention to the lessons which 
jou receive, then your affections will be 
ttde to harmonize more and more, and it 
vill be easy and delightful to produce 
^ritual music. — ** Sermons to Children,** 



Self-government is the only true gov- 
ffnmenl. The teacher who desires well- 
behaved pupils must trust them, and treat 
tiiem with respect. The teacher who would 
govern well must command respect and give 
it; he must exercise self-control and demand 
it of his pupils. . They are quick to recog- 
nize the controlling elements of the teach- 
er's character, and they govern their be- 
havior accordingly. Every American child 
Itts an intuitive love of and respect for jus- 
tice, and a desire to maintain his own 
dignity, and preserve what he considers to 
k his right to liberty and the pursuit of 
kppiness. — Common School Education, 



Sooner or later a lie b always exploded. 

T>ke the case of General Grant. When he 

kgan to rise in the army, his envious 

livals circulated the report that he was 

J cttrse, illiterate, and a drunkard. President 

I liocoln gave a quietus to the charge of 

^kenness. But the notable part of the 

business b that Grant, without replying to a 

single slander or invention, managed in th.e 

course of his career to completely vindicate 

Umsclf. He never said, "I am not a 

drunkard," but lived so as to show all the 

world that he was a sober man. He never 



denied that Rawlins and others wrote his 
dispatches, but let the public gradually dis- 
cover the facts. When it was said that his 
silence was dullness and incapability, he 
never claimed that he could make a speech, 
but when the time came spoke often and 
successfully in public. People who credited 
him with no literary ability, found out dur- 
ing the last year of the General's life that 
he resembled Caesar in his ability to handle 
the pen as well as the sword. The wonder 
is not that these falsehoods were all exposed, 
but that the silent and superb contempt with 
which Grant treated them should have tri* 
umphantly refuted them all. There is a 
lesson to be learned by liars from the life 
of this silent and patient man. No man can 
be talked or written down except by himself. 



Henry Ward Beecher said in one of his 
lectures, that when he was a boy he was 
fond of hunting, and that although he used 
a good deal of powder and shot, it was a 
long time before he had any success. One 
day his father said to him, " Henry, take 
aim," and when he followed his father's ad- 
vice he was surprised to see the bird fall. 
Now, teachers cannot reasonably hope to 
succeed unless they take aim, and if that 
knowledge only is useful upon which the 
mind reacts, which calls into activity some 
noble faculty of the mnid, which enlarges 
our sympathies, touches our hearts, deepens 
our sense of the l)eautiful, causes us to take 
a step toward the development of some ex- 
cellence of character, teachers have a defi- 
nite mark to aim at. That is to be taught 
which is capable of serving these purposes, 
and that which cannot is not to be taught^ 
whether contained in the text-book or not. 



Charles Buxton has said : '' The longer 
I live, the more deeply am I convinced that 
that which makes the difference between one 
man and another, between the weak and 
powerful, the great and insignificant, is en- 
ergy, invincible determination ; a purpose 
once formed, and then death or victory* 
This quality will do anything that is to be 
done in the world, and no human creature 
can become a man without it." 



It is said that a young man who expected 
to enter the ministry, once asked advice of 
a celebrated divine, and received this an- 
swer: ''To be a successful preacher you will 
need three things, viz : Piety, learning, and 
common sense. If you lack piety, go to 
God, ' who giveth to all men liberally and 
upbraideth not.' If you lack learning, go 



178 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. 



[Nov., 



^ the schools, where you will have friends 
to cheer ^ou on, books and teachers to aid, 
and multitudes of helps ; but if you lack com- 
mon sense, may the Lord have mercy on your 
soul — you had better quit preaching before 
you begin." Might not this answer, with a 
little modification, also apply to teachers? 

Sharp Rebuke. — A clergyman wa« re- 
cently annoyed by people talking and gig- 
gling. He paused, looked at the disturbers 
and said: "lam always afraid to reprove 
those who misbehave, for this reason. Some 
years since, as I was preaching, a young 
man who sat before me was constantly 
laughing, talking, and making uncouth 
grimaces. I paused and administered a se- 
vere rebuke. After the close of the service 
a gentleman said to me: 'Sir, you have 
made a great mistake ; that young man is an 
idiot.' Since then I have always been 
afraid to reprove those who misbehave them- 
selves in chapel, lest I should repeat that 
mistake and reprove another idiot. ' ' During 
the rest of the service there was good order. 

When traveling in India, General Grant 
was surrounded with social customs, to dis- 
regard which required the strongest will 
and the firmest purpose. Not a few foreign 
residents in the East are hard drinkers. 
There were not hours enough in the da^ for 
Grant to accept the invitations he received. 
To be courteous, he not infrequently ac- 
cepted invitations to half-a-dozen tiffins on 
the same day, at each one of which he 
would remain a few moments, until the last 
one had been reached. At all these gather- 
ings wine and liquors were freely used. He 
became so thoroughly disgusted with the 
custom that, on his return to his hotel, he 
said to his wife : "Julia, I do not intend to 
take another glass of wine to please any- 
body." That was in 1878, and from that 
time forward to Mount McGregor, his tem- 
perance habits were above suspicion. From 
Calcutta he went to Burmah. The recep- 
tion committee furnished large baskets of 
champagne and liquors. These were subject 
to Grant's orders. To the disappointment 
and disgust of the committee, the baskets 
were not opened. Surprise was expressed ; 
but Grant simply said : " Gentlemen, I do 
not wish anything to drink," and the bas- 
kets were returned unopened to Calcutta. 
I received accounts of this incident from 
Gen. Litchfield, late Consul-General to In- 
dia, and from Mrs. Giant. After Grant 
reached California, his old friends were the 
witnesses of this new proof of his personal 



decision. While in the city of Mexico, his 
enthusiastic admirers invited him to what is 
called "a wine dinner." Bishop Harris 
was present, and he informed me that Gen. 
Grant deliberately turned his glass upside 
down. — Rev. y. P. Newman. 

The mere lapse of years is not life. To 
eat, and drink, and sleep ; to be exposed to 
darkness and the light ; to pace around the 
mill of habit and turn the wheel of wealth ; 
to make reason our book-keeper, and turn 
thought into an implement of trade — ^this is 
not life. In all this, but a poor fraction of 
the consciousness of humanity is awakened ; 
and the sanctities still slumber which make 
it most worth while to be. Knowledge, 
truth, love, beauty, goodness, faith, alone 
give vitality to the mechanism of existence. 
The laugh of mirth which vibrates through 
the heart ; the tears which freshen the dry 
wastes within ; the music which brings child- 
hood ba